In the wake of George Floyd’s killing by police officers in the United States and the global movement for Black lives, there has been a resounding call to re-examine the relationship between society and state, particularly its use of violence. Yet a meaningful conversation is lacking in relation to one aspect of this failing social contract – the innate structural violence of our current global economic system.
A closer look at African American history provides us an important lead that could help us start this conversation: the life and work of the Honourable Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
Born to a maid and stoneworker in 1887, Garvey grew up in an impoverished community in rural Jamaica. In 1905, he migrated to Kingston, the island nation’s capital, where he became involved in trade unionism and political activism after witnessing the struggles of the labouring class.
Drawn to the anti-colonial thinking he encountered by joining the then-National Club of Jamaica, Garvey became an autodidact by nature. His thirst for knowledge would lead him to journey across Central America and live in London from 1912 to 1914 in a quest to understand the global Black condition.
Upon his return to Jamaica in 1914, he founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), with the aim of fostering international unity among peoples of African origin on the premise of economic self-sufficiency. Garvey was a pioneer who epitomised both the enterprising spirit and collective self-determination of Black people across the world. The aspirations of his movement, alongside the lessons from its failures and successes, frame an important discussion around the nature of systemic outcomes.
“The Negro is perishing because he has no economic system,” he famously said in his 1937 collection of 22 philosophical lessons, which he called Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy.
In this same work, Garvey demonstrates that he understood perfectly well the necessity of designing an economic system that serves the needs of African people globally. Further along, he observed the consequences of systemic economic exclusion and its propensity to reproduce the conditions that ensure the continuation of systemic deprivation – a cycle he deemed impossible to break without the removal of poverty. In Garvey’s opinion, nationalism that hinged on individual advancement alone becomes fundamentally corrupt and unsustainable.
By advocating that “wealth is power, wealth is justice, wealth is real human rights”, he sought to spur community development by promoting a collective decision-making and profit-sharing model that advances the interests of Black people in America and beyond.
In Garvey’s 1921 recorded UNIA speech, the Explanation of the Objects of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, he asserted the idea that Black communities needed to develop an ideology and an economic modus operandi that would lead to their economic development. He was not speaking of merely duplicating capitalistic ideas, but of the creation of an innovative economic “African commonwealth” where Black people could maximise their collective interests and be recognised as equals. Political and social objectives were secondary to this entrepreneurial mission, as his philosophical works later affirmed that economic achievement is the primary determining factor of societal power dynamics.
Garvey’s teachings invoke a deep reflection – namely, in order to deconstruct the inner workings of an economic system, we ought to first determine what it aims to accomplish.
First-principles reasoning around this matter necessarily urges us to question what the primary function of an economy is, and who or what it serves? The word “economy” itself can be traced back to the Greek word oikonomos, meaning “household manager”. In other words, its etymology implies the deliberate management of available resources so that our common household (i.e., people and planet) can not only survive, but prosper.
Economics is our value system codified as equations that determine how much value we assign one thing relative to another. Accordingly, this determines what we are incentivised to do and what we confer power to. If an economy seeks to transform society, it is imperative that we infuse our values into it so that it accounts for our wellbeing. How a community, country or region chooses to measure its economic wellbeing shapes how priorities are set and how resources are allocated. We should then agree that at a bare minimum, the components that form an economy’s genetic composition ought to positively encourage human and planetary wellbeing.
The embedded growth obligation of our present-day market economy generates an untenable paradox: It permeates and commodifies everything by incessantly pursuing profit and constant growth. It requires marketing and advertising to spawn mass zombification in favour of never-ending debt and cyclical consumption. It exterminates economic efficiency and generates copious amounts of waste through planned obsolescence and suboptimal design.
It suppresses the efficiencies and productivity of collaboration by treating ideas and information as proprietary (i.e. intellectual property), resulting in waste through unnecessary intellectual repetition. It preserves a general condition of scarcity and short-term gains premised entirely upon the need for real or assumed deficiency. It deliberately withholds social efficiency by poorly harnessing accelerating technological progress and automation, not for the benefit of liberating human beings from drudgery and scarcity, but rather, to drive further economic insecurity through technological unemployment and meaningless jobs.
Quite predictably, all of the above-mentioned circumstances have resulted in a noxious state of planetary imbalance that is fuelling socioeconomic inequality, poverty, exploitation, mental health issues, antisocial behaviours, habitat destruction, pollution, ecocide and biodiversity loss, among other negative externalities.
The market system of economics is made to allocate capital to the most profitable endeavours, not the ones that are most socially beneficial. This is most evident across the innumerable social institutions, banking establishments, political groups, media organisations, scientific bodies, health authorities, military, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, etc, that have either been seized or compromised by market actors seeking asymmetric advantage.
