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AstraZeneca’s deals to produce and supply its COVID-19 vaccine

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AstraZeneca signed a deal on Wednesday in Japan to produce the COVID-19 vaccine, Vaxzevria, that it developed with Oxford University.

AstraZeneca has signed manufacturing deals with at least 20 firms for distribution worldwide.

Here are the deals it has signed, with the most recent first:

SUPPLY DEALS

REGION/GROUP DOSES FUNDING EXPECTED FURTHER

DELIVERIES

4 Last

Mexico, million Undisclosed week of May 2021

Argentina

 

African Afreximbank had [nL1N2M10IP]

Union Dropped plans to earlier planned Ongoing

secure the to provide

vaccines for advance

members from the procurement

Serum Institute of commitment

India to avoid guarantees of

duplicating up to $2

efforts by COVAX. billion to the

manufacturers

 

COVAX

aims to deliver

600 million shots

 

 

Bahrain Undisclosed Undisclosed Received first

delivery from

Serum in January

Japan Will procure 120 Undisclosed Undisclosed

million doses from

domestic makers

Chile Had a pre-deal to Undisclosed Undisclosed

purchase 14.4

million doses but

eventually signed

to buy 4 million

Saudi Arabia 3 Undisclosed

million from Serum January 2021

 

Ecuador Allocated some Mass vaccination

Approximately 5 $200 million started in March

million overall to buy

vaccines

Germany 3 million doses Undisclosed In February

Mali Wants to buy more Over 31 billion At the end of

than 8.4 million CFA francs with March

doses financial

assistance from

GAVI

Morocco 2 million Undisclosed Received in

January

Bolivia 5 million from Undisclosed 228,000 doses

Serum arrived in March

India 110 To be

million from Serum Federal govt delivered in May,

Institute as of received doses June and July

Apr 28, according at 150 Indian

to govt rupees per dose

 

Kenya 24 million Undisclosed

Arrived in second

week of February

Peru 14 million Undisclosed Supply not due to

begin arriving

until September

Vietnam 30 million Undisclosed Unknown

Indonesia 50 million Undisclosed One

batch arrived in

April 2021

 

Malaysia 6.4 million Undisclosed Unknown

Colombia 10 million Undisclosed Unknown

Philippines 17 million, Undisclosed Due to

including a receive 2.6 mln

private sector shots in May;

agreement for 2.6 received 525,600

million doses through

COVAX

 

Thailand Previously First batch

Initially 26 approved budget expected to be {nL4N2IC2R6]

million doses, of 6 billion available in

addition under baht ($199 mid-2021 ?Status

further agreement million)

unknown

 

Bangladesh 30 million from Undisclosed

Serum Received over 9

mln doses from

Serum earlier; in

March, India gifts

1.2 mln free doses

 

Spain 31.6 million under Undisclosed Between Dec. 2020

European Union and June 2021

scheme

Switzerland 5.3 million Undisclosed Unknown

Canada Up to 20 million Undisclosed Unknown

doses

Australia “Enough” for Undisclosed Unknown

population of 25

million, free of

cost

European 300 million, 750 million Some

Union option of euros for 300 by end-2020

additional 100 million doses

million dropped

after delays

Latin Initially produce Estimated at First half 2021

America, 150 million doses, $600 million

excluding and eventually for the first

Brazil make at least 400 150 million

million doses

Japan 120 million doses Undisclosed 30 million doses

by March 2021

China Undisclosed Some

Private deal aimed by end-2020

for annual

production

capacity of at

least 100 million

doses in 2020, and

at least 200

million doses by

the end 2021

South Korea 20 million Undisclosed First

shipment was in

February

 

Russia Unknown Undisclosed Unknown

Israel Unknown Undisclosed Unknown

Brazil Initially receive $356 million Unknown

100 million doses

Serum One billion Undisclosed 400 million before

Institute of end-2020 were

India expected

previously

Epidemic 300 million $750 million, Some before end-

response with $383 from 2020

group CEPI CEPI

and Vaccine

alliance

GAVI

United 300 million $1.2 billion Was earlier

States expected by Oct.

