10 companies building quantum computers
Many organizations are paving the road to a future built on quantum computing, and that future is a promising one. With quantum computers at our fingertips, humanity will be able to solve hugely complex problems at scale and faster than ever.
However, getting to that future has a significant amount of roadblocks to overcome first before quantum computing becomes widely available. Many companies — of all sizes — are actively developing and building quantum computers and capabilities.
Companies building quantum computers
As quantum computing continues to develop and undergo research, companies are building quantum capabilities in both hardware and software. Companies in this list are developing quantum capabilities in various ways, including infrastructure, algorithms and development environments for testing.
While this list is not exhaustive, here are some of the companies building quantum computers.
Amazon is a more recent player joining the race to build a quantum computer. In 2021, Amazon announced the opening of the AWS Center for Quantum Computing in Pasadena, Calif. It has partnered with the California Institute of Technology to foster the next generation of quantum scientists and fuel their efforts to build a fault-tolerant quantum computer.
In addition to these efforts, Amazon offers a quantum computing service called Amazon Braket, which provides developers access to quantum computers and tools from third-party partners. This service enables customers to speed up their own quantum computing research, build quantum projects and run quantum algorithms.
D-Wave Systems, a Canada-based company, is the world’s first organization to sell a commercial quantum computer. Its latest, the D-Wave Advantage system, features a processor architecture with more than 5,000 qubits and 15-way qubit connectivity.
D-Wave’s quantum computers use a process called quantum annealing. This process is specifically designed for optimization, so when users map a problem into a search, the processing unit considers all possibilities simultaneously and presents calculations that correspond to the optimal configurations of qubits found. These values are the best possible outcomes, resulting in higher-quality results at scale.
D-Wave is currently developing an incremental follow-up to the Advantage system. In addition to hardware, the company offers a cloud-based full stack of systems to enable enterprises, government agencies, national laboratories and academic organizations to build quantum applications.
Google’s Quantum AI lab has been developing a programmable superconducting processor. A recent iteration is Sycamore, a 54-qubit processor composed of high-fidelity quantum logic gates.
In 2019, Google claimed Sycamore had achieved quantum supremacy. Quantum supremacy is the point at which a quantum device can solve a problem exponentially faster than a classical processor. In this case, Sycamore took about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit 1 million times — something that would have taken a classical supercomputer nearly 10,000 years to do.
Since then, Sycamore has been used to run chemical simulations, wormhole simulations and more. Google has also developed a software stack of open source tools and a quantum computing service to develop novel quantum algorithms. Its research team is continuing to push innovation in quantum computing, from hardware control systems and quantum control to physics modeling and quantum error correction.
In November 2022, IBM held the Quantum Summit, where it unveiled a development roadmap detailing its plans and timeline for progressing quantum computing through 2025. Its primary goal is to go beyond using single processors, and by 2025, it plans to combine multichip processors into what it has named the Kookaburra processor. Compared to IBM’s latest processor, Osprey, which has 433 qubits, IBM plans for the multichip Kookaburra processor to have 4,158 qubits.
These plans are ambitious, but IBM has a strong history in quantum development. In 2019, it launched a commercial quantum computer, the IBM Quantum System One. It’s currently developing the IBM Quantum System Two to better serve Osprey and future quantum processors.
In addition to hardware, IBM runs a suite of cloud-based quantum systems, providing researchers, organizations and developers with access to various services and resources, including IBM Quantum Composer, IBM Quantum Lab and Qiskit, an open source SDK for quantum computers. This platform has both public and premium tiers for users to develop, test and run quantum projects.
IonQ’s quantum computers use trapped-ion technology. Most quantum hardware uses synthetic quantum systems for its qubits, but IonQ uses naturally occurring individual atomic ions at the core of its processing units. These ions are trapped in a 3D space, and IonQ uses lasers to help prepare and perform the calculations.
IonQ has three quantum systems: IonQ Harmony, an 11-qubit system that launched in 2020; IonQ Aria, a 25-qubit system that launched in 2022; and IonQ Forte, a 32-qubit system that’s currently under development and in beta testing with researchers. All are based on IonQ’s trapped-ion technology architecture, and Harmony and Aria are available through IonQ Quantum Cloud or Amazon Braket.
Microsoft is currently developing its own scalable, full-stack quantum machine with a unique approach that’s focused on topological qubits. The research team at Microsoft has invented a control chip, called Gooseberry, and a cryo-compute core that are key to this approach.
In short, the chip and core work together to maintain a stable cold environment that enables the quantum stack to send and receive information to and from every qubit. Achieving this task is no simple feat; however, if Microsoft can pull it off, it will result in a highly scalable quantum computer that can support even larger, more complex applications.
While development is still ongoing for this hardware, Microsoft also offers a portfolio of quantum computers from other hardware providers as part of its Azure Quantum platform. This service provides an open development environment for researchers, businesses and developers that enables the flexibility to tune algorithms and explore today’s quantum systems.
