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4 Questions to Boost Your Social Media Marketing – Harvard Business Review



Executive Summary

Global internet users spend more than two hours each day browsing social media — a double-edged sword for companies who have the opportunity to reach more consumers, but also have more people to engage with and respond to. To develop your social media strategy, the authors recommend you ask yourself the following questions: 1) What are your goals? 2) Which platforms should you use? 3) What’s your content strategy? 4) Are you ready to talk with your audience — in real time?

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Companies of all sizes today are looking to improve the effectiveness of their social media marketing — and with good reason: Digital platforms are constantly innovating the way that brands are discovered, shared and experienced. The data speaks for itself: The number of worldwide social network users is expected to reach 3.09 billion monthly active users by 2021, and global internet users spend some 136 minutes per day surfing social networks. Many organizations have responded by allocating more resources to digital marketing — technology now accounts for 29% of total marketing expense budgets, according to a recent Gartner estimate, and digital ad spend for 2020 is estimated at about $385 billion.

Yet these numbers are a double-edged sword. Consumers today react to products, services and ad campaigns in real-time through social media, creating new demands on organizations. Generating and sustaining high levels of engagement and enthusiasm online requires clarity around the firm’s goals and values.

Successful digital strategies are not about aesthetics or style, but a fit between what your brand promises and delivers. To develop your strategy, ask yourself the following questions:

1. What are your goals?

In the case of startups and niche products, your social media marketing strategy may begin with the need to test ideas, create awareness and build anticipation for new products and services. In other cases, the goals can be far more specific — boosting sales, geographic expansion, increasing real-time brand engagement, or generating quality sales leads.

Once you’ve set your goals, identify your metrics for success. Are you looking to gain “likes”? Do you want to spark an online dialogue around an issue? Or do you want to inspire behavior change, for example, encouraging your followers to recycle? Your metrics must align with your marketing goals.

The sheer volume of available data can make this task challenging. Clearly defined metrics, including a timeline and budget, will ensure that your campaign is on track. Not only do goals allow you to clearly measure your progress, they will also give you a clear answer to the next question that you need to ask which is…

2. Which platforms should we be using?

Decision making around platforms must be rooted in an understanding of your customer’s identity and preferences. Different social platforms appeal to different demographics, and you need to do the research to find out where your target audience hangs out online. For example, younger audiences may be more effectively reached on newer platforms, like TikTok or Snapchat. Health and wellness brands, with their emphasis on aesthetics, may want to develop on a more visual strategy, focused on Instagram. The same logic applies to geography — WhatsApp is popular in India, whereas if you want to reach people in China, you’d need to focus on WeChat or Weibo.

3. What is your content strategy?  

Quite often, organizations have the budget, team, agencies, and ideas in place, but they have haven’t thought deeply about content. This leaves both revenue and goodwill on the table: One survey revealed that 46% of consumers reported they follow brands because of the inspirational content. You need to understand what types of content — for example, articles, video, pictures — will drive engagement with your audience. Great content strategies create conversation and sharing with the brand and amongst other users.

Your content should be unique, useful, and shareable. For example, one of the authors (Deepa) is currently working with ArogyaWorld, a global health nonprofit, on a campaign to help establish some common understanding around “eating right” in India. Inspired by the U.S. government’s initiative, we worked with a leading design firm to translate the Indian government’s complex nutritional guidelines into a simple picture for both North and South Indian cuisine, showing cooked quantities and meal plan options for various ages and lifestyles. The graphic will be rolled out on social media and in its Healthy Workplace program that cover 3 million employees.

If your content is sensitive, your content strategy should take that into consideration. For example, Techdivine, a firm owned by one of the authors (Ananthanarayanan), once worked with a client in the mental health industry who was concerned about the lack of engagement on their Facebook page. It quickly became clear that most users were not comfortable engaging on this issue on a public platform. We re-oriented the strategy to encourage users to chat with the brand by using private messaging options of social networking sites. We also created resources which allowed people to get answers to their questions securely with expert articles shared via exclusive password access through private chats on social networking platforms.