The inefficiencies created by humans vying for positions of power in this losing game pose an existential threat. Market capitalism has outlived its evolutionary purpose and has degenerated into a malignant cancer.
An economy that is not intrinsically linked to human and environmental needs, while powered by chronic debt and consumerism, is not an economy at all. If anything, it is patently anti-economic.
In Garvey’s time and today, what we have commonly understood to be the economy is, in effect, a fraudulent paradigm masquerading as an axiom of economic value. And Western civilisation has constructed and disseminated a monumental edifice of theory to assert its dominance based on this destructive model of market capitalism.
The basis of this thinking must move African economic development away from a Western-inspired exploitative ethos to an African-inspired collaborative ethos.
Followers of Garvey’s teachings must, therefore, prioritise dismantling the neoliberal political paradigm at the centre of their economic organising programme for African liberation. They must strive to transcend the market’s crude and reductionist “supply, demand and price” dynamics. Properly embracing the tools of modern technological capacity provides a solution to better interweave, measure and account for the humanitarian values we deem socially desirable in a new economic system.
These elements require deep cooperation in order to outcompete the very concept of competition itself, by creating a prosocial environment where the benefits of generosity, sharing and transparency must outweigh the profit of non-cooperation at all times – while simultaneously rendering it antifragile in order to endure any exogenous sabotaging forces on this new system.
Rethinking economic development and pan-African solidarity in new terms will require exceptional leadership and tremendous courage. Only by ending economic mismanagement can true efficiency and abundance flourish. The people who are best positioned to transform the world’s destructive systems and structures into something more humane and secure are particularly those who have been most betrayed by the existing systems. Those who are in the greatest danger of perpetuating old system patterns are the ones who have most profited from them.
From the perspective of historical significance, Garvey proved to be the spark that reignited African dignity through collective endeavour. While he was never afforded the opportunity to fully realise his entrepreneurial aspirations, he provided a blueprint for developing collective entrepreneurial ventures.
His legacy is that of a pragmatic introduction to the promise of pan-African principles and courage – a legacy that must now be carried forward by young innovators across the African continent and her global diaspora.
Now more than ever, humanity needs a century driven by exemplary pan-African leadership that is not fearful of transforming societies and communities into a superorganism of cooperation. All power is weak unless united, let us not shy away from our own divine potential – for no one will save us but us.
The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Al Jazeera’s editorial stance.
GUEST COLUMN: Diversify the economy through clean growth – TheChronicleHerald.ca
By Kieran Hanley / Special to The Telegram
As the world battles through the pandemic, its nations are deliberating on what shape global economic recovery will take. There is a growing sense that investments should meet two tests: that they contribute to economic activity and jobs right away; and that they will provide longer-term benefits for the economy, the environment, and society. In short, economic recovery and “clean growth” should go hand in hand.
This is the case in Canada. Long before the pandemic, our federal government was aggressively investing in initiatives related to climate change, sustainability and clean technology. So, it is a safe bet to assume that its approach to economic recovery will follow suit. Influential groups like the Task Force for a Resilient Recovery say that building back better means “supporting the jobs, infrastructure and growth that will keep Canada competitive in the clean economy of the 21st century.”
For its part, Newfoundland and Labrador has been hit hard by not just the pandemic, but also the collapse of oil prices. The reality is that we need to take advantage of any lifeline available to us. And so, part of our economic recovery has to be making the most of any and all federal programs — many of which will have a clean growth twist. We need to be prepared for this.
Yet the opportunity for our province extends far beyond simply being reactive.
There are also opportunities for brand new industries that can put our province at the forefront of the energy transition and diversify our economy.
The pursuit of sustainability within our offshore oil and gas industry will lead to the development and application of new low-carbon products, services and processes that will not only be demanded worldwide and across multiple oceans sectors — but will also contribute to the long-term success of this industry here at home.
The accelerated electrification of our economy will contribute to mitigating the costs of Muskrat Falls. This means increasing the number of electric cars on our roads, converting our Metrobus fleets to run on electricity and switching buildings from fossil fuel-based heating sources to electric. This also means designing a future that involves electrified ferries, seaport and airport operations and industrial processes.
These are just two areas where clean growth perfectly aligns with existing provincial priorities and will create jobs. But there are also opportunities for brand new industries that can put our province at the forefront of the energy transition and diversify our economy.
The production of hydrogen is an important example. Hydrogen is a fuel that emits zero emissions and can be produced through low or zero-emissions means. The past year has seen rapid progress for this industry, with interest intensifying during the pandemic. Several countries are forcefully pursuing its production, with Canada set to announce a national strategy in the near future. Given our existing marine infrastructure and access to enormous renewable energy resources, Newfoundland and Labrador may be in an excellent position to become a global producer of hydrogen — as we are of oil today.
