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Border protests in Coutts, Alta., a ‘concrete manifestation’ of risk to Canada: Rouleau



Events that transpired during a 17-day protest near the border town of Coutts, Alta., were central to Justice Paul Rouleau’s determination that the federal government had met the threshold to invoke the Emergencies Act.

“The situation in [Coutts was] a concrete manifestation of the very risk that had been identified to Cabinet: a highly disruptive, but mainly peaceful protest that included a smaller group of actors who allegedly intended to effect serious violence for a political purpose,” Rouleau wrote in his executive summary, which was tabled Friday in the House of Commons.

Rouleau wrote that the blockade at the Coutts port of entry was notable for its duration, complexity and volatility, and for the dramatic way it was resolved.

Coutts is a town of just over 200 people about 100 kilometres southeast of Lethbridge, on the border with Montana.


Though Rouleau wrote that many of the protests across Canada, including in Coutts, may have been intended to have been peaceful, the situation “escaped their control.”

Uncovering weapons at the site

According to Rouleau’s report, the RCMP had grown concerned about the possible presence of firearms within the group near the border town as early as Jan. 31, 2022. They investigated, without success, reports of a protester with a gun, and obtained new information about a possible cache of weapons on Feb. 9.

A wiretap authorization was granted on Feb. 11, and on Feb. 13, they obtained a search warrant and searched a motorhome and two trailers, as well as Smuggler’s Saloon, where protesters had been gathering.

During the inquiry, Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino said the head of the RCMP shared with him sensitive police information on Feb. 13, the day before the act was invoked.

“She underlined, for me, that the situation in Coutts involved a hardened cell of individuals armed to the teeth with lethal firearms, who possessed a willingness to go down with the cause,” Mendicino said of his conversation with Commissioner Brenda Lucki.

WATCH: Lucki warned Mendicino that Alberta border blockade could turn violent: 


RCMP had information suggesting convoy protests could turn violent


The public safety minister says the head of the RCMP warned him of an urgent threat of violence at the anti-vaccine mandate protests in Coutts, Alta., the day before the Emergencies Act was invoked.

RCMP uncovered a cache of weapons, body armour and ammunition. Allegations of a conspiracy to murder police officers followed. On Feb. 14, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that the government would be invoking the act, saying that the measures would be “reasonable and proportionate to the threats they are meant to address.”

“The fact that this situation was discovered and disrupted is a credit to law enforcement,” wrote Rouleau. “It was, nevertheless, clearly a situation that could reasonably be viewed as meeting the definition [of a threat to the security of Canada under CSIS], but that CSIS had not identified as such.”

Cabinet could “reasonably consider” that the risk of similar groups of politically or ideologically motivated violent actors could have been present at other protests, Rouleau wrote.

A collection of weapons that RCMP said they seized during protests near Coutts, Alta. (RCMP)

‘Most troubling connection’: Diagolon

Rouleau found “the most troubling connection between protest locations” was the presence of Diagolon members in both Ottawa and Coutts.

RCMP described Diagolon as a “militia-like network with members who are armed and prepared for violence” while the Ontario Provincial Police called it an extremist group.

Founder Jeremy MacKenzie downplayed the characterizations of Diagolon during his testimony at the hearing in November, but Rouleau rejected that evidence.

“I am satisfied that law enforcement’s concern about Diagolon is genuine and well founded,” wrote the commissioner.

Jeremy Mackenzie, a far-right podcaster and the leader of the Diagolon movement, downplayed the characterizations of Diagolon offered by police during his testimony at the hearing in November, but Justice Paul Rouleau rejected that evidence. (

While MacKenzie recruited members in Ottawa, the commissioner noted that a Diagolon member was in Coutts. That individual was one of the protesters arrested and charged with conspiring to murder RCMP members.

Besides this person’s arrest at the border blockade, further evidence of Diagolon’s presence included a ballistic vest seized by police which bore a Diagolon patch.

The Public Order Emergency Commission (POEC) heard evidence law enforcement agencies were concerned that people and groups “intent on violence” were present at the protests.

“The discovery of the Diagolon insignia among the material seized at Coutts, coupled with the presence of Diagolon leader Jeremy Mackenzie in Ottawa, heightened this concern,” wrote Rouleau.

A further connection between Diagolon and the two main protest sites included evidence gathered by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) that Diagolon supporter Alex Vriend collected donations to pay transportation costs for protesters to Ottawa and Coutts.

