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A novel coronavirus hits China – Chemical & Engineering News

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By the Numbers:

7818

People confirmed to be infected by the novel coronavirus

170

People who have died of novel coronavirus infection

19

Number of countries reporting novel coronavirus infections, including China

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Source: World Health Organization Jan. 30, 2020 situation report

A novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan City, China has sickened more than 7,800 people and killed 170 since scientists first discovered it in December. The virus has spread to 18 countries outside of China and in 4 of those countries—including the US—there have been cases of human-to-human transmission. On Thursday, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern in hopes of helping nations stop the spread of the virus.

As research teams worldwide race to characterize the virus, called 2019-nCoV and also known as the Wuhan coronavirus, governments have taken drastic action to contain its spread. The residents of Wuhan City have been quarantined. Airlines have canceled some flights in and out of China, and several countries, including the US, have imposed an isolation period for anyone returning from the affected region. On Friday, the US government decided to quarantine 195 people who were evacuated from Wuhan to the US.

Here is what we know—and don’t know—about 2019-nCoV.

Where did 2019-nCoV come from?

Coronaviruses are endemic to several species, and until 2019-nCoV popped up, there were five that could infect humans, says Tracey Goldstein, a wildlife infectious disease expert at the University of California, Davis. These spherical, 120–nm-wide viruses have an RNA genome that is relatively unstable, and mutates frequently.


Coronavirus infection

Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that typically enter human cells when their glycoproteins bind proteins on the cell surface. In the case of the virus that causes SARS, that human protein is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). At this time, scientists think the novel coronavirus is similar enough to SARS that its entry point is likely ACE2 as well.

Credit: Scientificanimations.com/C&EN/Shutterstock

Goldstein says that 2019-nCoV is similar to the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, so it’s likely that transmission of the Wuhan virus is similar. Bats are the original reservoir for these viruses. Mutations to the viral genome allow a virus to infect a secondary animal, further mutations enable it to infect humans, and possibly more mutations allow it to quickly spread from human to human. The intermediate animal in the spread of the SARS virus was a cat-like creature called the civet. Researchers are still trying to figure out what the intermediate animal is for the Wuhan virus.

This novel coronavirus is thought to have originated in a “wet” market in Wuhan City where live and dead animals are sold. Scientists report that live animals available at the market just before the outbreak included seafood, hedgehogs, badgers, snakes, and birds (bioRxiv 2020, DOI:10.1101/2020.01.24.919183). These animal markets are considered a hot spot for cross-species transmission of viruses.

“The danger of zoonotic transmission was clear, so I was not completely surprised by the outbreak,” says Rolf Hilgenfeld, a researcher at the University of Lubeck who is currently in China to develop small-molecule inhibitors for coronaviruses. “But the timing was not predictable, and the magnitude is surprising.”

SARS also made its zoonotic jump to people in a Chinese “wet” market. Peter Hotez, an infectious-diseases expert at Baylor College of Medicine, says that the Chinese government had an opportunity to prevent this outbreak. “After SARS happened, the government’s plan was to outlaw them, but clearly that law was not enforced,” he says.

Hilgenfeld says that the SARS coronavirus and 2019-nCoV are similar. The part of the glycoprotein that binds human cells on the Wuhan coronavirus appears to be identical to the binding site of the SARS coronavirus glycoprotein, he says. Hilgenfeld and others think that the Wuhan virus likely attaches to the same cell-surface molecule as the SARS virus does, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2 (bioRxiv 2020, DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.26.919985).


Mode of transmission

Bats harbor several coronaviruses, and some of these find their way to humans through an intermediate animal source. In the case of SARS, it was a cat called the civet. In the case of MERS, it was camels. Scientists are still trying to determine how the novel coronavirus jumped from animals to humans.

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Credit: C&EN/Shutterstock

What are the characteristics of the disease?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, coronaviruses, in general, cause respiratory illness, with fevers, runny noses, coughs, and sore throats. This new coronavirus appears to be no different. Disease severity for 2019-nCoV has been variable, with some people requiring hospitalization and others reporting mild symptoms.