2020

United 100 million 84 million 4 million in 2020.

Kingdom pounds Earlier about 30

million doses were

expected with

initial deliveries

by Sept/Oct. 2020.

MANUFACTURING DEALS

FIRM BASED IN DEAL VALUE FOR FURTHER

Filling the

Nipro Corp Japan Undisclosed shot into vials and

packaging it, due to

start in June 2021

 

Preparing

KM Biologics, Japan Undisclosed and bottling doses

part of Meiji

holdings

 

IDT Biologika Germany Undisclosed Contract manufacturing

expected to speed up

output of finished

COVID-19 vaccine in the

second quarter

CSL Ltd Australia Undisclosed Additional 20 million

requested by Australian

government,

approximately 30

million doses already

being manufactured

Halix B.V. Netherlands Undisclosed Commercial manufacture

of the vaccine

Siam Thailand Undisclosed Manufacture and supply

Bioscience, the vaccine in Thailand

SCG and other nations in

Southeast Asia

Albany U.S. Undisclosed Produce millions of

Molecular doses through finishing

Research services at

manufacturing plant in

Albuquerque, New Mexico

Oxford UK 15 million Unknown number of doses

Biomedica pounds to for large-scale

reserve commercial manufacture

manufacturin under expanded deal. In

g capacity, May, company said AZ

further 35 commissioned more

million batches from it for H2

pounds plus 2021

costs

payable in

certain

situations

Catalent U.S. Undisclosed Making the drug

substance at its

Maryland facility. AZ’s

second deal with firm

Foundation of Mexico Undisclosed Latin American supply

Mexican with Argentina,

billionaire excluding Brazil, could

Carlos Slim reach 250 million

mAbxience of Argentina Undisclosed Initially producing 150

the INSUD million doses for Latin

Group America, excluding

Brazil

Kangtai Bio China Undisclosed Aimed for

Annual production

capacity of at least

100 million doses in

2020, and at least 200

million doses by

end-2021

Emergent U.S. $174 million Undisclosed doses in

BioSolutions second deal with AZ.

Cut manufacturing for

AZ vaccine at its

Baltimore plant in

April

SK Bioscience South Korea Undisclosed Undiluted solutions of

the vaccine until early

2021

R-Pharm Russia Undisclosed Unknown doses

Daiichi Japan Undisclosed Unknown doses

Sankyo

Fundação Brazil $127 million About 30 million doses

Osvaldo Cruz

(Fiocruz)

Symbiosis Scotland Undisclosed Clinical trial supply

Pharmaceutica

l

Cobra U.S. Undisclosed One million doses per

Biosciences month

Catalent U.S. Undisclosed Vial filling and

packaging capacity at

its manufacturing

facility in Anagni,

Italy

Emergent U.S. $87 million 300 million doses

BioSolutions

Serum India Undisclosed One billion doses for

Institute of low and middle-income

India countries. 400 million

before end-2020 were

expected previously

Oxford UK Undisclosed Manufacturing unknown

Biomedica number of doses

Sources: Company statements, Government reports, WHO, Reuters reporting

 

(Reporting by Pushkala Aripaka and Vishwadha Chander in Bengaluru; Editing by Jason Neely and Clarence Fernandez)

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What is the Delta variant of coronavirus with K417N mutation?

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 India said on Wednesday it has found around 40 cases of the Delta coronavirus variant carrying a mutation that appears to make it more transmissible, and advised states to increase testing.

Below is what we know about the variant.

WHAT IS DELTA PLUS?

The variant, called “Delta Plus” in India, was first reported in a Public Health England bulletin on June 11.

It is a sub-lineage of the Delta variant first detected in India and has acquired the spike protein mutation called K417N which is also found in the Beta variant first identified in South Africa.

