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Canada could get multiple coronavirus vaccines. Experts say there are unique challenges – Global News

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Vaccine-related news has dominated the waterfall of coronavirus headlines in recent weeks and so far, it’s been refreshingly positive.

Multiple COVID-19 vaccines could be approved in the coming months, and Canada has deals to secure millions of doses of various candidates. The question then becomes, which one will Canada roll out, and why?

“I don’t think it’s going to be a winner-takes-all situation,” said Jean-Paul Soucy, an epidemiology PhD student at the University of Toronto. “Nothing is stopping them from them all being approved.”

Read more:
Canada’s coronavirus vaccine rollout — Who will get it first?

So what happens if they do?

It would be an “unexpected blessing,” said Soucy, but one that might come with unique challenges.

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Timing will be everything, he said.

“There are a million things that could speed things up or hold things back at this point,” said Soucy. “The biggest conversation now should be around planning.”


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Moderna says its COVID-19 vaccine appears to be 94.5% effective


Moderna says its COVID-19 vaccine appears to be 94.5% effective

Challenges

The vaccine candidates expected in the new year are likely to pose significant logistical and distribution challenges.

The federal government is already seeking assistance from the military and provinces are currently working on their individual plans to identify where vaccines should be deployed.

All of the above will become more complicated should multiple vaccines be approved around the same time, said Soucy.

“You’ll probably have some places with one, some have another, depending on shipping and manufacturing, differences in population,” he said.

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“Even if there are modest differences in effectiveness between the various vaccines, speed is going to be way more important to the effort.”

Read more:
Trudeau says coronavirus vaccines in spring will begin end of pandemic

Kelly Grindrod, a pharmacist and professor at the University of Waterloo’s School of Pharmacy, said some of the challenges that lie ahead are “long-standing” for Canada.

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Namely, vaccination tracking.

Canada does not have a national vaccine registry, and even at regional and provincial levels, “it’s really hard to track,” she said.

“There are multiple vaccines on the horizon, many of which require two doses,” she said. “So you’re not just tracking one dose, you’re tracking two. That’s going to emerge as a real challenge.”

Then there are approved vaccinators. Grindrod believes it’s here the web could become even more tangled.

In the past few years, Canada added pharmacists as vaccinators to increase capacity, especially in rural areas.

“But what happens when people are moving locations?” she asked. “Do you get one dose at your doctor’s office and one at the pharmacy? Or are they all given centrally, like at a hockey arena? This stuff has to be solved.”

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Coronavirus: WHO chief warns vaccines do not mean time for complacency


Coronavirus: WHO chief warns vaccines do not mean time for complacency

A “good, robust tracking system” may provide more flexibility, she said.

Canada does have a national system that monitors adverse effects following immunization, which Grindrod said will become “critical” with a new vaccine. But as of now, it’s not set up for success.

“In an ideal scenario, this is all in one big connected system, but it’s not,” she said. “They’re two separate parts to the same problem.”

Opportunities

To experts, overall, the pros outweigh the cons.

“There are challenges we are facing, but what a great challenge it is to have many COVID-19 vaccine candidates,” said Alyson Kelvin, a Dalhousie University researcher who specializes in emerging diseases.

“One company cannot simply supply vaccines for the entire world.”

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Read more:
Airlines scramble to prepare for ultra-cold shipping of coronavirus vaccine

There are vaccine frontrunners, but no official approvals. Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca all have trials to complete before the world can truly know the effectiveness profiles of each vaccine, and how they differ.

Pfizer’s announcement of its preliminary trial results showed its vaccine candidate was about 90 per cent effective. That was followed up about a week later with final trial results and safety data, indicating a 95 per cent effectiveness rate.

Then there was Moderna. The company announced preliminary results for its own vaccine on Nov. 16, which indicated an effectiveness of about 95 per cent.

AstraZeneca is the latest to join the positive-news party. The drugmaker said Thursday that its late-stage trials found its vaccine was well tolerated and produced a strong immune response in people over 70 — a significant development given vaccines often don’t work as well in older people, who are at highest risk of serious infection from COVID-19.