Quantum Computing Inc. (QCI) is a full-stack quantum company that claims to be committed to democratizing access to quantum value. Rather than building quantum computing services for the largest of enterprises, QCI’s offerings are more affordable and can be used by non-quantum experts.
From a hardware perspective, QCI has built the Entropy Quantum Computer (EQC), which aims to create useful qubits to perform computations today rather than 10 years in the future. Organizations can use an EQC through a two-tier subscription service: Dirac-1, a qubit-based system, and Dirac-2, a qudit-based system.
QCI also offers Qatalyst, a cloud-based service that enables end users to solve problems on quantum systems without requiring complex programming knowledge. In line with this is its QUBT University, which helps users learn about quantum algorithms and how to run computations. QCI is currently developing new quantum computing chip capabilities.
In 2021, Honeywell Quantum Solutions and Cambridge Quantum announced a merger, forming Quantinuum. The merger brought together Cambridge Quantum, a developer of quantum software, and Honeywell Quantum Solutions, which builds quantum hardware based on trapped-ion technologies.
Honeywell’s quantum computer, the System Model H1, has achieved the highest quantum volume measurement — 32,768 — in the history of quantum computing. This hardware pairs with Cambridge Quantum’s software package, which applies quantum computing to solve complex problems across industries, from pharmaceuticals to specialty chemicals and beyond.
Rigetti Computing is an integrated systems company that builds quantum computers and superconducting quantum processors. Its most recent processor, the Aspen-M-3, has 80 qubits and is based on multichip technology. Its quantum processors are universal, gate-model machines.
Rigetti is currently developing a new 84-qubit processor called Ankaa, and the plan is to put four of these processors together to form a 336-qubit machine named Lyra. Its roadmap includes building an even larger machine that can support 1,000 qubits in 2025 and one with 4,000 qubits in 2027.
Users can access Rigetti’s quantum computing systems through its Quantum Cloud Services platform or Amazon Braket. The cloud platform enables coders to write quantum algorithms for simulations of their quantum chips.
Xanadu Quantum Technologies is a Canada-based company that’s taking a photonic approach to building quantum computers.
Xanadu’s Borealis, one of the largest photonic quantum computers every built, uses photonics and quantum light sources that emit squeezed-light pulses. The Borealis features more than 216 squeezed-state qubits and is particularly effective at solving Gaussian boson sampling problems — something that would take classical computers thousands of years to do.
Xanadu also leads the development of PennyLane, an open source software library for quantum computing and application development. Organizations can access Borealis through Xanadu Cloud or Amazon Braket.
Apple Tests New High-End Macs With M2 Max and M2 Ultra Chips Ahead of WWDC – BNN Bloomberg
(Bloomberg) — Apple Inc. is testing a pair of new high-end Macs and their accompanying processors ahead of its Worldwide Developers Conference next week, suggesting that it’s nearing the release of professional-focused desktop computers.
The company is planning two new Mac models — labeled internally as Mac 14,13 and Mac 14,14 — that run the M2 Max processor announced in January and a yet-to-be-unveiled M2 Ultra chip. That second processor would replace the M1 Ultra model currently featured in the Mac Studio, a high-end desktop announced in March 2022.
The new computers are part of an effort to overhaul the Mac line and attract consumers during a sluggish stretch for the computer industry. Powerful desktop models remain key to Apple’s appeal among professional users, such as video editors or graphic designers. The company also is just days away from WWDC, its annual gathering of developers who rely on such machines to build apps.
A representative for Cupertino, California-based Apple declined to comment.
The first desktop computer in testing is running an M2 Max processor with eight high-performance cores — components for the most demanding tasks — as well as four efficiency cores and 30 graphics cores. Those are the same specifications featured in the MacBook Pro with the M2 Max. This particular machine also includes 96 gigabytes of memory and is running macOS 13.4, the version of the Mac operating system that was just released earlier this month.
The second machine in testing has what is labeled as an M2 Ultra chip, which the company’s hasn’t yet announced. That component, which sports 24 processing cores, doubles the performance of the M2 Max model. The chip includes 16 high-performance cores and eight efficiency cores, as well as 60 graphics cores. The company is testing it in configurations with 64 gigabytes, 128 gigabytes and 192 gigabytes of memory.
The M2 Ultra chip will also include a more powerful option, with as many as 76 graphics cores, doubling the 38-core maximum found in the current M2 Max chip, Bloomberg has reported.
The M2 Ultra chip was initially designed for a future version of the high-end Mac Pro desktop. That machine currently still runs Intel Corp. chips — a holdout in Apple’s three-year effort to use homegrown processors in its computers.
Apple has been vague about when a new Mac Pro is coming. It said more than a year ago that an updated model would arrive “another day.” Inside Apple, the future Mac Pro with in-house chips has been labeled Mac 14,8. That suggests that the latest desktops in testing are different machines, such as new versions of the Mac Studio, which is currently offered in M1 Max and M1 Ultra configurations.