4. Are you ready to talk with your audience — in real time?

Social media interactions are two-way — driven by both brands and consumers — so your organization needs to show that it is listening and engaging with questions, concerns, and suggestions. Companies that seize a moment can generate brand awareness and goodwill. For example, when a Twitter user recently mocked a South African man who proposed in a KFC, the fast-food chain responded by providing the couple with a wedding planner. Many other brands, including Coca-Cola, Woolworths and Audi, also chipped in to support the couple, showering them with gifts and experiences.

Social media offers brands the opportunity to create memorable experiences. Techdivine, a firm owned by one of the authors (Ananth), once saw a tweet from someone travelling from Manhattan to Chicago for the first time, mentioning that she was looking for something spicy to eat. We looked back at her earlier tweets, which hinted at an interest in arts. So, on behalf of our client, a restaurant based out of Chicago, we welcomed her to the Windy City and even shared links to some interesting art events and activities around the city. We made sure, not to pitch our restaurant prematurely. Curious to know who we were, she thanked us for our tweet and inquired about our restaurant. At this point, we sent her a beautiful collage of some popular spicy dishes that the restaurant served, along with a map and a deal she could unlock if she visited the restaurant and tagged the brand by checking in. Needless to say, what followed was a visit, not only from her, but many others who saw this conversation online.

Brands today, have a much bigger ability (and responsibility) to inspire and connect with consumers. Trusted brands are more likely to attract business, and social media is a powerful tool to create engagement, gain feedback, and build that trust with your audience. By answering the above questions, you can ensure that your social strategy aligns with your goals and adds values for your users.

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ABC's Karl calls Rubio's tweet on media outrageous, hurtful – Times Colonist



NEW YORK — The president of the White House Correspondents’ Association on Monday called on Florida Sen. Marco Rubio to apologize for a tweet saying some media members “can’t contain their delight” at reports of Americans getting the coronavirus.

Jonathan Karl, who is ABC News’ White House correspondent, said Rubio’s tweet was outrageous, wrong and hurtful.

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There was no immediate response by the Florida Republican by social media or through a query to his Senate staff.

On Sunday, Rubio tweeted that “some in our media can’t contain their glee and delight in reporting the the U.S. has more coronavirus cases” than China.

Beyond being grotesque, he suggested it was bad journalism because he believes the Chinese aren’t telling the truth about how many of their citizens have contracted the virus.

“Who are you talking about, senator?” Karl asked during an appearance on ABC’s “The View.” Rubio has not clarified which media members he believes were gleeful about the number of U.S. cases.

Karl said journalists at CBS and NBC News had died of COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus, and two members of the White House press corps are suspected of having contracted the virus.

“Who does Marco Rubio think is taking joy and glee at more people being sick?” Karl said.

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Social Media Posts and Online Searches Hold Vital Clues about Pandemic Spread – Scientific American



Nearly a week before the World Health Organization first warned of a mysterious new respiratory disease in Wuhan, China, a team of Boston-based sleuths at the global disease monitoring system HealthMap captured digital clues about the outbreak from an online press report. That same day, December 30, ProMED, another digital disease detection group, became aware of online chatter about a pneumonia of unknown origin on China’s micro-blogging website, Weibo. As researchers later reported, newly popular keywords on the social media platform WeChat included “SARS,” “shortness of breath” and “diarrhea.”

Such alerts reveal the promise of a vast yet risky resource: the tweet-sized hints from people all over the world who report their health status and vent their fears online. Some researchers are calling on public health officials to take greater advantage of this virtual treasure chest of data, especially given the current rapid spread of the new coronavirus.

“We are on the precipice of an unprecedented opportunity to track, predict and prevent global disease burdens in the population using digital data,” Allison Aiello, an epidemiologist at the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina, and two graduate students write in the 2020 Annual Review of Public Health.

“There’s incredible amounts of data on social media blogs, chatrooms and local news reports that give us clues about disease outbreaks happening on a daily basis,” John Brownstein, the chief innovation officer at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School recently told CNN Headline News. Such data, which Brownstein calls “digital breadcrumbs,” are vital raw material for an emerging field of inquiry known as digital epidemiology. HealthMap, which he cofounded in 2006, is one of several leading efforts in the field.

HealthMap’s first big success came during the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic, when it used sources that included Spanish-language online news reports to aid in early detection of an unidentified respiratory illness in Veracruz, Mexico. Five years later, it tapped the WHO Twitter feed and other sources to track the spread of the Ebola virus, which ultimately killed more than 11,000 people in West Africa.

