Unearthed T. rex is the largest known specimen — and it's from Saskatchewan - The Journal Pioneer - Canadanewsmedia
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Unearthed T. rex is the largest known specimen — and it's from Saskatchewan – The Journal Pioneer



No massive deal or something, however Canada, the world’s largest T. rex was found in Saskatchewan. Yep, you learn that proper: Saskatchewan!

The behemoth weighed a whopping 19,500 kilos, in response to National Geographic, and was discovered close to Eastend, about 380 km southwest from Regina.

Nicknamed “Scotty,” the dinosaur is far greater and older than what paleontologists beforehand believed the species may develop. Of all recovered T. rex skeletons, Scotty is essentially the most mature.

Till Scotty’s discovery, Sue was the largest T. rex. Researchers estimated Sue weighed about 800 kilos lower than Scotty.

Sue nonetheless is essentially the most full fossil, with round 90 per cent of her bones unearthed in 1990 in South Dakota. Researchers may solely get well about 65 per cent of Scotty’s skeleton, however that’s nonetheless a considerable quantity, the examine’s lead researcher mentioned.

Each, nevertheless, lived to at the very least 28 years previous — seniors by way of tyrannosaurs — however Scott Individuals, the lead researcher, mentioned Scotty may nicely be into his early 30s.  Scotty’s discover tells the scientific group that the T. rex may have lived longer and been heavier than what was paleontologists beforehand surmised.

“Scotty pushes the extremes for the species,” Individuals mentioned. “Scotty’s bones are longer and bigger than Sue’s, so simply calculating the load of the bones, Scotty is already greater.

Residing to a ripe, previous age some 68 million years in the past, Scotty’s skeleton offers scientists perception into the life the dinosaur led. Within the sub-tropical coastal local weather, he suffered from accidents corresponding to a damaged and healed rib, a dental an infection and should have gotten right into a scuffle with a fellow T. rex — just a few tailbones had been damaged.

Scotty has been recognized to scientists since 1991, but it surely’s taken greater than 20 years to dig the creature from the Earth as a result of its bones had been cemented into the laborious rock, making it laborious to extract.

When the fossils had been found, the scientists wished to rejoice with a toast. The one drink they’d readily available, nevertheless, was scotch — therefore Scotty’s nickname.

Scotty’s femur offers researchers key perception into how massive the dinosaur was when alive. “By learning many residing animals, scientists have discovered that the broader an animal’s femur, the extra weight that the bone tends to carry up,” the Nationwide Geographic reported. The Saskatchewan dinosaur’s femur was eight inches large, which suggests a physique weight of 19,500 kilos.

The findings about Scotty had been revealed in The Anatomical Record.

By  Bianca Bharti

Copyright Postmedia Community Inc., 2019

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Photos Show Evidence of Life on Mars: Insect- and Reptile-Like Fossils & Living Creatures – SciTechDaily




Analysis of images from Mars rovers shows insect- and reptile-like fossils, creatures according to Ohio University entomologist.

As scientists scramble to determine whether there is life on Mars, Ohio University Professor Emeritus William Romoser’s research shows that we already have the evidence, courtesy of photographs from various Mars rovers.

Dr. Romoser, who specializes in arbovirology and general/medical entomology, has spent several years studying photographs from the red planet that are available on the Internet. He found numerous examples of insect-like forms, structured similarly to bees, as well as reptile-like forms, both as fossils and living creatures. He presented his findings Tuesday, November 19, 2019, at the national meeting of the Entomological Society of America in St. Louis, Missouri.

“There has been and still is life on Mars,” Romoser said, noting that the images appear to show both fossilized and living creatures. “There is apparent diversity among the Martian insect-like fauna which display many features similar to Terran insects that are interpreted as advanced groups – for example, the presence of wings, wing flexion, agile gliding/flight, and variously structured leg elements.”

Insect Mars Rover Photo

Ohio University Emeritus Professor William Romoser analyzed Mars rover photos and found insect-like and reptile-like forms. Credit: Analysis by Dr. William Romoser

Romoser said that while the Martian rovers, particularly the Curiosity Rover, have been looking for indicators of organic activity, there are a number of photos which clearly depict the insect- and reptile-like forms. Numerous photos show images where arthropod body segments, along with legs, antennae, and wings, can be picked out from the surrounding area, and one even appears to show one of the insects in a steep dive before pulling up just before hitting the ground.

Individual images were carefully studied while varying photographic parameters such as brightness, contrast, saturation, inversion, and so on. No content was added, or removed. Criteria used in Romoser’s research included: Dramatic departure from the surroundings, clarity of form, body symmetry, segmentation of body parts, repeating form, skeletal remains, and observation of forms in close proximity to one another. Particular postures, evidence of motion, flight, apparent interaction as suggested by relative positions, and shiny eyes were taken to be consistent with the presence of living forms.

“Once a clear image of a given form was identified and described, it was useful in facilitating recognition of other less clear, but none-the-less valid, images of the same basic form,” Romoser said. “An exoskeleton and jointed appendages are sufficient to establish identification as an arthropod. Three body regions, a single pair of antennae, and six legs are traditionally sufficient to establish identification as ‘insect’ on Earth. These characteristics should likewise be valid to identify an organism on Mars as insect-like. On these bases, arthropodan, insect-like forms can be seen in the Mars rover photos.”