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Coronavirus: Trudeau won’t confirm date of receiving Moderna and Pfizer vaccines


Coronavirus: Trudeau won’t confirm date of receiving Moderna and Pfizer vaccines

Once each successful candidate’s effectiveness is more clearly defined — and there’s more than one to choose from — there might be some variation in how they’re doled out to key populations, as identified by the National Advisory Committee on Immunization.

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Final decisions will depend on vaccine efficacy, both Kelvin and Grindrod noted.

“If there is a difference in responses in, say, people over 65, which we often see, then you may see one vaccine being preferentially given to that demographic,” said Grindrod.

That’s why the recent developments in AstraZeneca’s vaccine candidate are so significant.

“It specifically shows the vaccine is effective in older people,” she said. “That’s a piece of information we’ve been waiting for.”

Read more:
Number of Canadians who plan to get coronavirus vaccine on the rise, poll shows

There will still be specialized research to do even after the first roll-out of vaccines, Grindrod added.

For ethical reasons, children and pregnant women are not part of the broader research at this point. Pfizer’s experimental coronavirus vaccine has only been tested in 12-year-olds, while Moderna says it would test teenagers “very soon,” followed by children under the age of 12.

With “multiple companies reaching similar midpoint check-ins,” Grindrod is hopeful there will be positive developments for targeted populations in the near future.

“This isn’t a one-off fluke,” said Grindrod.

“This is moving extraordinarily fast. It’s a week-by-week thing now, not a year-by-year thing. What we don’t have this week, we might have by next.”

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— with files from The Associated Press

© 2020 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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The latest on the coronavirus outbreak for Nov. 23 – CBC.ca

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Aarhus in Denmark is placing 100 waste bins around the city that can hold about 3,000 face masks. The containers have a clamped lid, which ensures that neither birds nor wind can spread the waste. (Henning Bagger/Ritzau Scanpix/Reuters)

P.E.I., Newfoundland and Labrador hit pause on Atlantic travel bubble

Residents of the four Atlantic provinces have been able to travel relatively freely across each other’s borders without quarantining, but that came to a halt on Monday after announcements from Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island. Both provinces cited rising cases in recent days in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

“The Atlantic bubble has been a source of pride … but the situation has changed,” Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Andrew Furey said in announcing a two-week pause from unfettered travel.

Travel to and from Newfoundland and Labrador will only be for essential reasons, Furey said.

P.E.I. said it will re-evaluate on Dec. 7, but beginning Tuesday, those arriving on the island from the other Atlantic provinces will have to self-isolate for 14 days.

“Over the last number of days, it has become apparent that our neighbours in Atlantic Canada, especially Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, are experiencing a second wave,” said Dr. Heather Morrison, the province’s chief public health officer. “I’m concerned it may already be here with some people,” she added.

Those coming to the province from the other three Atlantic provinces will once again need to apply for entry, and students who return to P.E.I. will need to self-isolate for two weeks.

Click below to watch more from The National

Canadians’ fears about contracting COVID-19 kept many people from going to the emergency room. New data shows ER visits were down by nearly one million and there is concern about the impact on the patients who didn’t get the care they needed. 1:59

IN BRIEF

Workplace compensation claims reflect COVID-19 toll on Canadian workers

CBC News has reached out to provincial workers’ compensation boards across the country and found that more than 26,000 claims have been filed by people who contracted COVID-19 at work, the first concrete indication — though not fully complete — of how many workers are getting COVID-19.

Jeffrey Freedman, who was among those 26,000, felt he had no choice earlier in the pandemic but to work at his tile company despite the risk of infection. Freedman spent 44 days in hospital and still can’t work or drive a vehicle due to lingering health effects.

“I have brain fog. I have permanent damage to my vocal cords from the ICU and tubing for 33 days. I have constant neck and bicep pains,” he said.

In Ontario and British Columbia, the data shows that most claims have come from workers in health-care facilities and agriculture.

A quarter of workers in Ontario are not covered at all by the workers’ compensation system, compared with B.C., where all workers have coverage. In addition to variations across the provinces in terms of eligibility, data collection is a challenge as there is no standard accounting of how many people have fallen sick while at work due to a patchwork of provincial and federal tracking. What’s more, the system does not capture COVID-19 cases among workers who are ineligible.