The World Health Organization now routinely uses HealthMap, ProMED and similar systems to monitor infectious disease outbreaks and inform clinicians, officials and the public. Yet big-data disease detection is still in its infancy compared with traditional methods, and the social media ingredients, in particular, have yet to make any major contribution in predicting where and how infectious diseases may strike.

So far at least, HealthMap still doesn’t rely heavily on social media; instead, it mostly tracks reports from online news sources and governments, while including some social media posts from public health professionals. Additionally, HealthMap calls on volunteers to submit weekly data to its crowdsourced disease-tracking platform, Flu Near You. In late March, it launched a new site, Covid Near You, that focuses specifically on Covid-19 symptoms and testing.

Still, digital epidemiology’s two key advantages—speed and volume—may increasingly help health officials spot outbreaks quickly and cheaply, Brownstein and other experts believe. At the same time, the huge volume of digital data from social media also comes with sufficient challenges to accuracy and privacy to make it a “double-edged sword,” in the words of University College London e-health researcher Patty Kostkova. It’s a now-familiar story: Technological advances are racing ahead of our ability to guarantee their quality and safety.

The most immediate challenge is getting it right. “It’s actually really hard to get useful prospective data from social media,” says Northeastern University computer scientist Clark Freifeld, who cofounded HealthMap with Brownstein. One of the biggest challenges, he says, is that once a disease becomes news, most subsequent media queries and posts are reactions to that news rather than indicators of more news to come.

For example, in 2012 Google Flu Trends estimated a large spike in winter flu cases based on increased use of flu-related terms in Google searches. The actual spike turned out to be about half as high, perhaps because users’ searches reflected news of flu outbreaks rather than actual illnesses.

Red herrings are another serious problem. Researchers noted a 2007 spike in Google searches for the word “cholera.” But the cause wasn’t a disease outbreak; instead, it turned out that Oprah Winfrey had picked the novel “Love in the Time of Cholera” for her book club. While that particular case didn’t lead any public health officials astray, says Aiello, it’s a vivid example of reactive and irrelevant “noise.”

HealthMap tries to address this problem by using artificial intelligence to filter out repetition and irrelevancies. “We have a database of millions of articles and pieces of content relating to disease outbreaks,” says Freifeld. “We’ll hand-label say 100,000 examples of actual outbreaks and contrast them with things that aren’t related, like an ‘outbreak’ of home runs in the seventh inning. That’s how the system learns what’s useful and what’s not.”

A major reason digital breadcrumbs can lead experts astray is that they can miss a large section of the population. About 22 percent of the US adults use Twitter, but it’s not a random sample. US Twitter users are predominantly wealthier, younger, better-educated and more likely to be Democrats than other Americans. What’s more, most Twitter users don’t tweet all that much: About 80 percent of the tweets from all adult US users come from the most prolific 10 percent. Twitter’s youthful profile is particularly problematic considering that older people—at least according to initial assumptions—have been at more risk of becoming seriously ill. Monitoring health through tweets could thus ignore the most vulnerable among us.

More broadly, social media is justifiably notorious for spreading falsehoods, which in the case of infectious diseases can have deadly consequences. And that, public health researchers say, is always a danger in the search for signals amid the social media noise. Public health depends on trust in public officials, but that trust can quickly erode if a government releases faulty information.

On top of its problems with accuracy, digital epidemiology may increase threats to internet users’ privacy. Unlike Europe, the United States lacks sweeping laws to protect privacy on social media. Platforms such as Google and Facebook routinely license aggregated users’ information to advertisers who can then target pitches based on search contents and “likes.” Using these kinds of data for health surveillance could multiply the risk of privacy abuses, Freifeld says, especially when public health concerns conflict with confidentiality.

Privacy advocates are already sounding the alarm about recent efforts by the White House and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to expand their access to Americans’ mobile-phone data to track their locations during the epidemic. Federal health officials hope to incorporate anonymous, aggregated data to follow the spread of the virus and check compliance with new “social distancing” rules.

The growing repository of online public health data became somewhat more open to the public just this month. On March 17, CrowdTangle, a social media monitoring site recently purchased by Facebook, announced it had launched a new feature to let users, including news media organizations, public health officials and researchers, track social trends across sites including Facebook, Instagram and Reddit. The company simultaneously introduced a publicly available hub of streaming, limited real-time displays of official information and social media posts concerning Covid-19 infections caused by the new coronavirus. The social media posts were culled only from public accounts, not private ones.

