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A busy signal from outer space – Space Daily

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It beats like a busy signal – one scientists were excited to get. A new study in Nature reports the discovery of a fast radio burst (FRB) that pulses at regular intervals – every 16.35 days – from a nearby galaxy.

“Some FRBs are known to repeat, but only irregularly, with cadences ranging from seconds to days,” said Laura Newburgh, an assistant professor of physics at Yale involved in the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME), which produced the research. “This paper is the first evidence that some FRBs repeat regularly.”

Newburgh helped build the CHIME telescope in 2017 and leads a team that calibrates it.

FRBs are extremely bright, fast radio emissions with more energy than what the Sun generates over many years. Researchers say their intensity indicates they are connected to highly energetic astrophysical events in their galaxy of origin, such as neutron stars or black holes, which are of great interest to scientists.

Astronomers discovered the existence of FRBs a decade ago; they are still debating what causes the signals.

But scientists at CHIME continue to search for answers. CHIME is a collaboration of 50 scientists, led by the University of British Columbia, McGill University, the University of Toronto, and the National Research Council of Canada.

The collaboration uses a radio telescope located in the mountains of British Columbia’s Okanagan Valley. The CHIME telescope has four cylindrical reflector dishes that cover an area equal to two football fields.

Earlier this year CHIME worked with astronomers in Europe to pinpoint the origin of a particular FRB emission – called FRB 180916.J0158+65 – to a galaxy located 500 million light years from Earth.

Now CHIME has determined that FRB 180916 pulses at predictable intervals more than two weeks apart.

“It tells us that the origin of at least some FRBs is astrophysically regular in nature, but on long enough time scales that they may be tied to something different than a rotating, compact object – perhaps something like an orbiting system,” said Newburgh, whose lab builds instrumentation for collecting data about the history of the cosmos.

CHIME measures roughly one FRB per day, she added. The collaboration is building a database of FRB cadences, locations, energetics, and distributions in the sky.

CHIME also will continue monitoring FRB 180916. If any observed properties of its pulses change regularly, it will provide important clues about the environment of space close to its point of origin, said the scientists.

Research paper

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by Jim Shelton for Yale News

Stellar Chemistry, The Universe And All Within It


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STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Jodrell Bank leads international effort which reveals 157 day cycle in unusual cosmic radio bursts

Manchester UK (SPX) Jun 09, 2020


An investigation into one of the current great mysteries of astronomy has come to the fore thanks to a four-year observing campaign conducted at the Jodrell Bank Observatory.

Using the long-term monitoring capabilities of the iconic Lovell Telescope, an international team led by Jodrell Bank astronomers has been studying an object known as a repeating Fast Radio Burst (FRB), which emits very short duration bright radio pulses.

Using the 32 bursts discovered during the campaign, in conjunctio … read more


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Is Planet 9 Actually A Primordial Black Hole? – Forbes

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Conventional theory has it that Planet 9 —- our outer solar system’s hypothetical 9th planet —- is merely a heretofore undetected planet, likely captured by our solar system at some point over its 4.6 billion year history. 

But Harvard University astronomers now raise the possibility that orbital evidence for Planet 9 could possibly be the result of a missing link in the decades-long puzzle of dark matter. That is, a hypothetical primordial black hole (PBH) with a horizon size no larger than a grapefruit, and with a mass 5 to 10 times that of Earth.

How might it be detected?

In a paper accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, the co-authors argue that observed clustering of extreme trans-Neptunian objects suggest some sort of massive super-earth type body lying on the outer fringes of our solar system. Perhaps as much as 800 astronomical units (Earth-Sun distances) out.

So, the authors propose that a unique wide-field survey telescope, now under construction in Chile, will soon allow them to set new limits on the possibility that Planet 9 may indeed be a PBH instead of just an ordinary planet. If they exist, such PBHs would require new physics and go a long way towards solving the mystery of the universe’s missing mass, or dark matter. 

Our paper shows that if Planet 9 is a black hole, then comets residing in the outskirts of the Solar system (in the “Oort cloud”) would impact it, Avi Loeb, Chair of Harvard University’s Dept. of Astronomy and the paper’s co-author, told me. They would then be destroyed by its strong gravitational tide and within a second of accreting onto the black hole would produce a visible flare, he says.

For large enough comets, this flare of light would be detectable by the LSST’s 8.4-meter optical telescope.

The idea is that once in the vicinity of a black hole, small cometary bodies would melt as a result of Heating from the background accretion of gas from the interstellar medium onto the black hole, Amir Siraj, the paper’s first author and an Harvard University undergraduate, noted in a statement.  

The authors calculate that they would be capable of detecting the first such accretion flare within a few months of the LSST’s operation which is now slated for first light in 2021. 

Why the LSST?

The LSST will be unique in its ability to survey the entire sky about twice per week at a remarkable level of sensitivity, Siraj told me. We calculated that the flares from the accretion of a small body onto a Planet 9 black hole would be brightest near the optical band, where LSST operates, he says. And since Planet 9’s position is unknown, Siraj notes the fact that LSST surveys the sky so quickly maximizes its chance of catching a flare.

The authors say that such brief accretion flares would be detected at a rate of at least a few per year out to a distance of some 105 AU.  And they expect to be able to rule out or confirm Planet 9 as a primordial black hole within the first two years of the LSST’s operation.

Why would our own solar system harbor such an exotic primordial black hole?

Simply by their sheer numbers in the cosmos.  The authors estimate that it might be somewhat likely that our solar system gravitationally-captured at least once such primordial black hole over the eons.    

What would the detection of such an exotic black hole mean for physics?