Read more about what the claims tell us

National grief strategy needed for COVID-19 losses, advocacy group says

With over 11,000 Canadians dead from COVID-19, an organization called the Canadian Grief Alliance has been pushing the federal government for a national strategy to help people cope with the increased loss society is facing. The alliance hopes the government will invest $100 million over three years.

Shelly Cory, executive director of Canadian Virtual Hospice and one of the founders of the alliance, says the pandemic’s impact on Canada and the number of people who are grieving is “astounding.” The alliance is calling for a national consultation to help understand the impact and scope of the issue.

“We’ve never dealt with grief from a pandemic. We need to understand where the pressure points are and where we need to provide resources to suffering Canadians,” said Cory, who noted that grief during the pandemic doesn’t involve dealing with the death of a loved one only.

Health Canada says it has funded Wellness Together Canada, a portal that provides Canadians with access to free, credible information and supports to help reinforce mental wellness and address mental health and substance use issues.

The agency also said it has received the proposal from the Canadian Grief Alliance, and officials have been engaging with the organization to discuss its proposal.

Read more about the initiative

Distribution, national registry key issues in COVID-19 vaccine rollout

The past two weeks have provided encouraging news on the development of a COVID-19 vaccine, including on Monday from AstraZeneca, but there will be challenges in distributing and tracking vaccine usage in a country as vast as Canada.

In an interview on Rosemary Barton Live, Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister called for “national criteria” to guide the country’s distribution efforts.

“Vulnerable people, and, of course, front-line workers, are going to get it first. We all agree with that. But we need to also come to a national agreement on those criteria because it isn’t going to be here all at the same time,” said Pallister.

The head of the committee advising the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) on the use of vaccines also spoke to Barton. Dr. Caroline Quach-Thanh says another challenge, aside from prioritizing who gets the vaccine, is that there is no national registry to oversee and track vaccination records.

“I think that most provinces have registries so that they’re able to follow up on who gets what, and it’s now the time to really be able to use it,” said Quach-Thanh.

Co-ordination and communication between levels of government will be critical. Even in the first few days after positive news regarding the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, there appeared to be confusion between some provinces and the feds on how many doses were being allocated.

Read more about the distribution challenges

(CBC News)

Stay informed with the latest COVID-19 data.

THE SCIENCE

University of Guelph researchers look for answers regarding COVID-19 ‘long-haulers’

Researchers at the University of Guelph in Ontario are trying to determine why months after infection with COVID-19, some people are still battling crushing fatigue, lung damage and other symptoms of the novel coronavirus.

Jackie Loree, a respiratory nurse in Kitchener, Ont. is a COVID-19 long-hauler. She tested positive for coronavirus in April, and eight months later she is still experiencing its effects.

“My circulation is poor. I still have bouts of nausea. I lost a great deal of my hair throughout this process, and every day is different,” she told CBC Kitchener-Waterloo’s The Morning Edition. “I always have symptoms every day and it’s very difficult.”

Dr. Melanie Wills, director at the G. Magnotta Lyme Disease Research Lab at the university, said when the pandemic hit in early spring, they saw a potential similarity between COVID-19 and Lyme disease — some patients just don’t seem to get better.

“It’s like a snowball rolling down a hill with COVID now, and so my question is: if we are seeing a chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome emerging from the COVID, is that finally going to shine a spotlight on these types of diseases that have been really ignored to our own peril?” said Wills.

What researchers find will be crucial in treating those with lasting symptoms and trying to prevent new infections from lingering.

AND FINALLY…

Consistency key to adopting new fitness routines during pandemic, researchers say

A jogger runs on a track at Bear Creek Park in Surrey in June 2020. ((Ben Nelms/CBC))

With several provinces entering a more restrictive phase of lockdown that often affects gyms and recreation centres, health researchers in B.C. say it’s important to fight against apathy and still find ways to incorporate a regular fitness routine.

“It’s not something to sort of push off,” says University of Victoria Prof. Ryan Rhodes, who studies health psychology and how people approach and do exercise. “We have to accept that this is a new reality and find new routines to get our physical activity going,” he said.

