Nestled deep in the forest in the Eastern Townships, perched on the side of a mountain, there’s a 184-seat Roman-style amphitheatre, where dozens of people have waited for the sun to set and for total darkness to arrive, to don specially-made augmented reality headsets, and stare into the night sky.
Au Diable Vert, an outdoor recreation outfitter in the Sutton mountain range, has developed the world’s first augmented reality planetarium experience, called Observétoiles.
The headsets — made of cardboard, with straps to keep them secure, and outfitted with a smartphone and special app — allow people to look up at the sky and identify the stars, planets and constellations.
Observétoiles’s hour-long presentation by an astronomer takes participants on a tour of the solar system, before identifying the dozens of constellations and talking about their Indigenous, Asian, and Greco-Roman histories.
The app and headset superimpose faint images, the original 17th century illustrations of 88 constellations, over the real stars in the sky, depending on where you face.
And the amphitheatre has heated seats.
“It’s pretty amazing,” said Au Diable Vert owner Jeremy Fontana, whose idea it was to capitalize on the near-total darkness on the mountain, where he says stargazing has always been spectacular.
“You know one of the best things about being at Au Diable Vert is the location,” he said, pointing across the valley at Jay Peak, just a few kilometres away as the crow flies, in Vermont.
“You’ll see as the sun goes down, there is not one single light, there’s not even one light bulb, which is not so unusual in Quebec, but it’s very unusual an hour and a half from Montreal, and an hour from Sherbrooke,” he said. “That’s one of the most compelling things about the site.”
Years of research, a dozen ideas
Before there was Observétoiles, Fontana said he bounced around several ideas for how to get the best outdoor planetarium experience.
He said when he bought the place 15 years ago, visitors would tell him about the shooting stars and satellites they’d seen, not to mention Jupiter and Saturn.
Fontana decided to try using a telescope.
“There are some things you can see with a small telescope,” he said, but it had its challenges, since guests would often bump the telescopes, which would then have to be reset.
“The moon looks cool, you can often see the rings around Saturn, you can see quasars, which just kind of look like dust on the lens, so I said to my wife that there has to be a better way.”
Fontana imagined creating heated boxes for people to sit and stargaze during the winter, or a massive glamping dome big enough for everyone to sit inside and look up, or even projecting the images of the constellations onto the sky using a giant laser. But none of the ideas were perfect.
The business owner then thought of augmented reality.
He travelled to a conference to find the perfect headset, and purchased 10,000 of them from a kickstarter in the Netherlands that adapted the product to Fontana’s needs — namely being able to use it at night.
“As you look at the sky, the image of the constellation appears where it should be right over those real stars, and as you move around, the constellations change,” he explained.
“And if you look down at the ground, you actually see the constellations that are in Australia, which is super weird and super fun,” he said. “The phone doesn’t really know, it just knows that if you look that way, those are the stars and the constellations.”
Fontana later contacted National Geographic, which got on board with the project, and he worked with the municipality of Sutton to use narrower beam LED lights in town to reduce light pollution, and Au Diable Vert became a dark sky preservation zone.
“It’s been a big adventure,” Fontana said.
From the amphitheatre, people can see dozens of satellites, and on most nights, the Milky Way shines bright and looks almost 3D.
“It really is an astoundingly dark sky, which is amazing,” Fontana said.
Participants Eric Fournier and Andreane Asselin said they heard about Observétoiles online and decided to stay at Au Diable Vert for a few nights.
“The stars showed up,” Fournier said.
“It was better [than expected],” he said. “It was really the presentation that made a big difference.”
Finding the right staff
Fournier said an unexpected hurdle was finding astronomers who would be willing to give the presentations.
“I posted it, and I thought I was going to be flooded, but I was having a very hard time,” he said, explaining he tried to recruit staff at university space programs.
“I spoke to someone who told me astronomers don’t know anything about stars and constellations,” he said.
“They study quasars, and black holes and the time continuum, and they study them in super detail, and just because they’re working in the sky all the time doesn’t mean they know the history of the constellations and the First Nations and the stories.”
Once the technology was up and running, Fontana said he was lucky to find amateur astronomers who knew all about the planets and the constellations, and they were able to put a presentation together.
“Once you do something a couple times even as a guest, once you use the headset a few times, you know when you’re in your backyard at 9 or 10 o’clock, you’ll be able to see those constellations without the headset, so it’s really a learning activity, edu-tainment, if you will,” Fontana said.
“It’s been satisfying to see it come together, and it’s fun to have something local be recognized in so many other places,” he added.
Sophie Chagnon has been working at Au Diable Vert for the better part of a decade, first as a summer student, and then full time during the summers.
“It’s been really exciting and quite interesting to learn about the stars I’ve seen my whole life,” she said.
Chagnon said every year there’s a new fact she learns that sticks with her, such as the days of the week being named after the planets in our solar system.
Fontana said the team’s been fortunate that Observétoiles is in many ways a post-COVID-19 idea, where participants can be distanced and outside in the fresh air.
