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New evidence suggests the universe is curved and not flat like previously believed

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Everything we know about the universe may be WRONG after new evidence suggests it is curved and not flat as previously believed

  • Found gravity seems to bend microwaves of  the cosmic microwave background
  • Discovery suggests the universe is curved and not flat like previously thought
  • Researchers said that these findings seem to be 99.8% accurate  

For years scientists have believed our universe was as flat as a piece of paper, but new evidence has suggested it is curved like a giant inflated balloon.

A recent study analyzed data from the cosmic microwave background, the faint echo of the Big Bang, and discovered gravity seems to bend the microwaves.

These findings point towards a closed universe – the idea that if you travel far enough into space, you will loop back around to where you started.

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A recent study analyzed data from the cosmic microwave background, the faint echo of the Big Bang, and discovered gravity seems to bend the microwaves. These findings point towards a closed universe ¿ if you travel far enough into space, you will loop back to where you started

A recent study analyzed data from the cosmic microwave background, the faint echo of the Big Bang, and discovered gravity seems to bend the microwaves. These findings point towards a closed universe – if you travel far enough into space, you will loop back to where you started

In the paper, published in Nature Astronomy, researchers noted the 2018 Plant Legacy release that confirmed the presence of ‘gravitational lensing’ in cosmic microwave background (CMB), which suggests its microwaves bend.

The CMB is the oldest thing found in the universe and it is made up of ambient microware light.

‘A closed Universe can provide a physical explanation for this effect, with the Planck cosmic microwave background spectra now preferring a positive curvature at more than the 99% confidence level,’ reads the study.

COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION AND THE BIG BANG THEORY 

Cosmic background radiation is at the heart of the Big Bang theory of how the Universe was formed.

In 1965, scientists discovered the electromagnetic waves that bombard the Earth continuously from all directions at harmless microwave frequencies.

The radiation that arrives at our planet has been cooled to only 2.7 degrees above absolute zero as it traverses deep space as the universe expands, meaning that in the distant past the temperature would have been much hotter.

This led scientists to conclusion that the Universe had a hot origin – the so called Big Bang – nearly 14 billion years ago.

To measure the temperature variations in the cosmic background radiation, the Planck Surveyor satellite was launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA).

These findings contradict years of ‘conventional wisdom and other studies based on the same CMB data set’, Live Science reported.

And the theory of a flat universe may actually be ‘mask[ing] a cosmological crisis where disparate observed properties of the Universe appear to be mutually inconsistent’, the authors write.

Sapienza University of Rome cosmologist Alessandro Melchiorri, who is involved in the recent study, explained to Live Science that the closed-universe model would raise a range of problems for the field of physics.

‘I don’t want to say that I believe in a closed universe,’ he told Live Science.

‘I’m a little bit more neutral. I’d say, let’s wait on the data and what the new data will say.

‘What I believe is that there’s a discrepancy now, that we have to be careful and try to find what is producing this discrepancy.’

Although the 2018 Plant Legacy release is confirming the closed universe with 99.8 percent accuracy, the researchers still noted that ‘future measurements are needed to clarify whether the observed discordances are due to undetected systematics, or to new physics or simply are a statistical fluctuation’.

These findings come just a month after new calculations had suggested that the universe could be a couple billion years younger than scientists now estimate, and even younger than suggested by two other calculations published this year that trimmed hundreds of millions of years from the age of the cosmos.

In the paper, published in Nature Astronomy, researchers noted the 2018 Plant Legacy release that confirmed the presence of 'gravitational lensing' in cosmic microwave background (CMB), which suggests its microwaves bend

In the paper, published in Nature Astronomy, researchers noted the 2018 Plant Legacy release that confirmed the presence of 'gravitational lensing' in cosmic microwave background (CMB), which suggests its microwaves bend

In the paper, published in Nature Astronomy, researchers noted the 2018 Plant Legacy release that confirmed the presence of ‘gravitational lensing’ in cosmic microwave background (CMB), which suggests its microwaves bend

The huge swings in scientists’ estimates – even this new calculation could be off by billions of years – reflect different approaches to the tricky problem of figuring the universe’s real age.

The generally accepted age of the universe is 13.7 billion years, based on a Hubble Constant of 70.

However, Inh Jee, of the Max Plank Institute in Germany, lead author of the study in Thursday’s journal Science, and his team came up with a Hubble Constant of 82.4, which would put the age of the universe at around 11.4 billion years.

Jee used a concept called gravitational lensing – where gravity warps light and makes far away objects look closer.

 

 

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A Star Ejected from the Milky Way's 'Heart of Darkness' Has Reached a Mind-Blowing Speed – Space.com

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As humankind’s ancestors were learning to walk upright, a star was launched out of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy at a staggering 3.7 million mph (6 million km/h). 

Five million years after this dramatic ejection, a group of researchers, led by Sergey Koposov of Carnegie Mellon University’s McWilliams Center for Cosmology, has spotted the star, known as S5-HVS1, in the Crane-shaped constellation Grus. The star was spotted traveling relatively close to Earth (29,000 light-years away) at unprecedented, searing speeds — about 10 times faster than most stars in our galaxy. 

“The velocity of the discovered star is so high that it will inevitably leave the galaxy and never return,” Douglas Boubert, a researcher at the University of Oxford and a co-author on the study, said in a statement

Related: Top 10 Star Mysteries of All Time

An artist’s impression of te star S5-HVS1 being ejected by the Milky Way galaxy’s supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*.

