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2020 Canada’s new laws and rules everything you need to know

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TORONTO —
As we usher in another decade, a number of new laws and rules will come into effect in 2020 that may have an impact on your way of life. That includes changes to federal divorce laws, as well as cannabis and vaping regulations in some provinces.

Here are the highlights you need to know:

CANADA-WIDE

Federal tax changes

The basic amount most Canadians can earn tax-free is going up on Jan. 1, to $13,229.  The increase is being phased in over four years until it reaches $15,000 in 2023.

For Canadians in the lower income brackets, the changes could result in tax savings of up to $140 in 2020.  For those earning more than $150,473 annually, those savings will be clawed back or not offered at all.

Also starting on Jan. 1, the employment insurance premiums for individual workers and employees will slightly decrease. The maximum annual EI contribution for a worker will fall by $3.86 to $856.36 and employers’ maximum contribution will fall $5.41 to $1,198.90 per employee.

Changes to the Divorce Act

Federal laws related to divorce proceedings and family orders were amended with the passage of Bill C-78, with the majority of changes to the Divorce Act coming into effect on July 1, 2020.

The changes include updated criteria to determine a child’s best interests in custody cases, as well as measures to address family violence when making parenting arrangements.

The changes also aim to make the family justice system “more accessible and affordable” for everyone involved.

The Divorce Act applies to married couples who are divorcing, while provincial and territorial legislation applies to all other spousal separations, including those involving unmarried and common-law couples.

Overhauling the Indigenous child welfare system

Legislation known as the Act Respecting First Nations, Inuit and Métis Children, Youth and Families will come into full force on Jan. 1, 2020. It is meant to overhaul Canada’s Indigenous child welfare system, which critics have for years described as inadequate and discriminatory.

The changes to the legislation were developed with input from the Assembly of First Nations and experts across the country, and AFN says the new rules are “consistent” with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

BRITISH COLUMBIA

Minimum wage increase

As of June 1, 2020, the minimum wage in the province will increase to $14.60 per hour, from the current hourly rate of $13.85. In June 2021, the minimum wage is expected to increase to $15.20 per hour.

New vaping regulations

The province is planning to roll out much tougher rules when it comes to sale and promotion of vaping products in the wake of increasing concerns about the health effects of vaping.

Among the new rules: the provincial sales tax on vaping products will increase significantly on Jan. 1, from seven to 20 per cent.

No more health-care premiums

B.C. is eliminating the provincial health-care premiums for its residents as of Jan. 1. The government says the elimination of the Medical Service Plan premiums will save individuals up to $900 and families up to $1,800 per year.

ALBERTA

New carbon tax

The federal government will start imposing its carbon tax on Alberta on Jan. 1. Albertans will pay $20 per tonne of CO2 until April 2020, when the price will rise to $30 per tonne.

This means that Albertans will now be eligible for the carbon tax rebate when they file their income taxes. The rebate amounts will be as follows:

Single adult or first adult in a couple: $444

Second adult in a couple or first child of a single parent: $222

Each child under 18: $111

Baseline amount for a family of four: $888

Property division changes under family law

On Jan. 1, certain changes to the provincial family law will make it easier for unmarried partners to divide their property if they break up.

The Matrimonial Property Act will be amended to apply to both “adult interdependent partners” and legally married spouses. Other changes to the Act include clarifying property division rules and when couples can enter into property ownership and division agreements.

SASKATCHEWAN

Big fines for distracted driving

Starting on Feb. 1, 2020, the province will significantly increase fines for distracted driving.

Fines for first-time offenders will more than double from the current $280to $580. A conviction will also cost the driver four demerit points.

A second distracted driving offence within the same year will cost $1,400, four demerits and an immediate week-long vehicle seizure. A third offence within the same year will cost the driver $2,100.