Hot and dry: SPIRou reveals the atmosphere of hot Jupiter Tau Boötis b – News | Institute for Research on Exoplanets
Measuring the composition of the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter Tau Boötis b more precisely than ever, an iREx-led team of astronomers provides a better understanding of giant exoplanets.
Using the SPIRou spectropolarimeter on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii, a team led by Stefan Pelletier, a PhD student at Université de Montréal’s Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx), studied the atmosphere of the gas giant exoplanet Tau Boötis b, a scorching hot world that takes a mere three days to orbit its host star.
Their detailed analysis, presented in a paper published today in the Astronomical Journal, shows that the atmosphere of the gaseous planet contains carbon monoxide, as expected, but surprisingly no water, a molecule that was thought to be prevalent and should have been easily detectable with SPIRou.
Tau Boötis b is a planet that is 6.24 times more massive than Jupiter and eight times closer to its parent star than Mercury is to the Sun. Located only 51 light-years from Earth and 40 per cent more massive than the Sun, its star, Tau Boötis, is one of the brightest known planet-bearing stars, and is visible to the naked eye in the Boötes constellation.
Tau Boötis b was one of the first exoplanets ever discovered, in 1996, thanks to the radial velocity method, which detects the slight back-and-forth motion of a star generated by the gravitational tug of its planet. Its atmosphere had been studied a handful of times before, but never with an instrument as powerful as SPIRou to reveal its molecular content.
Searching for water
Assuming Tau Boötis b formed in a protoplanetary disk with a composition similar to that of our Solar System, models show that water vapour should be present in large quantities in its atmosphere. It should thus have been easy to detect with an instrument such as SPIRou.
“We expected a strong detection of water, with maybe a little carbon monoxide,” explained Pelletier. “We were, however, surprised to find the opposite: carbon monoxide, but no water.”
The team worked hard to make sure the results could not be attributed to problems with the instrument or the analysis of the data.
“Once we convinced ourselves the content of water was indeed much lower than expected on Tau Boötis b, we were able to start searching for formation mechanisms that could explain this,” said Pelletier.
Studying hot Jupiters to better understand Jupiter and Saturn
“Hot Jupiters like Tau Boötis b offer an unprecedented opportunity to probe giant planet formation”, said co-author Björn Benneke, an astrophysics professor and Pelletier’s PhD supervisor at UdeM. “The composition of the planet gives clues as to where and how this giant planet formed.”
The key to revealing the formation location and mechanism of giant planets is imprinted in their molecular atmospheric composition. The extreme temperature of hot Jupiters allows most molecules in their atmospheres to be in gaseous form, and therefore detectable with current instruments. Astronomers can thus precisely measure the content of their atmospheres.
“In our Solar System, Jupiter and Saturn are really cold,” said Benneke. “Some molecules such as water are frozen and hidden deep in their atmospheres; thus, we have a very poor knowledge of their abundance. Studying hot Jupiters provides a way to better understand our own giant planets. The low amount of water on Tau Boötis b could mean that our own Jupiter is also drier than we had previously thought.”
SPIRou: a unique instrument
Tau Boötis b is one of the first planets studied with the new SPIRou instrument since it was recently put into service at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This instrument was developed by researchers from several scientific institutions including UdeM.
“This spectropolarimeter can analyze the planet’s thermal light — the light emitted by the planet itself — in an unprecedentedly large range of colours, and with a resolution that allows for the identification of many molecules at once: water, carbon monoxide, methane, etc.” said co-author and iREx researcher Neil Cook, an expert on the SPIRou instrument.
The team spent 20 hours observing the exoplanet with SPIRou between April 2019 and June 2020.
“We measured the abundance of all major molecules that contain either carbon or oxygen,” said Pelletier. “Since they are the two most abundant elements in the universe, after hydrogen and helium, that gives us a very complete picture of the content of the atmosphere.”
Like most planets, Tau Boötis b does not pass in front of its star as it orbits around it, from Earth’s point of view. However, the study of exoplanet atmospheres has mostly been limited to “transiting” planets – those that cause periodic dips in the light of their star when they obscure part of their light.
“It is the first time that we get such precise measurements on the atmospheric composition of a non-transiting exoplanet,” said PhD student Caroline Piaulet, a co-author of the study.
“This work opens the door to studying in detail the atmospheres of a large number of exoplanets, even those that do not transit their star.”
A composition similar to Jupiter
Through their analysis, Pelletier and his colleagues were able to conclude that Tau Boötis b’s atmospheric composition has roughly five times as much carbon as that found in the Sun, quantities similar to that measured for Jupiter.
This may be a suggest that hot Jupiters could form much further from their host star, at distances that are similar to the giant planets in our Solar System, and have simply experienced a different evolution, which included a migration towards the star.
“According to what we found for Tau Boötis b, it would seem that, at least composition-wise, hot Jupiters may not be so different from our own Solar System giant planets after all,” concluded Pelletier.
About this study
“Where is the water? Jupiter-like C/H ratio but strong H2O depletion found on Tau Boötis b using SPIRou,” by Stefan Pelletier et al., was published July 28th, 2021 in the Astronomical Journal.