Though Rouleau said the connections were “troubling,” he added there was little evidence of significant or widespread coordination between supporters of Diagolon in Coutts and in Ottawa.

“To the contrary, in a report on the arrests in Coutts, the RCMP noted that ‘there has been no information uncovered to suggest that there is an organized effort between the individuals charged in Alberta and individuals involved in the Ottawa protest,'” he wrote.

‘I do not come to this conclusion easily’

In his report, the commissioner also wrote that the protest near the border posed dangers to bystanders, specifically highlighting residents of Coutts who were unable to travel to Milk River, Alta. to access essentials like medical services and grocery stores, while others suffered negative impacts to their psychological health.

That was something raised by Coutts Mayor Jim Willett when he testified during the Emergencies Act inquiry in November, telling the story of a Coutts resident who is an Afghanistan veteran, who left town during the protests because they triggered her post-traumatic stress disorder.

A man speaks in front of a microphone.
Jim Willett, mayor of Coutts, Alta., appears at the Public Order Emergency Commission, in Ottawa, on Nov. 9, 2022. (Justin Tang/The Canadian Press)

Coutts council members recently passed a resolution that they would not longer talk about the blockade publicly, citing a desire to heal a divide among residents that persists.

As a part of his summary, Rouleau wrote that the threshold for invocation is the point at which order breaks down and freedom cannot be secured, or is seriously threatened.

“In my view, that threshold was reached here,” he wrote.

“I do not come to this conclusion easily, as I do not consider the factual basis for it to be overwhelming and I acknowledge that there is significant strength to the arguments against reaching it. It may well be that serious violence might have been avoided, even without the declaration of emergency.

“That it might have been avoided does not, however, make the decision wrong.”

‘A dangerous precedent’: Shandro

Mount Royal University political science professor Lori Williams said she believes Coutts became something of a flashpoint during the protests given the high-profile events that occurred there.

“Obviously, there are going to be people who supported the reason for the protests, but not the tactics, or the activities that were used,” Williams said.

“There are some who are just very worried — even if they did think that the actions of some of the participants were completely unjustified — that the powers taken by the government went enough beyond what was justified, that they’re very concerned about the implications for the future. And those questions will continue to circulate.”

Geoffrey Hale, a professor of political science at the University of Lethbridge, said he thought the report had been delivered in a measured way, delivering recommendations for both the provincial and federal governments.

“It attempts to take a balanced view of issues, whether or not you agree or not with its final conclusion, and tries to parse the multiple factors that went into the protests, as opposed to engaging in cliched or one-dimensional thinking,” he said.

Marco Van Huigenbos, one of the organizers of the demonstration at Coutts, said he was not surprised by the results of the inquiry. He added he was worried about what precedent such a decision might make. (Mirna Djukic/Radio-Canada)

In a written statement issued Friday afternoon, Alberta Justice Minister Tyler Shandro said the federal government “unnecessarily” invoked the act, which he says “set a dangerous precedent.”

“The decision to invoke the act violated the constitutionally guaranteed rights of Albertans and gave the federal government the ability to seize property without due process of law,” Shandro said.

“The conclusion reached by the inquiry does not affect Alberta’s decision to participate in legal challenges initiated against the federal government by the Canadian Constitution Foundation and the Canadian Civil Liberties Association last year.”

Marco Van Huigenbos, 32, from Fort Macleod, Alta., was one of the organizers of the demonstration at Coutts. He has been charged with mischief over $5,000.

The day after the raids, he told CBC News the protest was “infiltrated by an extreme element” and said the remaining protesters had decided to “peacefully leave Coutts and return to [their] families.”

In an interview Friday, he said that statement still stands, but added that he felt what took place near the border was “way bigger” than what took place with the weapons and related arrests.

“I feel like Coutts was an event that, was first and foremost, [about] the people, Albertans, that came out to express their frustrations,” he said. “It was just unfortunate how it ended.”


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They were turned away at the Canadian border. Now what? –



Toddlers ran through aisles filled with snacks and candies. Adults slumped in chairs. Multiple cellphones were plugged into a single wall socket. Backpacks and suitcases were scattered among the two rows of tables in a corner of this small-town bus stop and gas station. 

After they were turned away at the Canadian border and spent three days in detention, the roughly 15 asylum seekers at the Mountain Mart No. 109 in the town of Plattsburgh, N.Y., south of Montreal, on Tuesday afternoon were trying to figure out what to do. 