Changes to federal carbon tax rebates

The federal government has adjusted the carbon tax rebates for residents of provinces that have not adopted their own carbon pricing models. For Saskatchewan, the 2020 rebates, which must be claimed on the 2019 income tax returns, are as follows:

Single adult or first adult in a couple: $405

Second adult in a couple or first child of a single parent: $202

Each child under 18: $101

Baseline amount for a family of four: $809

MANITOBA

Changes to federal carbon tax rebates

For Manitoba residents, the 2020 federal carbon tax rebates, which must be claimed on 2019 income tax returns, are as follows:

Single adult or first adult in a couple: $243

Second adult in a couple or first child of a single parent: $121

Each child under 18: $61

Baseline amount for a family of four: $486

ONTARIO

No more out-of-country health insurance coverage

The Ontario government’s move to scrap its out-of-country health insurance takes effect on Jan. 1.  This means that Ontarians who fall ill while travelling can no longer claim the $400-a-day maximum coverage for inpatient emergency care and the $50-a-day maximum allowed for emergency outpatient services (such as an MRI or a CAT scan) that, until now, were provided by OHIP.

The provincial government has defended its decision by saying that the OHIP coverage was minimal and “inefficient,” given the high cost of medical care abroad – and especially in the United States — that usually requires private travel insurance.

E-scooters on roads

As part of a five-year pilot project, the Ontario government will let municipalities decide whether to allow e-scooters on their roads.

Operating e-scooters is currently only allowed on private property in the province.

The pilot project starts on Jan. 1. E-scooter drivers will have to be at least 16 years old and wear a helmet.

Restrictions on advertising vaping products

On Jan. 1, Ontario will ban the promotion of vaping products in convenience stores and gas stations, in response to growing concerns about the health effects of vaping on young people.

The province will still allow vaping to be promoted in specialty stores and cannabis shops, which are only open to those aged 19 and older.

Dogs on restaurant patios

Starting Jan. 1., Ontario will give restaurants and bars the option to allow dogs on their patios, in areas where “low-risk foods” (such as pre-packaged snacks and beer) are served. The move is part of a slew of changes enacted by the passage of Bill 132, also known as the Better for People, Smarter for Business Act. 

Changes to federal carbon tax rebates

For Ontario residents, the 2020 federal carbon tax rebates, which must be claimed on 2019 income tax returns, are as follows:

Single adult or first adult in a couple: $224

Second adult in a couple or first child of a single parent: $112

Each child under 18: $56

Baseline amount for a family of four: $448

QUEBEC

Legal age for cannabis

As of Jan. 1, the minimum legal age to possess or purchase cannabis in Quebec will be raised to 21. That will make it the highest legal age to purchase cannabis in Canada, compared to a legal age of 19 in the majority of the country.

‘Values test’ for immigrants

Starting on Jan. 1, economic immigrants who want to settle in Quebec will have to pass the province’s controversial “values test.”  The test will include questions about secularism in Quebec, religious symbols, same-sex marriage and gender rights.

The test will not apply to newcomers who are refugees or arriving in Canada via family reunification programs, since they come under the federal government’s jurisdiction.

NEW BRUNSWICK

No more annual motor vehicle inspections

As of Jan 1., the province will no longer require drivers to get their personal vehicles inspected every year. Instead, the inspections will be required every two years. The cost of inspecting a vehicle will also go up, from $35 to $45.

NOVA SCOTIA

Changes to income assistance

On Jan. 1, the province will implement changes that will increase the amount of money people on income assistance receive.  The increase will vary from two to five per cent, depending on the recipient’s living situation and family size.

The change is a result of a new “Standard Household Rate” that replaces personal and shelter allowances for people on income assistance.

Plastic bag ban

Nova Scotia will join several other provinces in banning most single-use plastic bags at store checkouts next fall.  Retailers will still be allowed to use the bags for live fish and bulk items, and there will also be exemptions for food banks and charities.

The ban will come into effect on Oct. 30, 2020.

Ban on flavoured e-cigarettes

Nova Scotia has previously announced that it will be the first province to ban sales of flavoured e-cigarettes and vaping juices as part of regulatory changes that take effect April 1, 2020.

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

Plastic bag ban

The province will join Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in banning retail plastic bags.  While no exact date of enforcement has been set for the ban, the provincial government says that, by mid-2020, shoppers should bring their own reusable bags to grocery stores and other retailers.