Rhodes and Guy Faulkner from the University of British Columbia worked on different studies looking at how Canadians were exercising during the initial response to the pandemic. They found a noticed drop-off even among regular exercisers.

Early in the pandemic, it was learned that people with dogs more easily kept up with exercise by walking their pets. People who had exercise equipment at home, bought new equipment or even turned to YouTube for exercise videos also fared better in keeping up with a routine.

Some tips: exercising at the same time of day to build a routine; emphasizing the activities you like most; and taking a walk in the morning and at the end of the working day as a sort of faux commute.

Read more exercise and motivation tips here

Find out more about COVID-19

Still looking for more information on the pandemic? Read more about COVID-19’s impact on life in Canada, or reach out to us at covid@cbc.ca if you have any questions.

If you have symptoms of the illness caused by the coronavirus, here’s what to do in your part of the country.

For full coverage of how your province or territory is responding to COVID-19, visit your local CBC News site.

To get this newsletter daily as an email, subscribe here

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CRA warns 213,000 Canadians that they might have to pay back CERB overpayments – CBC.ca

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The Canada Revenue Agency says it’s warning about 213,000 Canadians who may have been paid twice through the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) program that they could be called upon to repay the money.

But repayment isn’t required right away, says the agency. The CRA has suspended collection of debts for the duration of the pandemic emergency.

“The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) has issued letters to individuals who may have applied for the Canadian Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) from both Service Canada and the CRA, and who may be required to repay an amount to the CRA,” a CRA spokesperson said in an email. “The letters did not require immediate payment; rather they informed the taxpayer that there may be a requirement to repay amounts received.

“We will resume collections activities when it is responsible to do so, including collection of debts related to CERB payments,”

The CRA was responding to CBC’s question about individuals being asked to repay pandemic benefits. The agency says it is still recommending that people pay back any CERB funds to which they’re not entitled by the end of the year, warning that if they don’t, the sum will appear on T4A tax slips and will need to be reported as income on next year’s tax return.

‘An honest mistake’

In emails to CBC News about possible repayments, CRA was careful to avoid suggesting that all those who received letters warning they might have to repay CERB money had been caught in any kind of unethical behaviour.

A CRA spokesperson noted that “applicants may make an honest mistake when applying” for CERB.

It’s also possible that some of those who have received letters about repayment already had returned the money voluntarily, or had incorrectly repaid the money to Service Canada instead of the CRA, the spokesperson said.

According to the latest figures, 945,000 pandemic benefit repayments — including for CERB and the Canada Emergency Student Benefit — have been conducted through the CRA’s My Account online portal. The large number has been blamed on confusion over how to apply for the benefits in the early days of the pandemic.

Last week, a Conservative MP raised concerns about CRA figures indicating more than 800,000 non-tax filers had received CERB payments. But several economists were quick to point out that Canadians can qualify for CERB even if they haven’t previously filed taxes — and only people who owe money to the CRA are required to file a return.

For Canadians who do have to return some pandemic benefits, the CRA says it can come up with individual arrangements based on their ability to pay.

In cases where the CRA can’t come to such an arrangement with a taxpayer, it would turn to collections measures. Those measures remain on hold during the pandemic but they could include taking away future tax credits and refunds or garnishing wages, a spokesperson said.

The CRA also has warned Canadians to be aware of CERB repayment scams, including texts, emails or phone calls that appear to come from the CRA and ask for money or personal information.

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Coronavirus: Canada tops 330K cases ahead of new COVID-19 restrictions – Global News

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Regions across Canada braced for a host of new public health restrictions on Sunday as the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic sent case counts soaring from coast to coast.

Surging case counts that reached record heights in several provinces over the weekend spelled the short-term end to restaurant and retail service in some infection hot spots, while others prepared to further cap public and private gatherings in a bid to halt the spread of the virus.

Across the country, health authorities identified a total of 4,792 new cases of the virus as well as 49 more deaths. The new infections, which now place Canada in its sixteenth day of daily-identified cases topping the 4,000 mark, bring the country’s total cases to 330,201.