In addition to Stefan Pelletier, Björn Benneke, Neil Cook and Caroline Piaulet, the team includes Institute for research on exoplanets (iREx) members Antoine Darveau-Bernier, Anne Boucher, Louis-Philippe Coulombe, Étienne Artigau, David Lafrenière, Simon Delisle, Romain Allart, René Doyon, Charles Cadieux and Thomas Vandal, all based at Université de Montréal, and seven other co-authors from France, the United States, Portugal and Brazil.
Funding was provided by the the Technologies for Exo-Planetary Science (TEPS) CREATE program, the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FRQNT), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Trottier Family Foundation and the French National Research Agency (ANR).
Scientists capture most-detailed radio image of Andromeda galaxy to date – UBC News
‘Disk of galaxy’ identified as region where new stars are born
Scientists have published a new, detailed radio image of the Andromeda galaxy – the Milky Way’s sister galaxy – which will allow them to identify and study the regions of Andromeda where new stars are born.
The study – which is the first to create a radio image of Andromeda at the microwave frequency of 6.6 GHz – was led by University of British Columbia physicist Sofia Fatigoni, with colleagues at Sapienza University of Rome and the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. It was published online in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
“This image will allow us to study the structure of Andromeda and its content in more detail than has ever been possible,” said Fatigoni, a PhD student in the department of physics and astronomy at UBC. “Understanding the nature of physical processes that take place inside Andromeda allows us to understand what happens in our own galaxy more clearly – as if we were looking at ourselves from the outside.”
Prior to this study, no maps capturing such a large region of the sky around the Andromeda Galaxy had ever been made in the microwave band frequencies between one GHz to 22 GHz. In this range, the galaxy’s emission is very faint, making it hard to see its structure. However, it is only in this frequency range that particular features are visible, so having a map at this particular frequency is crucial to understanding which physical processes are happening inside Andromeda.
In order to observe Andromeda at this frequency, the researchers required a single-dish radio telescope with a large effective area. For the study, the scientists turned to the Sardinia Radio Telescope, a 64-metre fully steerable telescope capable of operating at high radio frequencies, located in Italy.
It took 66 hours of observation and consistent data analysis for the researchers to map the galaxy with high sensitivity.
They were then able to estimate the rate of star formation within Andromeda, and produce a detailed map that highlighted the ‘disk of the galaxy,’ as the region where new stars are born.
“By combining this new image with those previously acquired, we have made significant steps forward in clarifying the nature of Andromeda’s microwave emissions and allowing us to distinguish physical processes that occur in different regions of the galaxy,” said Dr. Elia Battistelli, a professor in the department of physics at Sapienza and coordinator of the study.
“In particular, we were able to determine the fraction of emissions due to thermal processes related to the early stations of new star formation, and the fraction of radio signals attributable to non-thermal mechanisms due to cosmic rays that spiral in the magnetic field present in the interstellar medium,” Fatigoni said.
For the study, the team also developed and implemented software that allowed them to test new algorithms to identify never-before-examined lower emission sources in the field of view around Andromeda at a frequency of 6.6 GHz.
From the resulting map, researchers were able to identify a catalog of about 100 ‘point sources’ including stars, galaxies and other objects in the background of Andromeda.
Interview language(s): English, Italian
Note for reporters: Sofia Fatigoni is based in Rome, Italy and is available for interviews until 3 p.m. PST.
To help chart the cosmos, Western space researchers turn to crowd sourcing – CBC.ca
Western University researchers have tapped the help of hundreds of amateur and professional astronomers in an effort to make sure no meteor is unable to slip by the Earth undetected.
To do that, they’re relying on the observations taken from 450 cameras in 30 different countries manned by “enthusiastic amateur astronomers” made up of professional and citizen scientists.
That data is then sent to Western University as part of what’s called the Global Meteor Network (GMN), headed by Denis Vida.
“So we have a lot of enthusiastic amateur astronomers, citizen scientists and also professionals that build, operate and maintain these cameras,” Vida told CBC’s Chris dela Torre during Afternoon Drive. “And every night they inspect the data set and send their data to a central server here at the University of Western Ontario.”
It’s not just about observing meteors – it’s about tracking what’s left of the ones that make it to the earth’s surface too.
“So we also observe a meteorite dropping fireballs,” said Vida. “They’re quite rare over an area of let’s say the country the size of France or Spain. Could only expect two to three of those fireballs a year that drop more than, let’s say, 300 grams of meteorites on the ground.”
“So because these events are very rare, it is important to observe 24/7.”
Vida explained that when one of their cameras spot one of them, they collect the data and find its location so they can retrieve what’s left for analysis – and analysis needs to happen quickly.
“There are certain things in them, like some radionuclide to decay very quickly, but those can tell us how old the meteorite is, how long it was after it was ejected from the parent asteroid that it fell on the ground,” he said.
Vida explained that what ends up on the ground are just “several kilograms of materials” by the time they reach the earth’s surface. They aren’t hot either. They cool down on their descent.
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