Loeb says that the formation of primordial black holes would definitely represent new physics. The process that made them in the early universe is not predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics and cosmology, he says.

If Planet 9 is a primordial black hole, are there likely to be others within the galaxy?

If it is a black hole, there should be fifty quadrillions like it in the Milky Way alone, says Loeb.  

Loeb says there’s nothing to lose in using the LSST to look for such primordial black hole relics. Over the past four decades, lab searches for dark matter searches consumed tens of millions of dollars, he says.

“Our paper proposes to use LSST as a dark matter experiment, searching for primordial black holes at no extra cost,” said Loeb.

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The South Pole Wall: 100 Million Billion Stars Are Found Hiding in the Milky Way – haveeruonline

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Astronomers recently uncovered Nyx, a dwarf galaxy discovered building its way toward the center of the Milky Way, revealing a history of merging stellar bodies. Researchers are now report hidden new galaxies hiding in the Milky Way recognized as the South Pole Wall.

(Photo : Downloaded From South Pole Wall official internet site )

The Milky Way Galaxy is centered on our star the Sunshine wherever planets, dust, and other room objects are bound collectively by way of gravitational forces. The spiral galaxy is composed of up to 100 billion stars.

Missions this kind of as the World Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (Gaia) by the European House Agency has been managing for more than 6 many years to create a specific a few-dimensional map of the complete Milky Way. Present-day technologies makes it possible for experts to notice bodies in house up to tens of billions of gentle-a long time away from Earth.

Observing the galaxy has been doable with missions like Gaia, NASA’s Hubble Room Telescope, the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Chile, and lots of other individuals. Astronomers are highly anticipating the start of the James Webb Area Telescope into space wherever it will ‘hunt for the unobserved formation of the 1st galaxies, as perfectly as seem within dust could where stars and planetary methods are forming today,’ according to NASA.

On July 10, cosmographers revealed a report in The Astrophysical Journal of a new concealed selection of galaxies discovered in the Milky Way called the South Pole Wall. They identified the huge stellar assembly as cosmographers made new methods to detect and map astral bodies not noticed instantly.

The South Pole Wall measures about 1.4 billion light-many years throughout the total assortment of stars and planets that remained in hiding until finally now. The huge wall is noticed to be coincidental with Earth’s south celestial pole which the workforce compared ‘to the Sloan Terrific Wall at fifty percent the distance’ and lies opposite of the Shapley Supercluster.

https://www.youtube.com/view?v=2GWIzAoFGMs

Hidden in the Milky Way

The discovery was made by Daniel Pomarède from Paris-Saclay College along with R. Brent Tully and a crew from the University of Hawaii. Pomarède shared, ‘One might speculate how these a significant and not-so-distant composition remained unnoticed.’

‘This is due to its area in a area of the sky that has not been fully surveyed, and exactly where direct observations are hindered by foreground patches of galactic dust and clouds,’ Pomarède continued. ‘We have observed it many thanks to its gravitational affect, imprinted in the velocities of a sample of galaxies.’

Just one hindrance to their observations the South Pole Wall’s locale at the rear of the Chamaeleon cloud complex. The star-forming location incorporates Chamaeleon I, II, and II dim clouds or absorption nebulas that are dense sufficient to maintain the stellar gentle of the new collection of galaxies hidden in the Milky Way.

Go through Also: Proof of Stars Born Elsewhere Suddenly Merged With the Milky Way

100 Million Billion Stars

To map what the cosmographers could not see, they gathered information from former surveys, measured their motion absent from Earth and all the surrounding gravitational forces, then produced a 2D and 3D map. Their consequence was a colossal structure of full galaxies grouped alongside one another amounting to about 100 million billion stars.

It continues to be a mystery what the South Pole Wall would seem like if the dark clouds ended up eliminated in front of it or what all that special issue in fact has. The best educated guess the group produced is hundreds of countless numbers of galaxies comprehensive of stars and planets still to be discovered.

Read Also: NASA Hubble Area Telescope Detects Galaxy Relocating Absent From Earth at 3 Million Miles Per Hour

©2017 ScienceTimes.com All legal rights reserved. Do not reproduce without the need of permission. The window to the globe of science times.

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A view from space: Comet Neowise spotted after approaching the sun – CTV News

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OTTAWA —
Newly released video from NASA shows the comet Neowise as it jets through space after it approached the sun.

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe captured a view of the twin tails of the comet while on its mission to explore the sun’s atmosphere.

The comet was first discovered on March 25 by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. It was named after the mission that found it, C/2020 F3 Neowise.

“NASA’s Parker Solar Probe was at the right place at the right time to capture a unique view of comet NEOWISE on July 5, 2020. Parker Solar Probe’s position in space gave the spacecraft an unmatched view of the comet’s twin tails when it was particularly active just after its closest approach to the sun, called perihelion,” reads a statement on NASA’s website.

Since being identified, NASA’s Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, the ESA/NASA Solar, Heliospheric Observatory, and astronauts aboard the International Space Station have spotted the icy rock.

There’s been a number of sightings from Earth as well, as people have risen at the crack of dawn to catch a glimpse of the space spectacle before the comet fades into space as it travels further away from the sun.

“This very close passage by the sun is cooking the comet’s outermost layers, causing gas and dust to erupt off the icy surface and creating a large tail of debris. And yet the comet has managed to survive this intense roasting,” reads another article about the comet on NASA’s website.

Neowise is most visible in the morning sky right now – about an hour before sunrise – but as it continues to descend back into the outskirts of outer space, it will start to light up the Earth’s atmosphere shortly after sunset starting July 11 or 12.

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