The World Health Organization reported that the novel coronavirus’ R0, which is a number that describes a disease’s spread, is between 1.4 and 2.5, meaning every infected person will, on average, infect about two more people. A team of researchers in China calculated the R0 as between 2.24 and 3.58 (bioRxiv 2020, DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.23.916395v2). The R0 of seasonal flu is about 1.4, but varies. For measles, it’s between 12 and 18.

The Chinese government is reporting spread between humans who are not showing symptoms of the disease, so some virus carriers might be missed in these calculations.

Some infected people are being treated with interferon and a combination HIV drug called Kaletra (iopinavir and ritonavir) sold by AbbVie. Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences have published a list of drugs they say could work against the coronavirus’ main protease, including the antibiotic colistin, several antitumor drugs, and perphenazine, an antipsychotic. Knocking out the virus’s protease prevents it from successfully replicating. Hilgenfeld hopes to collaborate with local Chinese researchers to test his inhibitor of the coronavirus main protease inhibitor on cells in culture. This alpha-keto amide compound works against the SARS virus, so he thinks it will also work on the Wuhan coronavirus. He would still need to do clinical trials with the compound, so he has no illusions that his compound will be deployed during this outbreak.

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Secrets of 'SuperAgers' with superior memories into their 80s – Herald & Review

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Despite volunteering and working out at the gym several days each week, socializing frequently with friends and family, reading all manner of books and doing daily crossword puzzles, 85-year-old Carol Siegler is restless.



85-year-old Carol Seigler is a SuperAger




“I’m bored. I feel like a Corvette being used as a grocery cart,” said Siegler, who lives in the Chicago suburb of Palatine.

Siegler is a cognitive “SuperAger,” possessing a brain as sharp as people 20 to 30 years younger. She is part of an elite group enrolled in the Northwestern SuperAging Research Program, which has been studying the elderly with superior memories for 14 years. The program is part of the Mesulam Center for Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.

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“I’ve auditioned twice for ‘Jeopardy!’ and did well enough on it to be invited to the live auditions. Then Covid hit,” said Siegler.

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“Who knows how well I would have done,” she added with a chuckle. “What I have told my children and anybody else who asked me: ‘I may know an awful lot about Beethoven and Liszt, but I know very little about Beyoncé and Lizzo.'”

What is a SuperAger?

To be a SuperAger, a term coined by the Northwestern researchers, a person must be over 80 and undergo extensive cognitive testing. Acceptance in the study only occurs if the person’s memory is as good or better than cognitively normal people in their 50s and 60s.

“SuperAgers are required to have outstanding episodic memory — the ability to recall everyday events and past personal experiences — but then SuperAgers just need to have at least average performance on the other cognitive tests,” said cognitive neuroscientist Emily Rogalski, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Feinberg School of Medicine.

Only about 10% of people who apply to the program meet those criteria, said Rogalski, who developed the SuperAger project.

“It’s important to point out when we compare the SuperAgers to the average agers, they have similar levels of IQ, so the differences we’re seeing are not just due to intelligence,” she said.



Carol Seigler

SuperAger Carol Seigler is shown with her grandchildren (from left): Alex Siegler, 23; Elizabeth Siegler, 27; Carol Siegler, 85; Megan Boyle, 18; Conor Boyle, 17; Jacob Siegler, 29.




Once accepted, colorful 3D scans are taken of the brain and cognitive testing and brain scans are repeated every year or so. Analysis of the data over the years have yielded fascinating results.

Bigger, tau-free neurons

Most people’s brains shrink as they grow older. In SuperAgers, however, studies have shown the cortex, responsible for thinking, decision-making and memory, remains much thicker and shrinks more slowly than those of people in their 50s and 60s.

A SuperAger’s brain, usually donated to the research program by participants after death, also has bigger, healthier cells in the entorhinal cortex. It’s “one of the first areas of the brain to get ‘hit’ by Alzheimer’s disease,” said Tamar Gefen, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern, in an email.