New rules to address workplace harassment

The province’s expanded regulations regarding workplace harassment take effect Jan. 1. The changes include new training requirements for employers and employees, as well as “a secure and confidential means” for employees to file harassment complaints.

With files from The Canadian Press

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$1 billion and counting: Inside Canada's troubled efforts to build new warships – CBC.ca

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The federal government has spent slightly more than $1.01 billion over the last seven years on design and preparatory contracts for the navy’s new frigates and supply ships — and the projects still haven’t bought anything that floats.

The figures, tabled recently in Parliament, represent the first comprehensive snapshot of what has been spent thus far on the frequently-delayed project to build replacement warships.

It’s an enormous amount of money for two programs that have been operating for more than a decade with little to show for their efforts to date.

It will be years before the Canadian Surface Combatant project — which aims to replace the navy’s frontline frigates with 15 state-of-the-art vessels — and the Joint Support Ship program for two replenishment vessels actually deliver warships.

The numbers and details for each advance contract were produced in the House of Commons in response to written questions from the Conservative opposition.

A worker grinds a component at the Irving Shipbuilding facility in Halifax June 13, 2016. (Andrew Vaughan/Canadian Press)

The money was divided almost evenly between the federal government’s two go-to shipyards: Irving Shipbuilding in Halifax, the prime contractor for the new frigates, and Seaspan of Vancouver, the builder of the supply ships.

The breakdown raises critical questions about at least one of the programs, said a defence analyst, but it also shines a light on promises made by both Liberal and Conservative governments to keep spending under control for both of these projects — which could end up costing more than $64 billion.

“I think there should be a level of concern [among the public] about whether or not what’s being delivered in practice is what was advertised at the outset,” said Dave Perry, a procurement expert and vice president of the Canadian Global Affairs Institute.

A design still in flux

Most of his concerns revolve around the new support ships, which the Liberal government says are in the process of being built now.

The written responses, tabled in Parliament, note that the projected cost for the two supply ships — $3.4 billion — remains under review “as the design effort finalizes.”

Perry said he was astonished to learn that, “seven years and half-a-billion dollars into design work on an off-the-shelf design,” the navy doesn’t have the support ships, even though “the middle third of the ship is built” — and officials now say “the design effort isn’t finished.”

Usually, he said, ships are designed before they’re built.

The head of the Department of National Defence’s materiel branch said most of the preparatory contracts were needed to re-establish a Canadian shipbuilding industry that had been allowed to wither.

‘A lot of patience’

“I think we have to look at the totality of everything that’s being accomplished under” the national shipbuilding strategy, said Troy Crosby, assistant deputy minister of materiel at DND.

“Over that period of time, and with these expenditures, we’ve built a shipbuilding capability on two coasts, not just through National Defence but also through the coast guard, offshore fisheries science vessels. I understand it has taken a lot of patience, I suppose, and probably some uncertainty, but we’re really getting to the point now where we can see delivering these capabilities to the navy.”

The largest cash outlays involve what’s known as definition contracts, which went individually to both shipyards and were in excess of $330 million each. They’re meant to cover the supervision of the projects and — more importantly — to help convert pre-existing warship designs purchased by the federal government to Canadian standards.

Then-minister of defence Peter MacKay, right, and Christian Paradis, then-minister of public works, pause to look at a model of a Canadian patrol frigate as they take part in the opening session of the Government Shipbuilding Consultation in Gatineau, Quebec, July 27, 2009. (Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press)

The choices on each project were made at different times by different governments, but ministers serving both Liberal and Conservative governments decided that going with proven, off-the-shelf designs would be faster and less expensive than building from scratch.

Now, after all the delays, it’s still not clear that choosing off-the-shelf designs has saved any money.

“I would be completely speculating on what it would cost to invest to develop the kind of expertise and capacity inside the government, inside National Defence and everybody involved, to be able to do something like that in-house,” said Crosby.

“The approach we’ve taken at this point, by basing both the Joint Support Ship and the Canadian Surface Combatant on pre-existing designs, allows us to retire a lot of risk in the way forward.”

When Crosby talks about “retiring risk,” he’s talking about the potential for further delays and cost overruns.