Read more:
How many Canadians have the new coronavirus? Total number of confirmed cases by region

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A total of 11,455 people have also succumbed to the virus, while at least 261,201 patients have since recovered. Over 13.7 million tests have also been administered.

In Ontario, which reported 1,534 new cases and 14 additional deaths on Sunday, shoppers flocked to local stores in Toronto and neighbouring Peel Region a day before both districts were slated to enter the lockdown phase of the provincial pandemic response plan.

Janet Reid visited Toronto’s Eaton Centre on Sunday afternoon to do some last-minute shopping in the hours before non-essential retailers close their doors to in-person visitors.


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Ski resorts seeing busy season start thanks to COVID-19


Ski resorts seeing busy season start thanks to COVID-19

She said she hoped the restrictions, which also include the closure of salons and the suspension of indoor dining at local restaurants, would help bring the COVID-19 numbers down.

“It’s going to take everybody to do it, and not just a few people to do it,” Reid said.

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Read more:
Coronavirus Christmas: Canadians should celebrate outdoors, virtually, experts say

Public health officials in Atlantic Canada have also announced new limits on gatherings as the region saw a recent increase in COVID-19 cases, marking a reversal from the stable figures reported for months.

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Nova Scotia’s Hants County and the Halifax area will be under stricter rules as of Monday, including a limit of five people who can gather without social distancing, down from the previous cap of 10.

The province reported 11 new COVID-19 cases on Sunday, bringing its number of active diagnoses to 44.

“I know this will not be easy, but it’s an initial step to contain the community spread and avoid the potential to overwhelm our health-care system,” Dr Robert Strang, Nova Scotia’s chief medical officer of health, said in a Friday statement outlining the new rules.

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In Newfoundland and Labrador, which reported three new cases on Sunday, Memorial University announced plans to postpone staff members’ scheduled return to work, originally set for the coming week.

The small town of Deer Lake, N.L., also sounded the alarm over a regional spike in cases when it announced a two-week closure of some municipal buildings and asked local businesses to follow suit.

The slew of pending restrictions is in line with advice from Canada’s top public health officer, Dr. Theresa Tam, who on Sunday urged people to limit gatherings and only go out for essentials ahead of the holiday season.

Tam said Canada is seeing “rapid epidemic growth,” as the country has now recorded 330,492 confirmed cases of COVID-19 since the pandemic began.

Alberta added to that tally with 1,584 new cases on Sunday, marking the fourth straight day the daily count has reached a record high.


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Ottawa opens new COVID-19 emergency rent subsidy for businesses


Ottawa opens new COVID-19 emergency rent subsidy for businesses

Health officials in Nunavut reported 18 new cases on Sunday in Arviat, a small community on Hudson Bay that now has 98 active infections.

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The territory, which went into a two-week lockdown on Nov. 18, currently has 128 active COVID-19 cases. No deaths have been reported.

“Health teams are working around the clock in Arviat, Whale Cove and Rankin Inlet to trace, test, isolate and contain the spread of the virus,” Dr. Michael Patterson, Nunavut’s chief public health officer, said in a statement.

Meanwhile, Quebec reported 1,154 new COVID-19 cases and 23 additional deaths on Sunday, bringing the highest provincial total in the country to 132,042 cases and 6,829 deaths since the pandemic began.

Officials in New Brunswick reported six new COVID-19 cases and warned that three schools may have been exposed to the virus. The province set a single-day record on Saturday with 23 new cases.

Saskatchewan logged 236 new cases of COVID-19 on Sunday, while Manitoba recorded 243 new instances of the virus and 12 related deaths.

Manitoba’s most recent round of stringent measures took effect Friday. The Hanover School Division, which includes Steinbach, about 60 kilometres south of Winnipeg, will switch to remote learning only on Tuesday.

Worldwide, cases of the virus surpassed 58.5 million according to a tally kept by Johns Hopkins University. A total of 1,386,454 have also succumbed to the virus, with the U.S., Brazil and India leading in both cases and deaths.

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— With files from Global News and CP’s Anita Balakrishnan in Toronto, Rob Drinkwater in Edmonton and Sarah Smellie in St. John’s.


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© 2020 The Canadian Press

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