The entorhinal cortex has direct connections to another key memory center, the hippocampus, and “is essential for memory and learning,” said Gefen, the lead author of a November study comparing the brains of deceased SuperAgers with those of older and younger cognitively normal people and people diagnosed with early Alzheimer’s.



Carol Seigler

Carol Seigler learned to read at a young age.




SuperAger brains had three times fewer tau tangles, or abnormal formations of protein within nerve cells, than the brains of cognitively healthy controls, the study also found. Tau tangles are a hallmark sign of Alzheimer’s and other dementias.

“We believe that larger neurons in the entorhinal cortex suggest that they are more ‘structurally sound’ and can perhaps withstand neurofibrillary tau tangle formation,” Gefen said.

Gefen also found the brains of SuperAgers had many more von economo neurons, a rare type of brain cell, which so far has been found in humans, great apes, elephants, whales, dolphins and songbirds. The corkscrew-like von economo neurons are thought to allow rapid communication across the brain. Another theory is that the neurons give humans and great apes an intuitive advantage in social situations.

The von economo neurons were found in the anterior cingulate cortex, which forms a collar in the front of the brain linking the cognitive, reasoning side with the emotional, feeling side. The anterior cingulate is thought to be important for regulating emotions and paying attention — another key to good memory.

Taken together, these discoveries appear to point to a genetic link to becoming a SuperAger, Gefen said. However, she added: “The only way to confirm whether SuperAgers are born with larger entorhinal neurons would be to measure these neurons from birth until death. That obviously isn’t possible.”

Can environment play a role?

SuperAgers share similar traits, said Rogalski, who is also the associate director of the Mesulam Center for Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer Disease at Feinberg. These folks stay active physically. They tend to be positive. They challenge their brain every day, reading or learning something new — many continue to work into their 80s. SuperAgers are also social butterflies, surrounded by family and friends, and can often be found volunteering in the community.

“When we compare SuperAgers to normal agers we see that they tend to endorse more positive relations with others,” Rogalski said.

“This social connectedness may be a feature of SuperAgers that distinguishes them from those who are still doing well but who are what we would call an average or normal ager,” she said.

Looking back at her life, Carol Siegler recognizes many SuperAger traits. As a young child during the Great Depression, she taught herself to spell and play piano. She learned to read Hebrew at her grandfather’s knee, poring over his weekly Yiddish newspaper.

“I have a great memory. I’ve always had it,” Siegler said. “I was always the kid that you could say, ‘Hey, what’s Sofia’s phone number?’ and I would just know it off the top of my head.”

She graduated from high school at 16 and immediately went to college. Siegler got her pilot’s license at age 23 and later started a family business in her basement that grew to have 100 employees. At 82, she won the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament for her age group, which she said she entered “as a gag.”

After seeing an advertisement for the SuperAger program on television, Siegler thought it too sounded like fun. Being chosen as a SuperAger was a thrill, Siegler said, but she is aware she was born lucky.

“Somebody with the same abilities or talents as a SuperAger who lived in a place where there was very little way to express them, might never know that he or she had them,” she said. “And that is a true shame.”

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Brain expert: The No. 1 thing that sets 'SuperAgers' apart from people with 'weak memory skills' – CNBC

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There is a group of people that longevity researchers call “SuperAgers,” who are in their 80s and beyond, but have the cognitive function of those decades younger.

Conversely, it’s possible for your brain to be older than your chronological age, which is what we want to avoid.

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As a neuroscience researcher and author of “The Age-Proof Brain,” I’ve found that it’s our behaviors, not just our genes, that have a powerful impact on our brain’s destiny.  

So what sets SuperAgers apart from people who have weak memory skills? According to a 2021 study that followed SuperAgers over the course of 18 months, one key differentiator was that they kept learning new things throughout their life.

SuperAgers learn something new every day

Think of the brain like a bank account. We make “deposits” — or new connections between our brain cells — by learning. Our memories are housed in these connections.

As we age, we naturally lose some of those connections. It’s like making a withdrawal every year. But the more deposits we make throughout our lives, the less our net worth is affected by these withdrawals.

