Scientists Discover A Way To Create Carbon Nanotubes With A Chemical From Household Cleaning Products - Canadanewsmedia
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Scientists Discover A Way To Create Carbon Nanotubes With A Chemical From Household Cleaning Products



Researchers discovered that a chemical called cresol can be used to help produce carbon nanotubes. Previous attempts have resulted in the nanotubes twisting and clumping together.  ( Dean Simone | Pixabay )

Developing carbon nanotubes on a large scale is usually challenging, but new research suggests that it might actually be easier than what scientists first conceived.

Common Problems With Creating Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes are only about as thin as an atom, but this material is tougher than Kevlar. The problem is that it is very difficult to mass-produce them. If a producer is not careful, the carbon nanotubes will twist and clump together, which prevents this material from working properly.

The individual nanotubes are typically shorter, which means there is very little room for error. Longer nanotubes would need to be created, but that could come with many obstacles.

The longer carbon nanotubes could easily get tangled and reduced into a think paste, which would weaken the material. In the past, researchers have tried to correct this malfunction by using chemicals to coat the nanotubes. Although the chemicals prevented the nanotubes from turning into a thick paste, this also sacrificed the material’s powerful potency.

The Chemical Breakthrough Behind Carbon Nanotubes

Reseachers at Northwestern University discovered an odd way to create carbon nanotubes without these problems. They applied a common chemical called cresol, which was once found in household cleaning products, to the carbon nanotubes.

Their findings were published on May 14 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Because of their exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes have attracted a lot of attention for a number of applications,” said professor Jiaxing Huang of Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering. “But after decades of research and development, some of the excitement has faded.”

The researchers discovered that the cresol preserves the carbon nanotube’s functionality while seperating the tubes. This makes the material behave like polymers. The chemical can also be removed by washing it off.

“It is really exciting to see cresol-based solvents make once hard-to-process carbon nanotubes as usable as common plastics,” said Jiaxing.

Another Team Introduces A Carbon Nanotube Solution

There is also a group of researchers from Beijing’s Tsinghua University that released a study that solves the same problem with nanotubes. They synthesized the tubes through chemical vapor deposition.

The findings were published on May 14 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

With the reactants behind the nanotube held within a reaction chamber, the researchers were able to grow the nanotubes within the same direction as they flowed. Although there were some obstacles to this, researchers found a solution by narrowing the chamber. The result was that the nanotubes bundled together and were still very strong.

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This Brilliant Interactive From NASA Lets You Virtually Explore Planets Far, Far Away




Ever dreamt of stepping onto a faraway planet? Well, NASA has you covered with this incredible virtual planet simulator.

The Exoplanet Travel Bureau drops you into vastly different star systems to explore distant worlds.

You can enjoy Trappist-1e’s blood red sky, a planet we now know has a large iron core.

(NASA/Exoplanet Travel Bureau)

The Trappist system has seven planets, and caused huge hype last year about possible water and Earth-like worlds only 40 light years away.

Or fly over onto planet Kepler-16b – part of a ‘Tatooine-like’ system 200 light years away, and the largest planet ever discovered orbiting two stars.

And it is huge – with a mass and radius nearly identical to Jupiter.

kepler 16b nasa toolKepler-16b (NASA/Exoplanet Travel Bureau)

You can even enjoy the brand new sights of Kepler-186f with NASA’s tagline “Where the grass is always redder”.

Kepler-186f is not in the same system as Kepler-16b, despite the similar names.

As NASA explains on its exoplanet website, it was “the first validated Earth-size planet to orbit a distant star in the habitable zone – a range of distance from a star where liquid water might pool on the planet’s surface.”

Keplar-186f is orbiting a star much cooler and redder than our Sun over 500 light years away, and despite the fancy explorer tool, we aren’t even sure if it has an atmosphere yet.

kepler 186f nasa toolKepler-186f (NASA/Exoplanet Travel Bureau)

And that’s really important to note, and NASA spells it out on every planet it drops you into.

We haven’t explored these systems, we have no images of any of these planets, and the amount of data we have on even our closest exoplanet friends are still extremely limited.  

As astrophysicist Jonti Horner and Brett Addison explained on The Conversation: “Most of the exoplanets found to date have been discovered by two key methods: either watching stars to see if they wobble, or to see if they wink.”

Not exactly the incredibly detailed information and pictures we’ve been receiving from Jupiter, Mars, or Pluto.

So, we’re still very far off seeing what they actually look like, let alone visiting them in person. But at least we can enjoy the virtual sights thanks to NASA – apparently these even work in one of those fancy virtual reality headsets.

You can explore the Exoplanet Travel Bureau here.

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Sunscreen ban seeks to protect coral reefs




The Hawaii legislature has passed a ban on sunscreens containing chemicals believed to harm coral reefs.