They had tried to get into the country at the popular unofficial crossing on Roxham Road in the hours after a new border deal between Canada and the U.S. came into effect late last week. 


Alan Rivas, a Peruvian man who was hoping to reunite with his girlfriend who’s been living in Montreal for two years, said he’d spent $4,000 on making it this far.

“I’m trying to think about what to do now.” 

A sense of solidarity emerged as people recognized each other from various parts of their time stuck on the border, along with a sense of resignation and deep disappointment.

“Disappointing and heartbreaking,” said a man from Central Africa, whom CBC agreed not to identify because he fears it could affect his asylum claim process in the United States.

A man waves at the camera, a Greyhound bus in the background.
Alan Rivas, who is from Peru, was trying to reunite with his partner in Montreal, but was hours too late attempting to cross into Canada at Roxham Road after strict new border rules came into effect at midnight Saturday. (Verity Stevenson/CBC)

He had shared a cab ride with a man from Chad, who fled to the U.S. after the government of his country led a violent crackdown on opponents last fall. 

“It’s unfair. We are not home and we suffer. We’re looking for a better life,” the man from Central Africa said.

The man from Chad looked up and said: “No, looking for protection is not having a better life. I had a life.”

The Chadian was not let into Canada despite his wife and child being Canadian citizens, he said. Having a family member with legal status in Canada is one of the few exemptions to the strict new rules that make it nearly impossible to claim asylum at the Canada-U.S. border. His wife and child fled to a nearby country after the crackdown in Chad, but he explained that his wife’s family is still in Canada.

Other exemptions include being an unaccompanied minor and having a work permit or other official document allowing a person to be in Canada. 

“They made me sign a paper without giving me time to read it. They didn’t explain anything,” said the man, whom CBC also agreed not to name because he fears for his family’s safety in an African country near Chad.

The Canada-U.S. deal was implemented swiftly before the weekend, leaving local governments and organizations little time to respond and turned-away asylum seekers struggling to find food, shelter and rides.

A man's hands over a brown Canadian government envelope. A tag with the number 18 on it and a plastic bracelet with numbers.
A man from Chad, who was detained at the Canada-U.S. border for three days, shows the number he was given while waiting to be released back into the United States. (Verity Stevenson/CBC)

The man from Central Africa was trying to round up enough money to pay for a $200 bus ticket to Houston, where he would stay with a friend. The man from Chad gave him the $40 he was missing.

The Central African said he had spent his savings on coming to Canada. His hope was to live here until obtaining residency, and then arranging for his family to come to meet him. 

“I know a guy in Houston who hasn’t seen his family in 10 years. He still doesn’t have status,” he said.

A young Haitian mother cradled her baby as her toddler made friends with another child. Her family had paid an acquaintance in New Jersey $300 per adult to get to Roxham Road before midnight Friday, but the driver got lost and they arrived at 12:03 a.m.

Steven, a 24-year-old Venezuelan who attempted to cross into Canada at Roxham early Saturday morning, mingled with the people he’d met in detention. Then he tried to call his mom.

A woman leans her head on a younger man. Both standing outside a gas station.
Carmen Salazar, left, and Steven met in detention at the Canadian border this week. (Verity Stevenson/CBC)

“She doesn’t know,” said Steven, who didn’t want his last name used in this story because of fears it could affect his U.S. asylum claim. “I know I seem happy but I am sad.”

Carmen Salazar, 45, also from Venezuela, watched him from another table.

“It’s hard, really hard,” she said.

The group of asylum seekers at the Mountain Mart had found comfort in finding each other. They all boarded a bus leaving Plattsburgh at 7:45 p.m. Tuesday. Its main destination was New York City. 

Others haven’t been so lucky finding a way out of Plattsburgh.

The night before, a woman who was seen at Roxham Road early Saturday, sat alone at the bus stop crying.

3 nights in a motel and no plan

Across the street, in a small motel, a 34-year-old Haitian man and his pregnant girlfriend had one night left out of three that had been paid for by local emergency housing services. But they had no plan and only $41 to their name.

“We’re here. I don’t know what’s going to happen, but we’re going to look for ways to be able to live. What I’m looking for — nothing more — is a place to rest and a place to work. Nothing else,” said the man, sitting in the lobby of the motel. CBC is not naming him because of fears it could affect his American asylum claim.