Among the contracts, Irving Shipbuilding was given $136 million to support the drawing up of the design tender for the new frigates and to pay for the shipbuilding advice Irving was giving the federal government throughout the bidding process.

Years ago, the federal government had enough in-house expertise to dispense with private sector guidance — but almost all of that expertise was lost over the past two decades as successive federal governments cut the defence and public works branches that would have done that work.

The last time Canada built major warships was in the 1990s, when the current fleet of 12 patrol frigates was inaugurated.

An artist’s rendering of the British Type 26 frigate, which is supplying the basic design for Canada’s patrol frigates. (BAE Systems Inc./Lockheed Martin Canada)

The federal government has chosen to base its new warships on the BAE Systems Type-26 design, which has been selected by the Royal Navy and the Royal Australian Navy.

The hull and propulsion system on the new frigates will be “largely unchanged” from the British design, but the combat system will be different and uniquely Canadian, said Crosby.

The project is still on track to start cutting steel for the new combat ships in 2023. Crosby said he would not speculate on when the navy will take delivery of the first one.

Delivery of the joint support ships is expected to be staggered, with the first one due in 2024.

There will be a two-year gap between ships, said Crosby, as the navy and the yard work through any technical issues arising with the first ship.

If that timeline holds, the first support ship will arrive two decades after it was first proposed and announced by the Liberal government of former prime minister Paul Martin.

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CN, CP trains sharing rail lines to keep supplying Canada during blockades – CBC.ca

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Quiet talks brokered by a government desperate to stop a growing economic threat led to two rail rivals coming together with a workaround to bypass the Tyendinaga blockade site.

Since last week, Canada’s two largest railways — CN and Canadian Pacific — have been quietly sharing their rail lines to transport essential supplies to communities in need, according to multiple government, CN and industry sources. 

Protests by the Mohawks of Tyendinaga crippled passenger and freight train traffic on CN’s line near Belleville for more than two weeks in solidarity with anti-pipeline protests in northern B.C against the construction of the planned Coastal GasLink pipeline. Ontario Provincial Police officers on Monday arrested 10 demonstrators to get service back up and running on the line.

But as a result of what multiple government sources are describing as a very “rare” collaboration between the two rail giants, CN trains have been circumventing blockades using alternate routes — some through the U.S. — to continue deliveries to Quebec and Maritime communities facing shortages of essential goods such as propane, chemicals for water treatment facilities and animal feed.

Transport Canada and Transport Minister Marc Garneau’s office approached the two companies and helped to negotiate the rail-sharing deal — which is still active in parts of the country dealing with blockades.

WATCH | OPP break up rail blockade:

CBC reporter Olivia Stefanovich describes how quietly the OPP moved in before arresting protesters at the blockade. 2:10

The deal was kept under wraps by all involved; even the industries affected weren’t told about the arrangement. The Retail Council of Canada told CBC News it didn’t know about the deal. Neither did associations representing propane suppliers in Quebec and across Canada. The groups had been warning of looming supply shortages in Quebec and Eastern Canada, where families, farmers and companies have been rationing goods. Many households use propane to heat their homes and barns.

Government sources say they didn’t advertise the deal, fearing that more blockades could pop up in response.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau hinted at the CN/CP arrangement yesterday on the way into question period in the House of Commons.

“Over the past number of days we’ve been working with rail carriers to ensure that many trains continue to use alternate routes to get through and that’s one of the reasons we’ve been able to avoid some of the most serious shortages,” said Trudeau.

Karl Littler, senior vice president, public affairs, of the Retail Council of Canada, learned about the arrangement from CBC News and commended it.

“We’re talking about foods, we’re talking about fuel to keep people heating in what can be a cold winter,” said Littler. “You’re talking about a lot of stuff that Canadians need everyday. I think it’s the responsible thing to look to see what alternative channels exist and if that means collaboration in these circumstances, so much the better.”

One CN conductor said they witnessed how covert the operation has been. The source said they saw specially trained CN workers use CP engines, with that company’s logo on them, to haul unmarked CN cargo.

CP told CBC News it didn’t have a comment to add. CN also isn’t commenting on the deal, saying only that it’s “pleased the illegal blockade in Tyendinaga has come to an end.” 