Hawaii is the first state to prohibit the sale and distribution of sunscreen with oxybenzone and octinoxate, which scientists have discovered contributes to coral bleaching when washed off in the ocean.

The state legislature considered a similar bill in 2017 but it stalled out before passage. This year it made it through both houses, and now awaits the signature of Gov. David Ige. The new rules are not set to take effect until Jan. 1, 2021.

Reefs around the globe, from Australia’s Great Barrier Reef to Haunama Bay in Hawaii and off Florida’s southern coast, have suffered serious damage in the last few years after consecutive bleaching events. Bleaching occurs when corals are stressed by warmer-than-average water temperatures and other factors, and the colorful photosynthetic algae that live inside, zooxanthellae, are expelled. The coral cannot survive without the symbiotic relationship, and when ocean temperatures do not return to normal quickly enough, the reefs may die. Pollution, including sewage and agricultural runoff, are serious threats to reef heath, as well, but switching sunscreens is one way swimmers and those who enjoy the ocean can have an impact, proponents of the ban say.

A 2015 study from the Haereticus Environmental Laboratory, a nonprofit research group, indicated oxybenzone, a common UV-absorbing chemical found in sunscreens, can poison coral in multiple ways. It contributes to bleaching, hinders reproductive growth and causes coral deformities.

Researchers estimate 14,000 tons of sunscreen infiltrates the world’s oceans each year, with highest concentrations in popular, accessible reef areas in Hawaii and the Caribbean. A 2015 Haereticus survey of Trunk Bay beach on St. John found anywhere from 2,000 to 5,000 swimmers daily, and estimated over 6,000 pounds of sunscreen was deposited on the reef each year. At Hanauma Bay on Oahu, which attracts an average of 2,600 swimmers daily, an average of 412 pounds of sunscreen was deposited daily on the reef.

The Hawaii hospitality industry has jumped into the campaign to preserve the Aloha State’s reefs and spread the word about reef-safe sunscreens. Hawaiian Airlines has been distributing samples of reef-safe sunscreen on flights bound for the islands.

Aqua-Aston Hospitality launched the “For Our Reef” program in 2017. The company is installing reef-safe sunscreen dispensers on their properties, offering sunscreen trade-ins, and organizing beach cleanups and awareness campaigns.

“This is a huge win for Hawaii. We are proud of the role Aqua-Aston Hospitality played to raise the volume on this issue, by lending our voice and bringing a greater awareness that by choosing the right sunscreen it’s possible to protect your skin and help preserve the reef,” Theresa van Greunen of Aqua-Aston Hospitality said. “We have a responsibility to take positive steps  to create a culture of sustainability and protect the Hawaii we love.”

At the end of 2017, Napili Kai Beach Resort on one of Maui’s reef-protected bays on the north side of the island introduced an educational program to encourage visitors to use reef-safe sunscreens. The resort offers each guest a free sample of reef-safe sunscreen, made with minerals such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide that are non-nano, particles larger than 100 nanometers, because anything smaller can be ingested by corals. They also offers coupons for the purchase of reef-safe sunscreen and educational materials.

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New space strategy to be unveiled 'in the coming months': Bains




MONTREAL — A new Canadian space strategy that is already at least one year behind schedule is only months away, Science Minister Navdeep Bains said Friday.

“We haven’t determined the exact date, but it will be as soon as possible,” he said.

“In plain English — in the coming months.”

Bains made the comments after announcing an investment of more than $26.7 million in space technology that will benefit 33 Canadian companies.

The new money will create or secure 397 jobs and support 46 projects to develop what are described as game-changing technologies in medicine, artificial intelligence, autonomous navigation and virtual reality.

“Thanks to the new technologies, we will be able to improve wildfire monitoring, weather predictions and to better understand climate change,” Bains said.

Bains, who was joined by Canadian astronaut Jeremy Hansen, made the funding announcement at MDA’s Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue facilities on the western tip of the island of Montreal.

MDA, which builds the Canadarm and satellites, will receive about $4 million to improve its technologies. That money is being awarded through a Canadian Space Agency program geared to small- and medium-sized firms.

Bains was also given a tour of three Radarsat satellites that are expected to be launched in November.

Another date that has yet to be determined is Hansen’s first space voyage.

Fellow astronaut David Saint-Jacques is due to blast off in December on a six-month mission to the International Space Station.

But exactly when Hansen will follow him is, in his own words, “the million-dollar question.”

It has already been announced he will fly by 2024.

Hansen strongly indicated his future flight will be on commercial space capsules currently being developed by two American companies — SpaceX’s “Dragon” capsule and Boeing’s “CST-100 Starliner.”

“We have to get those flying first and then I’ll have some resolution on when I’ll fly,” Hansen said.

“I haven’t been part of actually testing those systems yet. But I will in the future, so it’s pretty exciting stuff.”

The only way any astronaut can currently travel to and from the space station is on board a Russian Soyuz space capsule.

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