The couple had intended to stay in the U.S. after crossing the Mexican border, but the woman became pregnant and developed constant pains. In the U.S., they had to stay with separate family members far from each other and the man worried about his wife and being able to afford medical bills, so they decided to try to get to Canada, having heard it was easier to find work and that health-care was more affordable, he said.

Steven, 24, and his 21-year-old friend, both from Venezuela, wait for the bus to New York City at the Mountain Mart bus stop and gas station Plattsburgh, NY on Tuesday.
Steven, 24, and his 21-year-old friend, both from Venezuela, wait for a bus to New York City at the Mountain Mart bus stop and gas station Plattsburgh on Tuesday. (Verity Stevenson/CBC)

In an interview with Radio-Canada Monday, a man from another Central African country struggled to hold back tears.

He said the confusion after being taken in at Roxham Road by RCMP officers was hurtful because it wasn’t clear if he’d be accepted into Canada or not. When they called his name, he was filled with hope, only to be told he was being sent to U.S. Border Patrol. 

“I don’t know, I don’t know, I don’t know where to go. I don’t have anyone who will take me in,” he said. 

The response from U.S. Border Patrol appears to be uneven. Some asylum seekers CBC spoke with had taxis called for them, having to pay another $70 to get to the Mountain Mart. One woman was found on the side of the service road by the border and given a ride by a social science researcher and documentary photographer met by CBC.

The man interviewed by Radio-Canada was part of a group who were given a ride to the gas station by a Greyhound bus heading back to New York from Montreal. 

CBC reached out to U.S. Customs and Border Protection on Monday, asking what happens to asylum seekers rejected by Canada, but did not receive a response.

Luggage sits outside the Mountain Mart bus stop and gas station in the town of Plattsburgh, NY.
Luggage sits outside the Mountain Mart bus stop and gas station in Plattsburgh Tuesday as a group of asylum seekers turned back at the Canadian border wait for a bus to New York City. (Dave St-Amant/CBC)

Although in favour of some kind of change to reduce traffic at Roxham Road, one local official wants help from the federal governments to deal with the fallout. 

Michael Cashman, supervisor for the Town of Plattsburgh, says Canada and the U.S. to come up with a response to help asylum seekers get to where they want to go in the U.S. 

He isn’t against the move to restrict access to Canada at Roxham Road.

“There had to be a change,” he said, noting residents had been asking for one, but compared the way it was done to turning off a light switch before entering a room: “You’re going to bump into some furniture.”

The area is rural and has its share of struggles with transportation and housing, Cashman said. 

“There isn’t a robust infrastructure to be able to take on this humanitarian crisis as it develops.” 

On Monday and Tuesday, buses coming from New York carried only a few asylum seekers hoping to cross the border. Most knew about the new rules, believing their cases would fit some of the exemptions. Others still did not know.

By Tuesday, cab drivers were no longer ferrying people to Roxham Road, taking them to the official border crossing at Champlain, N.Y., and Lacolle, Que., instead.

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What is the grocery rebate in federal budget 2023? Key questions, answered



Canada’s economy might be recovering from the pandemic, but many Canadians are still struggling with the cost of living, thanks, in part, to the impacts of global inflation.

To help offset rising living expenses, the Government of Canada has built some benefit increases and fee reductions into its 2023 budget. Among these measures is a new grocery rebate in the form of a one-time payment for middle- and low-income Canadians that is designed to offset food inflation.

“Our more vulnerable friends and neighbours are still suffering from higher prices,” Minister of Finance Chrystia Freeland said after tabling the budget on March 28. “That’s why our budget contains targeted, temporary relief from the effects of inflation for those who need it.”

Here’s what we know about the rebate.



According to the budget, the benefit will be rolled out through the GST/HST rebate system, once a bill implementing it passes in the House of Commons. This move essentially re-ups and re-brands the recent GST rebate boost.

While no specific date for the payments has been announced, upcoming GST/HST credit payment dates for 2023 include April 5, July 5 and Oct. 5. Because the rebate is automatically rolled into the GST/HST credit, eligible Canadians shouldn’t need to do anything besides file their tax return in order to receive the payment.


The Grocery Rebate is earmarked for 11 million low- to modest-income Canadians. It will provide eligible couples with two children with up to $467, single Canadians without children with up to $234 and seniors with $225 on average.