Fossil Image from Mars Rover

Putative fossil insect on its dorsum with head to the top, and with selected structures labelled. Credit: Analysis by Dr. William Romoser

Distinct flight behavior was evident in many images, Romoser said. These creatures loosely resemble bumble bees or carpenter bees on Earth. Other images show these “bees” appearing to shelter or nest in caves. And others show a fossilized creature that resembles a snake.

Romoser, who was an entomology professor at Ohio University for 45 years and co-founded its Tropical Disease Institute, also spent nearly 20 years as a visiting vector-borne disease researcher at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Between 1973 and 1998, Romoser authored and co-authored four editions of the widely-used textbook, “The Science of Entomology.”

Romoser noted that interpretations of insect- and reptile-like creatures he described may change in the future as knowledge of life on Mars evolves, but that the sheer volume of evidence is compelling.

“The presence of higher metazoan organisms on Mars implies the presence of nutrient/energy sources and processes, food chains and webs, and water as elements functioning in a viable, if extreme, ecological setting sufficient to sustain life,” he said. “I have observed instances suggestive of standing water or small water courses with evident meander and with the expected blurring of small submerged rocks, larger emergent rocks at the atmosphere/water interface, a moist bank area, and a drier area beyond the moist area. Water on Mars has been reported a number of times, including surface water detected by instrumentation on Viking, Pathfinder, Phoenix, and Curiosity.

“The evidence of life on Mars presented here provides a strong basis for many additional important biological as well as social and political questions,” he added. It also represents a solid justification for further study.”

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Spacecraft record weird ‘music’ of our planet during solar storm – Yahoo Sports




March 30, 2010 - Close-up of a solar eruptive prominence as seen in extreme UV light.
Solar storms see our planet buffeted by charged particles. Image shows a prominence on the sun in extreme UV light (Getty)
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But the strange music is actually created by waves in our planet’s magnetic field as it’s buffeted by a solar storm. 

Solar storms are eruptions of charged particles from the sun – and the strange ‘song’ was heard after analysing data from the Cluster Science Archive. 

Cluster consists of four spacecraft that orbit Earth in formation, investigating our planet’s magnetic environment and its interaction with the solar wind – a constant flow of particles released by the Sun into the Solar System.


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<h3 class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="Insects could die out in ‘worst extinction since the dinosaurs’” data-reactid=”29″>Insects could die out in ‘worst extinction since the dinosaurs’

A team led by Lucile Turc, a former ESA research fellow who is now based at the University of Helsinki, Finland, investigated the effect of solar storms on our planet.

As part of their orbits, the Cluster spacecraft repeatedly fly through the foreshock, which is the first region that particles encounter when a solar storm hits our planet. 

In the early part of the mission, from 2001 to 2005, the spacecraft flew through six such collisions, recording the waves that were generated.

The new analysis shows that, during the collision, the foreshock is driven to release magnetic waves that are much more complex than first thought.

“Our study reveals that solar storms profoundly modify the foreshock region,” says Lucile.

When the frequencies of these magnetic waves are transformed into audible signals, they give rise to an uncanny song.

In quiet times, when no solar storm is striking the Earth, the song is lower in pitch and less complex, with one single frequency dominating the oscillation. 

“It’s like the storm is changing the tuning of the foreshock,” explains Lucile.

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Sea Monsters in the Age of Dinosaurs being presented at Colchester Historeum





Large creatures that once lived in the oceans and lakes will be the focus of an upcoming event at the Colchester Historeum.

‘Sea Monsters in the Age of Dinosaurs’ is an illustrated presentation by Danielle J. Serrato, curator of the Fundy Geological Museum and an educator in Earth sciences.

“I always had a love for the ocean, although I grew up landlocked in Texas,” she said. “My specialty is marine reptiles.”

Her favourite prehistoric creature is the elasmosaurus, an extremely long-necked being that lived underwater.

During the presentation, Serratos will talk about Mesozoic marine reptiles and their modern counterparts in film and folklore, including the Loch Ness Monster, and the mosasaur in Jurassic World.

“Sometimes changes are made so things will sound better in film,” she said. “In Jurassic Park there’s a lot of talk about velociraptors, but those were only about the height of turkeys. What they created for the film is deinonychus, but that name doesn’t sound as dangerous as velociraptor.”

She thinks people are drawn by the mystery and danger connected with prehistoric creatures.

“A lot of it has to do with the sense of curiosity humans have for world around them,” she said. “There’s a creative component because you have to use your imagination. You don’t have to be 100 per cent accurate because we’ve never seen these things and we never will. It’s probably a good thing we won’t see them because these were apex predators.

“We’re starting to realize how little we know about the soft tissues of these creatures, their colours and textures, whether they had fur, scales or feathers.”

Pictures of old movie posters, reconstructions and fossils will add to the presentation which will take place at the Colchester Historeum on Thursday, Nov. 21 at 7 p.m. The event is free for members, $5 for non-members.

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