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As vaccines are rolled out, questions remain – msnNOW

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European countries are following the United States, Britain and a handful of other countries to begin rolling out coronavirus vaccines.






© MIGUEL RIOPA
A doctor shows a syringe at the Sao Joao Hospital in Porto, where the first batch of Covid-19 vaccine arrived on December 26, 2020, one day before the coronavirus vaccination program starts in Portugal

The rapid development and approval of drugs has been hailed the world over, questions remain about the availability, effectiveness and side effects of the jabs.

– How many vaccines? –

It usually takes roughly 10 years to develop and market a new vaccine, but the process was vastly accelerated for Covid-19.



a group of people in a room: Medical pesonnel in Nitra, Slovakia get ready for some the first people in the country to receive the novel coronavirus vaccine


© VLADIMIR SIMICEK
Medical pesonnel in Nitra, Slovakia get ready for some the first people in the country to receive the novel coronavirus vaccine

A vaccine developed by the American company Pfizer and the German company BioNTech was approved for use in Britain on December 2. Thousands of older people have since received the first dose.

A total of 16 countries and the European Union have given the green light to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

The US Food and Drug Administration granted emergency authorisations to the Pfizer-BioNTech drug and another jab from the American company Moderna. 



Workers at the Mexico City airport unload containers from an airplane carrying the second shipment of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for the country


© Pedro PARDO
Workers at the Mexico City airport unload containers from an airplane carrying the second shipment of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for the country

Russia began vaccinations on December 5 with its domestic drug Sputnik V, which is still in its third phase of clinical trials. China has already given the go-ahead for emergency use of some of their vaccines, even though none have yet been formally approved.

A total of 16 vaccines are in the final stage of development, including those already on the market, the World Health Organization says. 

– What is the EU’s roll-out timetable? ‘ –

Vaccinations can begin from Sunday following approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech jab by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

Each member country will take the lead in defining their priorities with the rollout.

But three member states — Germany, Hungary and Slovakia — started vaccinations a day early on Saturday. 

– Which vaccine is most effective? –



a person standing in a room: Doctor Adrienne Kertesz receives the first vaccination against the novel coronavirus at the South Pest Central Hospital in Budapest, Hungary


© Szilard KOSZTICSAK
Doctor Adrienne Kertesz receives the first vaccination against the novel coronavirus at the South Pest Central Hospital in Budapest, Hungary

Since 9 November, four manufacturers have announced that their vaccine is effective: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, the British alliance AstraZeneca-University of Oxford and the Russian state institute Gamaleia.

Gallery: Early rounds of COVID-19 vaccine administered in UK hospitals (USA TODAY)

These announcements are based on phase 3 clinical trials that involve tens of thousands of volunteers. 

However, detailed and validated data are available only for the Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca-Oxford drugs.

The scientific journal The Lancet confirmed on December 8 that AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 70 percent effective on average. 

The FDA confirmed the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine at 95 percent efficacy with Moderna claiming 94.1 percent for its drug. Russia claims a 91.4 percent efficacy for its Sputnik V vaccine.

The AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine is the least expensive at around €2.50 per dose). The vaccines from Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech have a logistical handicap, as they can only be stored over the long term at very low temperatures (-20° Celsius for the former, -70°C for the latter).  



a close up of a person wearing a costume: A Spanish Health Ministry official holds one of the first doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine in warehouse in Guadalajara after arriving from Belgium and prior to being distributed to other Spanish regions


© Jose Maria Cuadrado Jimenez
A Spanish Health Ministry official holds one of the first doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine in warehouse in Guadalajara after arriving from Belgium and prior to being distributed to other Spanish regions

– What are the side effects? –

Experts insist that with clinical trials carried out on tens of thousands of volunteers, any major risk would have already been detected. But rarer side effects, or those affecting specific patient profiles, cannot be ruled out. 

According to the FDA, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine can result in painful reactions on the arm where the injection is made. Other undesirable side effects include fatigue, headaches, cramps and, more rarely, fever. 



a screenshot of a cell phone: This is the temperature on the freezer where the first shipment of Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccines were kept at the AP-HP central pharmacy outside Paris


© STEPHANE DE SAKUTIN
This is the temperature on the freezer where the first shipment of Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccines were kept at the AP-HP central pharmacy outside Paris

– Further outstanding issues – 

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The most important is the long-term efficacy. 

Penny Ward of King’s College in London said key questions were how long would protection last and could the virus eventually mutate and no longer be covered by the vaccine? 

Another crucial question is whether the vaccines act differently in populations most at risk, starting with elderly people who are more likely to develop a serious form of Covid-19. 

It also remains to be seen whether these vaccines block the transmission of the virus, and also reduce the severity of the disease in those who have received the jab. 

– Is the vaccine less effect against the new strain? –

European Union experts believe that the current vaccines against Covid-19 remain effective against the new strain of the virus detected in Britain and elsewhere, which is thought to be more infectious. 

“At the moment there is no evidence to suggest” that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine “is not effective against the new variant”, the European Medicines Agency said. 