One study found that adults with more years of education had more active frontal lobes when they took memory tests. Activity in the frontal lobe is associated with better memory.

But higher education isn’t the only way to maintain memory. In another study, even if individuals had lower levels of education, if they attended lectures, read, wrote and read often, they had memory scores on par with those with more education.

Which types of learning are best for brain health?

Keeping your brain healthy is not all about Sudoku, Wordle or crossword puzzles. Those can have cognitive benefits, but you are mostly exercising with the knowledge and skills you already have.

What does make significantly new connections in the brain is learning new skills and information. And the process should be challenging: SuperAgers embrace — and sometimes crave — that feeling of frustration when they learn something outside of their expertise.

‘Cross-train’ your brain

Approach learning the way you would with fitness training. You wouldn’t go to the gym and only work out your forearms. Eventually, you would look like Popeye.

The same goes for the brain. Learning a new language, for example, works out different parts of the brain than a new sport or instrument does.

You can cross-train your brain by mixing mental and physical learning activities. Get out your calendar and plan different types of activities using this plan:

  • Day 1: Learn something mentally stimulating, such as listening to a podcast or taking an online course.
  • Day 2:  Do something that requires learning through movement, such as a new sport, dance or yoga pose.
  • Day 3:  Be social. Grab coffee with a friend or go to a dinner party. Yes, social interaction is a form of learning that has been associated with staving off dementia.

No matter what it is, learning new things keeps your brain young. So if you discovered something you didn’t know before from reading this article, you’re already helping your brain age at a slower pace.

Marc Milstein, PhD, is a brain health expert and author of “The Age-Proof Brain: New Strategies to Improve Memory, Protect Immunity, and Fight Off Dementia.” He earned both his PhD in Biological Chemistry and his Bachelor of Science in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology from UCLA, and has conducted research on genetics, cancer biology and neuroscience. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram.

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Study Finds That Risk of Myocarditis After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination is Increased But Very Low – Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiology

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November 25, 2022 —  A large study found that myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was rare but higher in younger males, especially after the second mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine, suggesting that vaccine type, age and sex should be considered when vaccinating. The study is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) https://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.220676

“In this study, we found higher observed rates of myocarditis after receipt of mRNA vaccines than expected, but absolute rates were low,” writes Dr. Naveed Janjua, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia and the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, with coauthors. 

Researchers analyzed population health data from the BC COVID-19 Cohort, which included more than 10.2 million doses of mRNA vaccines administered to people aged 12 years and older from Dec. 15, 2020, to Mar. 10, 2022. Almost 7 million were BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) doses and 3.2 million were mRNA-1273 (Moderna) doses. The researchers identified people who were admitted to hospital or visited an emergency department because of myocarditis within 7 and 21 days of receiving the vaccine.  

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On average, the rate of myocarditis 21 days after vaccination was 1.37 per 100 000 people compared with an expected rate of 0.39 per 100 000 people not vaccinated. The highest rates of myocarditis were in males (rate: 2.15/100 000), among those aged 18–29 (rate: 2.97/100 00), after the second dose (rate: 2.27/100 000 doses) and in people vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna) (rate: 1.75/100 000). Among males aged 18–29 who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine, the rate was 22.9/100 000 doses. After the third dose, rates of myocarditis were lower, including among people aged 18–29. 

“The overall rates of myocarditis per 100 000 doses were still very low for both vaccine products,” write the authors. However, they state that their findings “… support the preferential use of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine over the mRNA-1273  (Moderna) vaccine for people aged 18–29 years.” 

A US analysis estimated that 11 000 COVID-19 cases, 560 hospital admissions, 138 ICU admissions and 6 deaths from COVID-19 could be prevented per million second doses of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administered to males aged 12–29 years, compared with 39–47 expected cases of myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. 

“[T]he benefits of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in reducing the severity of COVID-19, hospital admission and deaths far outweigh the risk of developing myocarditis. … Thus, continued vaccination of this group, along with monitoring of adverse events, including myocarditis, should remain the preferred strategy,” the authors conclude. 

For more information: https://www.cmaj.ca/ 

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