But to make the most of any of these opportunities, we need a plan. That is why in June, the Newfoundland and Labrador Environmental Industry Association (NEIA) submitted a series of recommendations for Newfoundland and Labrador’s economic recovery — with a key action being the creation of a “Clean Growth Directorate” within government. Between navigating resources, regulations, incentives and innovation supports, many government departments have a role to play in the pursuit of clean growth, but none are entirely responsible. A whole-of-government approach to clean growth — and meeting our net zero commitments — is required in order to attain the level of proactivity that is needed. With new provincial leadership comes an opportunity to take deliberate and targeted action.
The clean growth opportunity is immense. It not only provides environmental benefits, but also contributes to economic resilience in a world that is increasingly concerned with greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts. Newfoundland and Labrador is blessed with a wealth of resources and is home to a budding technology sector that can enable our province to become one of the cleanest jurisdictions on the planet and an inspiration to other regions around the world.
Let’s put people to work today, building the economy of tomorrow. NEIA stands ready as a partner in the pursuit of any and all options.
Kieran Hanley is executive director of NEIA, the Newfoundland and Labrador Environmental Industry Association.
Global economy faces challenges amid pandemic, de-globalizing trend: experts
The development of the global economy faces various challenges as the COVID-19 pandemic wreaks havoc worldwide and the de-globalizing trend is becoming ever stronger, experts said in an interview on Thursday with China Global Television Network (CGTN).
In the interview, Jimmy Zhu, chief strategist at Fullerton Research and James Early, CEO of Stansberry China, shared their views on how the world economy might evolve amid the pandemic and what the future path might be for the economic ties between China and the United States, the two major countries now accounting for over one-third of global economic output and over 50 percent of global growth.
Amid the pandemic, governments worldwide are striking a balance between reopening the economy and curbing the spread of the virus.
“Well, it’s a very difficult balance. In the beginning, people think, ‘Okay it’s a half-half’. But what we look at is once you need to open a business, especially the restaurants, the bars, it’s very easy to transition. So I think before the vaccine out finally, I mean I got to say, I hope it’s not, but it seems like it’s very difficult to balance the two. So sometimes the policymakers need to be a bit prudent or a bit flexible when dealing with such things,” Zhu said.
Beyond the epidemic, Early reckoned that the de-globalizing forces are growing worldwide, setting even more barriers for the free flow of trade.
“Well look, we will definitely have less of it and that’s just the bummer. As a simple example, I was looking at my iPhone and imagine if everybody had to make their own iPhone, it would just be so inefficient. Right? The globalization brings us great benefits. But to switch analogies, I was at the beach a few years ago and when I saw these little crabs and they were very timid. As soon as they got scared, they go into their hole. But then gradually they’d come back out again. And I think we’ll see the same thing with nations, meaning, we are de-globalizing, period. That’s happening, but it’s not really complete and it’s only going to probably be less than 10 year cycle, which is short in terms of humanity. And I think then things will start to move again. But it’s going to be a painful 10 years, and I think it’s going to teach us how precious that trade and globalization really is, because maybe we don’t value it enough right now,” said Early.
Argentine economy to shrink 12.5% this year, central bank poll says – TheChronicleHerald.ca
BUENOS AIRES (Reuters) – Argentina’s economy is likely to contract 12.5% in 2020, a central bank survey of economists showed on Friday, a slightly more negative outlook than a month earlier as the impact of the coronavirus pandemic hammers the South American nation.
The economic outlook in the monthly report polling 44 economists was down from a 12% estimated drop previously.
Economists predicted a larger fiscal deficit of around 2 trillion Argentine pesos ($27.49 billion) as the government steps up spending to reignite the economy after two years of recession and to recover from COVID-19.
Those polled forecast a deeper contraction in the second quarter, but had a more positive outlook for the third quarter, “indicating that the period of greatest impact of the pandemic has already been overcome,” the report said.
Argentina has registered 235,677 confirmed infections of COVID-19, with daily cases accelerating in recent weeks as the country has looked to ease some lockdown restrictions in place in and around Buenos Aires, the capital.
The country, which defaulted in May, reached a deal with creditors this week to restructure $65 billion in foreign debt.
The central bank survey also estimated inflation for 2020 at 39.5%, slightly down from its month-earlier forecast. The peso currency was seen rising to 86.4 pesos per dollar in December 2020 and 123.2 pesos per dollar in December 2021.
(Reporting by Maximilian Heath; Editing by Adam Jourdan and Leslie Adler)
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