The budget doesn’t pinpoint any eligibility brackets based on income, but outlines hypothetical scenarios where a couple earning $38,000 per year and an individual earning $32,000 both received the maximum rebate.

Since the rebate will be rolled into the GST/HST credit, the eligibility criteria for that credit might offer some insight into who will be eligible for the maximum Grocery Rebate amounts.

The GST benefit is reduced as income rises. It’s phased out entirely once income reaches just over $49,000 for a single person, $50,000 for a couple without children and more than $60,000 for a couple with four children.


The average family of four will spend up to $16,288.41 on food this year, according to the latest Canada’s Food Price Report, published by the Agri-Food Analytics Lab at Dalhousie University.

“For a family of four, their food bill will increase by about $1,100 this year,” the lab’s director, Sylvain Charlebois, told CTV News Calgary on Tuesday.

The cost of staple grocery items based on March 2023 prices listed on (CTV’s Your Morning)

The most substantial increases will be in the cost of vegetables, dairy and meat, according to the report. Food inflation has softened somewhat in recent weeks, Charlebois said, but even with that softening and the extra cash in their pockets from the grocery rebate, Canadians aren’t out of the woods yet.

“We are expecting things to be a little more manageable for households probably in the summer, (but) not before then,” he said. “We are expecting to finish the year with a food inflation rate of about four to five per cent. It’s still high, but it’s better than 10 per cent.”


As finance commentator Pattie Lovett-Reid pointed out during an interview on CTV’s Your Morning on Tuesday, a maximum grocery rebate of $467 for a family of four doesn’t even offset half of the additional $1,100 families can expect to spend on groceries in 2023.

“It’s a small amount that will help a family of four,” she said. “But, is it enough? No, it’s not, we’ve got to get inflation down.”

With their spending power significantly weakened, a growing number of consumers are looking for new ways to save on their grocery bills.

According to a March 22 report published by the Agri-Food Analytics Lab, in partnership with Angus Reid, some of the methods Canadians are using to save money at the grocery store include reading weekly flyers, using coupons, taking advantage of volume discounting and using food rescue apps such as Too Good To Go and the Second Harvest Food Rescue App.

– With files from Senior Digital Parliamentary Reporter Rachel Aiello 


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International selling Pop Reggae artist, D Howell Drops New Single “Man Dem”



D Howell Drops New Single



                                “MAN DEM” 

                                 By way of Spanish Town


Toronto, On – International selling Pop/ Reggae artist, D Howell drops his new single, “Man Dem “available now, on all major music platforms.  The release featuring Ding Dong & Nicky B follows a long list of hit music from the talented pop-reggae artist.  Howell’s single, ’Wine Bounce” with Jamaican born reggae artist Dominant ft. Nick B was picked up by Universal Music, solidifying Howell’s career with the likes of Sean Paul, Elephant Man and Sarani. The artist contributes his Jamaican roots to the success of his brand.  Keeping his early beginnings in Spanish Town, Jamacia close to his heart, “Man Dem” (meaning multiple men) was created.  The single is inspired by the multicultural people of Toronto with special consideration to the immigrants from Jamaica. Their specific style of talking is heard on every street corner in Toronto.  The new generation have made it their own, a way of bringing and keeping their heritage alive.  Howell’s music speaks to that, making the heritage & the music one.  The highly anticipated release of “Man Dem” will take you home to Spanish Town.   

DJ, producer and artist, D Howell knows what it takes to make hit singles.  It’s not just talent that makes a single a hit, but the chemistry & respect for your fellow artists.  Knowing what works and what doesn’t between artists is key.   Mixing different instruments, sounds and styles to create his always evolving pop reggae sound has made Howell an in-demand producer and artist.  From the super hit ‘Jumanji’ to a lineup of multi-selling collaborations featuring his unique reggae influenceHowell makes it work.  Collaborations with Karl Wolf (Fall in Love”), Danny Fernandes (Party”) and the man himself, Sean Paul (Time to Party”).  Howell writes for and brings together a wide range of artists from different genres into his studio to create a combination of sounds that works on the music charts today. D Howell brings the love, nurture & music of his early beginnings to his seat at the industry table.  “Man Dem” takes you on that journey…  


Listen to Man Dem” 


Follow D Howell:  

Media Inquiries: 

 Sasha Stoltz Publicity: 

 Sasha Stoltz | | 416.579.4804

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