Some scientists worry that the mutation, coupled with other existing features of the Delta variant, could make it more transmissible.

“The mutation K417N has been of interest as it is present in the Beta variant (B.1.351 lineage), which was reported to have immune evasion property,” India’s health ministry said in a statement.

Shahid Jameel, a top Indian virologist, said the K417N was known to reduce the effectiveness of a cocktail of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

WHERE ALL IT HAS BEEN FOUND?

As of June 16 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/994839/Variants_of_Concern_VOC_Technical_Briefing_16.pdf, at least 197 cases has been found from 11 countries – Britain (36), Canada (1), India (8), Japan (15), Nepal (3), Poland (9), Portugal (22), Russia (1), Switzerland (18), Turkey (1), the United States (83).

India said on Wednesday around 40 cases of the variant have been observed in the states of Maharashtra, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, with “no significant increase in prevalence”. The earliest case in India is from a sample taken on April 5.

Britain said its first 5 cases were sequenced on April 26 and they were contacts of individuals who had travelled from, or transited through, Nepal and Turkey.

No deaths were reported among the UK and Indian cases.

WHAT ARE THE WORRIES?

Studies are ongoing in India and globally to test the effectiveness of vaccines against this mutation.

“WHO is tracking this variant as part of the Delta variant, as we are doing for other Variants of Concern with additional mutations,” the World Health Organization (WHO) said in a statement sent to Reuters.

“For the moment, this variant does not seem to be common, currently accounting for only a small fraction of the Delta sequences … Delta and other circulating Variants of Concern remain a higher public health risk as they have demonstrated increases in transmission,” it said.

But India’s health ministry warned that regions where it has been found “may need to enhance their public health response by focusing on surveillance, enhanced testing, quick contact-tracing and priority vaccination.”

There are worries Delta Plus would inflict another wave of infections on India after it emerged from the world’s worst surge in cases only recently.

“The mutation itself may not lead to a third wave in India – that also depends on COVID-appropriate behaviour, but it could be one of the reasons,” said Tarun Bhatnagar, a scientist with the state-run Indian Council for Medical Research.

(Reporting by Shilpa Jamkhandikar in Pune, Bhargav Acharya and Ankur Banerjee in Bengaluru and Alistair Smout in London; Editing by Miyoung Kim and Giles Elgood)

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Colon Cancer Rates Have Increased: How Can You Improve Your Gut Health?

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The majority of colon cancer cases are more common among older citizens. However, research has found that colorectal cancer rates have been rising in healthy people under 50. The rate has increased over the ten years. Medical professionals recommend screening from age 45. A colorectal screening test is done to ensure that the individual does not have any signs of cancer.

A study found that there has been a surge in colorectal cancer in younger generations and could become the dominant cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Since the risk is alarming, everyone needs to take their gut health seriously. Here are some things that people can do to improve their well-being.

Consider Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is a type of colon cleanse that treats digestive issues such as constipation and bloating. Chronic constipation can lead to colon cancer, so it is vital to deal with the issue before it worsens. Colon hydrotherapy is offered at a few places, including a wellness colonic clinic in Toronto where the staff is committed to providing solutions for their clients’ digestive health.

Cleansing your colon can help improve digestion, relieve constipation, reduce gas, rejuvenate skin, and increase energy. The process involves flushing the colon with a large volume of water. It can be beneficial to speak to the professionals at the clinic and discuss your concerns with them. They will educate you about the process and answer any concerns you may have. The treatment can seem overwhelming but can also be helpful for your gut health.

 

Consume Sensibly

Your food intake plays a significant role in your gut health. If you have gut problems, it may be worthwhile to speak to a doctor and change your diet. You should also consider finding out if you have any food intolerance. There may be trigger foods such as oil or dairy that could be causing discomfort.

Even if you do not have any problems with your food consumption, it is never wrong to watch what you eat. Foods with probiotics or high fibre content can be good for you. Eating the right foods can improve your overall health too.