Bloomberg reported in April that two new Mac Studio updates are in the works. Apple has also been developing a 15-inch version of the MacBook Air, along with future iterations of the 13-inch MacBook Air and 15-inch model with a 3-nanometer M3 processor. And it’s planning a low-end 13-inch MacBook Pro and an iMac with the next-generation chip.
Next week’s developer expo kicks off Monday with the debut of Apple’s much-anticipated mixed-reality headset. The company also will unveil updates to the software that runs on the iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch and Mac. The presentation will include multiple new Mac models as well.
In another sign that new machines are coming soon, Apple is planning to start letting customers trade in more types of Macs for a gift card next Monday. The Macs that Apple will begin accepting: the M2 13-inch MacBook Air and 13-inch MacBook Pro, as well as the current Mac Studio. Such a move typically heralds that new versions are on the way.
©2023 Bloomberg L.P.
Britain's antitrust regulator an 'outlier' for blocking Activision Blizzard deal, Microsoft says – The Globe and Mail
Microsoft MSFT-Q on Tuesday accused Britain’s anti-trust regulator of being a global “outlier” in blocking its $69-billion takeover of “Call of Duty” maker Activision Blizzard ATVI-Q.
The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) vetoed the deal in April, saying it could hurt competition in the nascent cloud gaming market, sparking a furious row.
The company’s appeal against the decision is likely to be heard in late July, a judge at the Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT) indicated on Tuesday.
Microsoft’s lawyer Daniel Beard told the CAT: “If this process does not move forward quickly, it jeopardizes this merger being completed.”
Microsoft argues the CMA was wrong to conclude the deal would lead to a substantial lessening of competition in the United Kingdom’s cloud gaming market.
He said that 10 regulators – including the European Union’s competition authority, which gave the deal the go-ahead earlier this month – have already approved the merger.
“The CMA is the outlier here in its position,” Beard said. “It creates the uncertainty that risks derailing this deal and it is for that reason that speed is of the essence.”
He added: “It is only here that we have this uncertainty in terms of there being a decision which we say is fundamentally wrong and purports to stop this merger worldwide in relation to a tiny part of the gaming industry.”
Microsoft has also appealed the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s action seeking to block the deal on the grounds that, the agency said, it would suppress competition.
Activision has applied to intervene in Microsoft’s appeal against the CMA’s decision, saying that the planned deal has a “drop dead” date of July 18.
Its lawyer Anthony Grabiner said the CMA’s conclusion that cloud gaming was a separate market from so-called native gaming, where gamers access games installed on their devices through a digital download or physical disc, was wrong.
Cloud gaming is “nothing more than simply a delivery mechanism … it is not a separate market,” he said.
“From a U.K. plc perspective, it is a terribly important case,” Grabiner added.
Cooler Master's new vertical NCore 100 Max PC Case can fit an RTX 4090 – WePC – PC Tech & PC Gaming News
Small form factor might not be limiting your GPU size
Updated: May 31, 2023 8:45 am
Sometimes looking for a small form factor case, you might be size-limited, but Cooler Master’s new vertical NCore 100 Max can fit an RTX 4090. At Computex 2023, Cooler Master is showing off a very stylish standing PC case under a small form factor. As Tom’s Hardware shows off, it comes in a few different colors and with a lot of easily accessible parts to it.
The small form factor case does offer a toolless design and has tabs and levers to use that allow it to be disassembled without any screws needed. It does also come with preinstalled cooling and power supply. The PSU on board is an 850W SFX Gold option and the CPU cooler offers a thick radiator and 2,400 RPM Silencio fan. Supposedly it has been tested with a 13900K at 250 Watts with no issues.
The case comes in at a size of 155-172mm (6.1-6.7in) thick, height of 481mm (18.9in), and width of 212mm (8.3in). Even though it seems rather small, it does support an RTX 4090 that is up to 357mm long (14in). With no RGB, you just get the various colors available of the anodized aluminum panels, these are bronze or deep green.
With the small size, you are limited in the expansions, with just one drive bay for a 2.5-inch bay and a small I/O expansion. There is no pricing as of yet so you have to wait and see to its release to find if you want to actually buy it.
|Materials||Steel, Plastic, Aluminum|
|Dimensions||155-172 x 212 x 481 (3-4 slots)|
|Drive bays||1x 2.5 inch|
|I/O panel||2x USB 3.0, 1x USB 3.1 Type -C|
|Included PSU||V SFX Gold 850W ATX 3.0|
|Pre installed fans||1x 120mm Silencio 4-pin, 1x 120mm Sickleflow 4-pin PWM|
|Radiator support||120mm with 38mm thickness (top mount)|
|Clearances||CPU fan (47mm), GPU (357 x 180mm)|
Video on the NCore 100
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