Co-director of the German laboratory BioNTech, Ugur Sahin, echoed that message, adding that his company would in any case be in a position to provide a vaccine for a new strain of Covid-19 within six weeks.

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Biden’s vaccine pledge ups pressure on rich countries to give more

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The United States on Thursday raised the pressure on other Group of Seven leaders to share their vaccine hoards to bring an end to the pandemic by pledging to donate 500 million doses of the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine to the world’s poorest countries.

The largest ever vaccine donation by a single country will cost the United States $3.5 billion but Washington expects no quid pro quo or favours for the gift, a senior Biden administration official told reporters.

U.S. President Joe Biden‘s move, on the eve of a summit of the world’s richest democracies, is likely to prompt other leaders to stump up more vaccines, though even vast numbers of vaccines would still not be enough to inoculate all of the world’s poor.

G7 leaders want to vaccinate the world by the end of 2022 to try to halt the COVID-19 pandemic that has killed more than 3.9 million people and devastated the global economy.

A senior Biden administration official described the gesture as a “major step forward that will supercharge the global effort” with the aim of “bringing hope to every corner of the world.” “We really want to underscore that this is fundamentally about a singular objective of saving lives,” the official said, adding that Washington was not seeking favours in exchange for the doses.

Vaccination efforts so far are heavily correlated with wealth: the United States, Europe, Israel and Bahrain are far ahead of other countries. A total of 2.2 billion people have been vaccinated so far out of a world population of nearly 8 billion, based on Johns Hopkins University data.

U.S. drugmaker Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech have agreed to supply the U.S. with the vaccines, delivering 200 million doses in 2021 and 300 million doses in the first half of 2022.

The shots, which will be produced at Pfizer’s U.S. sites, will be supplied at a not-for-profit price.

“Our partnership with the U.S. government will help bring hundreds of millions of doses of our vaccine to the poorest countries around the world as quickly as possible,” said Pfizer Chief Executive Albert Bourla.

‘DROP IN THE BUCKET’

Anti-poverty campaign group Oxfam called for more to be done to increase global production of vaccines.

“Surely, these 500 million vaccine doses are welcome as they will help more than 250 million people, but that’s still a drop in the bucket compared to the need across the world,” said Niko Lusiani, Oxfam America’s vaccine lead.

“We need a transformation toward more distributed vaccine manufacturing so that qualified producers worldwide can produce billions more low-cost doses on their own terms, without intellectual property constraints,” he said in a statement.

Another issue, especially in some poor countries, is the infrastructure for transporting the vaccines which often have to be stored at very cold temperatures.

Biden has also backed calls for a waiver of some vaccine intellectual property rights but there is no international consensus yet on how to proceed.

The new vaccine donations come on top of 80 million doses Washington has already pledged to donate by the end of June. There is also $2 billion in funding earmarked for the COVAX programme led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the White House said.

GAVI and the WHO welcomed the initiative.

Washington is also taking steps to support local production of COVID-19 vaccines in other countries, including through its Quad initiative with Japan, India and Australia.

(Reporting by Steve Holland in St. Ives, England, Andrea Shalal in Washington and Caroline Copley in Berlin; Writing by Guy Faulconbridge and Keith Weir;Editing by Leslie Adler, David Evans, Emelia Sithole-Matarise, Giles Elgood and Jane Merriman)

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Vaccines donated by the United States and China

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Both the United States and China have pledged large donations of COVID-19 vaccines to countries around the world. Washington has promised 80 million doses, three-quarters of which will be delivered via the international vaccine initiative COVAX, in what has been seen as an effort to counter China’s widening vaccine diplomacy. It began deliveries last week.

China had shipped vaccines to 66 countries in the form of aid, according to state news agency Xinhua. Beijing has not disclosed an overall figure for its donations but Reuters calculations based on publicly available data show at least 16.57 million doses have been delivered. China has also pledged to supply 10 million doses to COVAX.

VACCINES DONATED BY U.S. (plan for the first 25 mln):

Regional partners and priority recipients

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Including Canada, Mexico, 1 mln to S.Korea in June

South Korea, West Bank and

Gaza, Ukraine, Kosovo,

Haiti, Georgia, Egypt,

Jordan, India, Iraq, Yemen,

United Nations

TOTAL 6 mln 1 mln

Allocations through COVAX

South and Central America

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Brazil, Argentina, Colombia,

Costa Rica, Peru, Ecuador,

Paraguay, Bolivia,

Guatemala, El Salvador,

Honduras, Panama, Haiti,

Dominican Republic and other

Caribbean Community

(CARICOM) countries

TOTAL 6 mln

Asia

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

India, Nepal, Bangladesh,

Pakistan, Sri Lanka,

Afghanistan, Maldives,

Malaysia, Philippines,

Vietnam, Indonesia,

Thailand, Laos, Papua New

Guinea, Taiwan, and the

Pacific Islands

TOTAL 7 mln

Africa

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

To be selected in

coordination with the

African Union

TOTAL 5 mln

VACCINES DONATED BY CHINA (source – Reuters calculations and official data):