Voluntary reporting systems may avoid some, although not all, of the biases of run-of-the-mill digital epidemiology. Flu Near You, launched in 2011, uses an anonymous, crowdsourced model to collect data for public health officials and researchers.

A somewhat similar project is FoodBorne Chicago, a Twitter-based surveillance system that monitors complaints of foodborne illness. Based at the Chicago Department of Public Health, it tracks tweets using a machine-learning algorithm that identifies the keywords “food poison.” When local residents type those words, the site tweets back a link with a form to provide details, collecting data that might never otherwise have been reported.

For the last seven years, the CDC has dipped its toe in digital detection of diseases by managing a yearly competition known as FluSight in which researchers from academia and industry attempt to forecast the timing and intensity of the flu season. The CDC requires competitors to use some sort of digital data in their projections.

Meanwhile, researchers are increasingly excited about the potential of including data from more direct measures of wellness and illness. Smart, wearable health-tracking monitors supply a constant stream of data about heart rates, steps taken and quality of sleep.

On March 25, Scripps Research Translational Institute epidemiologist Jennifer Radin, the lead author of a recent study on the potentially “vital” role of Fitbits in disease detection, called on US adult volunteers using any kind of smartwatch or activity tracker to share their health data with researchers by downloading the MyDataHelps mobile app. The researchers hope to use the data to identify changes in resting heart rates that may signify disease, Radin told Knowable. While she acknowledged that a faster heart rate might be induced by simply watching the news, she said volunteers who aren’t feeling well may also list other symptoms on the app.

For the past eight years, a San Francisco startup called Kinsa has been systematically collecting such real-time health data, having recently sold and given away more than 1 million internet-connected thermometers. Oregon State University scientist Benjamin Dalziel, who is collaborating on research funded by Kinsa, says the system can accurately track the flu two weeks ahead of predictions by the CDC and could potentially track Covid-19 as well. On March 18, it began posting new data from its opt-in system about clusters of “atypical fevers” on its “Health Weather Map” at

Dalziel and Kinsa corporate leaders are certain their thermometers can help during this global emergency. “This is the future, however grand that sounds,” Dalziel says. “A fever is a key indicator of an acute respiratory infection. It’s measuring something directly relevant to illness. And while I think there has been stunning work done to extract information from Twitter, a thermometer reading has clearly got an advantage over a tweet.”

Other experts are also enthusiastic about Kinsa’s progress. “Fever monitoring is a great idea given the lack of Covid-specific test kits,” says HealthMap’s Freifeld.

The coronavirus emergency is clearly speeding interest in digital epidemiology. Yet to date, Freifeld and other experts agree that the field’s promise remains more as an adjunct than a substitute for conventional surveillance.

As Aiello, in North Carolina, acknowledges that for the time being, at least: “We’ll need to validate it with traditional shoe-leather data.”

This article originally appeared in Knowable Magazine, an independent journalistic endeavor from Annual Reviews. Sign up for the newsletter.

Read more about the coronavirus outbreak here.

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Facebook commits $100 million to support news media hurt by virus crisis – The Guardian



(Reuters) – Facebook Inc on Monday pledged $100 million in financing and advertising spending to support news organizations, including local publishers in the United States, reeling from pressure due to the coronavirus pandemic.

News publishers, especially print media, have taken the brunt as many advertisers pulled their marketing budgets to rein in costs because of virus-related uncertainty.

Vatican’s 160-year-old newspaper L’Osservatore Romano, which suspended printing last week, was the latest in line of a number of print publishers struggling to operate in safe conditions after the outbreak.

Facebook’s donation include $25 million in emergency grant funding for local media, and $75 million in marketing spend for news organizations globally, it said.

The social network said the first round of its grants went to 50 local newsrooms in the United States and Canada.

Corporate America has pitched in several ways to assist from the fallout of the fast spreading virus, even as many of the companies have been forced to dramatically scale back operations.

On Friday, Google-parent Alphabet Inc said it would donate more than $800 million in funds and ad credits to businesses, government and health organizations.

(Reporting by Munsif Vengattil in Bengaluru; Editing by Maju Samuel)

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