Stay Hydrated

Water almost seems like a magical drink sometimes. From skin problems to digestive issues, it can improve many situations. Consuming a good amount of water every day can balance good bacteria in the gut and promote your health. Hydration can also help your organs function properly and improve cognitive function.

Say Goodbye to Extreme Stress

It can be challenging to bid farewell to stress forever. However, chronic high levels of stress can impact your abdomen and your overall health. There is a connection between the brain and gut, and stress can cause your stomach to become anxious.

Long-term stress can trigger several gut problems such as indigestion, constipation, or diarrhea. Look for ways to reduce stress levels so that your gut can remain healthy.

Some health problems are inevitable with age, but you can do your best to stay healthy and deal with any issues you face. Prepare yourself to fight any disease beforehand, and your body will thank you.

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Biden’s vaccine pledge ups pressure on rich countries to give more

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The United States on Thursday raised the pressure on other Group of Seven leaders to share their vaccine hoards to bring an end to the pandemic by pledging to donate 500 million doses of the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine to the world’s poorest countries.

The largest ever vaccine donation by a single country will cost the United States $3.5 billion but Washington expects no quid pro quo or favours for the gift, a senior Biden administration official told reporters.

U.S. President Joe Biden‘s move, on the eve of a summit of the world’s richest democracies, is likely to prompt other leaders to stump up more vaccines, though even vast numbers of vaccines would still not be enough to inoculate all of the world’s poor.

G7 leaders want to vaccinate the world by the end of 2022 to try to halt the COVID-19 pandemic that has killed more than 3.9 million people and devastated the global economy.

A senior Biden administration official described the gesture as a “major step forward that will supercharge the global effort” with the aim of “bringing hope to every corner of the world.” “We really want to underscore that this is fundamentally about a singular objective of saving lives,” the official said, adding that Washington was not seeking favours in exchange for the doses.

Vaccination efforts so far are heavily correlated with wealth: the United States, Europe, Israel and Bahrain are far ahead of other countries. A total of 2.2 billion people have been vaccinated so far out of a world population of nearly 8 billion, based on Johns Hopkins University data.

U.S. drugmaker Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech have agreed to supply the U.S. with the vaccines, delivering 200 million doses in 2021 and 300 million doses in the first half of 2022.

The shots, which will be produced at Pfizer’s U.S. sites, will be supplied at a not-for-profit price.

“Our partnership with the U.S. government will help bring hundreds of millions of doses of our vaccine to the poorest countries around the world as quickly as possible,” said Pfizer Chief Executive Albert Bourla.

‘DROP IN THE BUCKET’

Anti-poverty campaign group Oxfam called for more to be done to increase global production of vaccines.

“Surely, these 500 million vaccine doses are welcome as they will help more than 250 million people, but that’s still a drop in the bucket compared to the need across the world,” said Niko Lusiani, Oxfam America’s vaccine lead.

“We need a transformation toward more distributed vaccine manufacturing so that qualified producers worldwide can produce billions more low-cost doses on their own terms, without intellectual property constraints,” he said in a statement.

Another issue, especially in some poor countries, is the infrastructure for transporting the vaccines which often have to be stored at very cold temperatures.

Biden has also backed calls for a waiver of some vaccine intellectual property rights but there is no international consensus yet on how to proceed.

The new vaccine donations come on top of 80 million doses Washington has already pledged to donate by the end of June. There is also $2 billion in funding earmarked for the COVAX programme led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the White House said.

GAVI and the WHO welcomed the initiative.

Washington is also taking steps to support local production of COVID-19 vaccines in other countries, including through its Quad initiative with Japan, India and Australia.

(Reporting by Steve Holland in St. Ives, England, Andrea Shalal in Washington and Caroline Copley in Berlin; Writing by Guy Faulconbridge and Keith Weir;Editing by Leslie Adler, David Evans, Emelia Sithole-Matarise, Giles Elgood and Jane Merriman)

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