Asia Pacific

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Afghanistan 400,000

Bangladesh Second batch of First batch of 500,000 delivered

600,000 on May 12

Brunei 52,000 in Feb

Cambodia 1.7 mln as of April 28

Kyrgyzstan 150,000 in March

Laos 300,000 in Feb

800,000 in late March

300,000 in late April

Maldives 200,000 in early March

Mongolia 300,000 in late February

Myanmar 500,000 in early May

Nepal 800,000 in late March

1 mln in early June

Pakistan 500,000 in early Feb

250,000 in Feb

500,000 in March

Philippines 600,000 in late Feb

400,000 in late March

Sri Lanka 600,000 at end March

500,000 in late May

Thailand 500,000 in May

500,000 in June

Timor-Leste 100,000 100,000 in early June

TOTAL 11.052 million

Africa

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Angola 200,000 in late March

Algeria 200,000 200,000 in Feb

Botswana 200,000 in April

Cameroon 200,000 in April

Congo 100,000 100,000 in March

Egypt 600,000 in March

Ethiopia 300,000 in late March

Equatorial Guinea 100,000 in Feb

Guinea 200,000 in early March

Mozambique 200,000 in late Feb

Namibia 100,000 by early April

Niger 400,000 in late March

Sierra Leone 240,000 by late May

Togo 200,000 in April

Uganda 300,000

Zimbabwe 200,000 in Feb

200,000 in March

100,000 in May

TOTAL 3.74 million

South America

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Bolivia 100,000 in late Feb

100,000 in late March

Venezuela 500,000 in early March

TOTAL 700,000

Europe & Middle East

COUNTRY/TERRITORY PLEDGED DELIVERED

Belarus 100,000 in Feb

300,000 in May

Georgia 100,000 at end April

Iran 250,000 at end February

Iraq 50,000 in early March

Montenegro 30,000 in early March

North Macedonia 100,000 in May

Syria 150,000 in late April

TOTAL 1.08 million

 

(Reporting by Roxanne Liu and Ryan Woo in Beijing and Cooper Inveen in Dakar; Additional reporting by MacDonald Dzirutwe in Harare, Asif Shahzad in Islamabad, Gopal Sharma in Kathmandu; Editing by Edwina Gibbs)

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Coronavirus Worldwide right now

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Here’s what you need to know about the coronavirus now:

Australia’s Melbourne to exit lockdown

Australia’s second largest city Melbourne will exit a hard lockdown as planned on Thursday night, Victoria state authorities said, although some restrictions on travel and gatherings would likely remain for another week.

After two weeks in a strict lockdown that forced people to remain at home except for essential business, Melbourne’s five million residents will get more freedom to step outside from 11:59 p.m. local time (1359 GMT) on Thursday.

However, people must stay within 25 km (15 miles) of their homes, officials said, in an effort to stop transmission during an upcoming long weekend. There will also be a total ban on house gatherings and masks will be mandatory indoors.

Deliveries of Thai-made AstraZeneca vaccines delayed

Malaysia and Taiwan are expecting deliveries of AstraZeneca vaccines manufactured in Thailand to be delayed, officials said, the latest countries to report a holdup with orders from the Thai plant.

The delay comes amid concerns over AstraZeneca’s distribution plans in Southeast Asia, which depends on 200 million doses made by Siam Bioscience, a company owned by Thailand’s king that is making vaccines for the first time.

Any questions about Siam Bioscience meeting production targets are sensitive because King Maha Vajiralongkorn is its sole owner. Insulting Thailand’s monarchy is a crime punishable by up to 15 years in prison.

Indonesia aims to speed up vaccinations

President Joko Widodo said on Wednesday he hoped Indonesia’s vaccination rollout will hit one million shots a day by July, as authorities opened up inoculations to anyone aged over 18 in Jakarta to contain increased transmission in the capital.

Health officials in the world’s fourth most populous country, which aims to vaccinate 181.5 million people by next year, are trying to speed up the rollout after facing some supply issues.

The president said he wanted vaccinations to hit a targeted 700,000 doses a day this month and then rise again.

Singapore finds Delta most prevalent among variants

Singapore has found the Delta variant of the coronavirus to be the most prevalent among local cases of variants of concern (VOCs), according to health ministry data, highlighting its level of infectiousness.

There were 449 local cases with VOCs as of May 31, of which 428 were the Delta variant first detected in India and nine of the Beta variant first identified in South Africa.

Singapore reported its 34th death due to COVID-19, taking its toll from the pandemic beyond the 33 casualties recorded during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak.

U.S. forming expert groups on lifting travel restrictions

The Biden administration is forming expert working groups with Canada, Mexico, the European Union and the United Kingdom to determine how best to safely restart travel after 15 months of pandemic restrictions, a White House official said on Tuesday.

Another U.S. official said the administration will not move quickly to lift orders that bar people from much of the world from entering the United States because of the time it will take for the groups to do their work.

The groups will be led by the White House COVID Response Team and the National Security Council and include the Centers for Disease Control and other U.S. agencies.

 

(Compiled by Linda Noakes; Editing by Giles Elgood)

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