“We are also monitoring our network for any further disruptions at this time,” said CN spokesperson Jonathan Abecassis in a statement.

A Canadian Pacific Railway employee walks along the side of a locomotive in a marshalling yard in Calgary. (Jeff McIntosh/Canadian Press)

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Chinese Canadians plead for third Canadian rescue flight from Wuhan

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Chinese Canadians whose family members remain in Hubei province, the epicentre of the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, are urging the federal government to send a third evacuation plane to bring home Canadians and permanent residents.

Wuhan and other cities across Hubei province went into lockdown on Jan. 23 as the Chinese government tried to contain the spread of the COVID-19, leaving citizens to have “close to zero” chance of leaving the city.

An open letter calling for a third rescue flight

Residents across the Lower Mainland who are originally from Hubei province, set up a WeChat group last week and sent an open letter to Global Affairs Canada on Saturday, hoping to reunite with their loved ones who are still trapped in Hubei.

Simon Zheng, a small business owner who works in Richmond and is also part of the WeChat group, told the Richmond News that at least 50 families are still stuck in Hubei, and each family has at least one Canadian citizen in it.

According to the letter, these families failed to board either of the previous chartered flights due to poor communication and misinformation, language barriers, isolation and mass panic.

“We estimate that the real number of Canadian families still confined in the province of Hubei is in reality much higher than what we have accumulated over the last three days… The longer this ordeal carries on, and the longer the lockdown continues for these unfortunate individuals, the more danger it will impose on the Canadians stuck there,” the letter reads.

“We cannot bear the thought of losing our family members if something were to happen in the next few weeks.”

People in Wuhan have been through a war without smoke: resident 

Melanie Huang, a former Richmond resident, is concerned about both of her dad’s and grandfather’s situation in Wuhan as the coronavirus has claimed more than 2,600 lives so far.

Huang said her dad flew to China on Jan. 13 to celebrate Chinese New Year with her 89-year-old grandfather, but now he can’t return to Canada since all train stations and airports have shut down.

“The virus has spread quickly over the past few weeks, and hospitals only accept coronavirus-related patients. If seniors slip at home or hurt themselves, they won’t get treatment in time,” said Huang.

There is also some confusion regarding who is qualified to board the Canadian evacuation flight, according to Huang.

“I contacted the Canadian embassy to check if my dad, who is a permanent resident of Canada, is allowed to leave on the fight, but the answer was ‘no.’ We were told that permanent residents who hold Chinese passports aren’t allowed to leave Wuhan.”

However, Huang later came across news from English media outlets saying that Chinese nationals who are family members of foreign citizens could board flights from Wuhan.

Huang said dozens of WeChat group members now count on the Canadian government to arrange the third flight.

“As family members, we are willing to chip in some money for the flight. The risk our loved ones currently face is very high. Basically, they have been through a war without smoke.”

Newly married couple face forced separation 

Meanwhile, Canadian citizen Zheng couldn’t celebrate the first Valentine’s Day with his wife after getting married late last year.

Zheng’s wife, who is in the process of getting permanent residency, went back to Wuhan to visit family members. Now, she is trapped there because the city has been locked down.

Zheng said they didn’t consider trying to board one of the first two chartered flights because they thought people who hold Canadian passports should be given priority to leave Wuhan. However, Zheng’s desire to reunite with his wife grows stronger as it’s uncertain how long the crisis will last.

“My wife has been self-isolating herself at home for the past few weeks. She is trying her best to stay safe, but long-time isolation might result in negative emotions,” said Zheng. “If there is another flight leaving Wuhan, I hope to see my wife on that plane.”

A spokesperson from Global Affairs Canada said they remain in regular contact with Canadians in China and are continuing to assist those in need.

In a written statement, the spokesperson added that Canadian citizens who require emergency consular assistance should contact the Embassy of Canada in Beijing at 86 (10) 5139-4000. Canadians can also call the department’s 24/7 Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa at +1 613-996-8885 (collect calls are accepted where available) or email sos@international.gc.ca.

However, Global Affairs Canada has not commented on whether it will send a third plane into Hubei to bring back the remaining Canadians there.

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