(Image credit: James Josephides (Swinburne Astronomy Productions))

“This is super exciting, as we have long suspected that black holes can eject stars with very high velocities. However, we never had an unambiguous association of such a fast star with the galactic center,” Koposov said in the statement. 

The star was discovered with observations from the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), a 12.8-foot (3.9-meter) telescope, and the European Space Agency’s Gaia satellite. The discovery was made as part of the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey (S5), a collaboration of astronomers from Chile, the U.S., the U.K. and Australia. 

Now that the star has been spotted, researchers could track the star back to Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way. It also serves as an incredible example of the Hills Mechanism, proposed by astronomer Jack Hills 30 years ago, in which stars are ejected from the centers of galaxies at high speeds after an interaction between a binary-star system and the black hole at the center of the galaxy.

The location and direction of the star S5-HVS1 in the night sky. The star is rocketing away from the center of our galaxy.

(Image credit: Sergey Koposov)

“This is the first clear demonstration of the Hills Mechanism in action,” Ting Li, a fellow  at the Carnegie Observatories and Princeton University who led the S5 collaboration, said in the statement. “Seeing this star is really amazing as we know it must have formed in the galactic center, a place very different to our local environment. It is a visitor from a strange land.”

“While the main science goal of S5 is to probe the stellar streams — disrupting dwarf galaxies and globular clusters — we dedicated spare resources of the instrument to searching for interesting targets in the Milky Way, and voila, we found something amazing for ‘free.’ With our future observations, hopefully we will find even more!” Kyler Kuehn, deputy director of technology at the Lowell Observatory who is part of the S5 executive committee, added in the statement.

This discovery was published in a study on Nov. 4 in the journal the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

Follow Chelsea Gohd on Twitter @chelsea_gohd. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

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Most distant world ever explored gets new name: Arrokoth – Castlegar News

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The most distant world ever explored 4 billion miles away finally has an official name: Arrokoth.

That means “sky” in the language of the Native American Powhatan people, NASA said Tuesday.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft flew past the snowman-shaped Arrokoth on New Year’s Day, 3 1/2 years after exploring Pluto. At the time, this small icy world 1 billion miles (1.6 billion kilometres) beyond Pluto was nicknamed Ultima Thule given its vast distance from us.

“The name ‘Arrokoth’ reflects the inspiration of looking to the skies,” lead scientist Alan Stern of Southwest Research Institute said in a statement, “and wondering about the stars and worlds beyond our own.”

The name was picked because of the Powhatan’s ties to the Chesapeake Bay region.

New Horizons is operated from Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, Maryland. The Hubble Space Telescope — which discovered Arrokoth in 2014 — has its science operations in Baltimore.

The New Horizons team got consent for the name from Powhatan Tribal elders and representatives, according to NASA. The International Astronomical Union and its Minor Planet Center approved the choice.

Arrokoth is among countless objects in the so-called Kuiper Belt, or vast Twilight Zone beyond the orbit of Neptune. New Horizons will observe some of these objects from afar as it makes its way deeper into space.

Marcia Dunn, The Associated Press

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Curiosity Finds Mysterious Oxygen Fluctuations on Mars – Gizmodo

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Gale crater, as imaged by the Curiosity rover.
Photo: NASA

NASA’s Curiosity rover sniffed out an unexpected seasonal variation to the oxygen on Mars, according to new research.

Curiosity has long been returning some appropriately curious results. After locating methane on the planet, studies from its spot in Gale crater found regular changes to the methane unexplainable by the environmental factors that scientists are already aware of. Now varying oxygen has joined methane in the Martian mysteries bucket.

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Oxygen has shown “significant seasonal and interannual variability, suggesting an unknown atmospheric or surface process at work,” the authors write in the paper published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

Mars, like Earth, is tilted on its axis of rotation. That means its northern and southern hemispheres experience seasons like Earth does, summer when the hemisphere points toward the Sun and winter when it points away from the Sun. Scientists have been using Curiosity’s Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument to monitor the abundance of various molecules in the planet’s atmosphere and how they change with its seasons. Today, they released the result of five Earth years’ (three Mars years’) worth of data taking.

The results for some elements weren’t especially surprising: levels and changes to the amount of argon gas were broadly similar to measurements taken by the now-defunct Opportunity rover. Nor did Curiosity measure much nitrogen flowing—on Earth, life interacts with the atmosphere and the soil through a complex nitrogen cycle. If such a cycle exists on Mars, it doesn’t have an impact on the planet’s atmospheric gas, the authors write.

But then… there’s the oxygen. “The SAM measurements of [oxygen] in Gale crater do not show the annual stability or seasonal patterns that would be predicted based on the known sources and sinks in the atmosphere,” the authors wrote. There was a whole lot more oxygen than expected during the Martian northern hemisphere’s late spring to summer (Curiosity’s late fall to winter), and a lot less oxygen than expected during the northern hemisphere’s winter (Curiosity’s summer).

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Scientists tried to devise an explanation for this. Maybe the instrument was broken (it wasn’t), or maybe the oxygen was from carbon dioxide or water breaking up in the atmosphere. But that would mean there’s much more water than the planet already has in its atmosphere, or carbon dioxide breaks up too slowly to produce the oxygen signatures, according to a NASA release.

“The fact that the oxygen behavior isn’t perfectly repeatable every season makes us think that it’s not an issue that has to do with atmospheric dynamics. It has to be some chemical source and sink that we can’t yet account for,” the study’s first author Melissa Trainer, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said in the release.

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Perhaps the fluctuating oxygen has something to do with the fluctuating methane. Who knows! Trainer hopes other scientists will help figure out the mystery.

Here at Gizmodo, well, we’re not saying aliens, but… well…

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