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Canada’s ignored history of slavery



Long-held conversations about Canada’s relationship with racism have reached a new fever pitch amid ongoing protests against anti-Black racism.

To Indigenous and Black educators in Canada, it’s a relationship that has been left out of history books.

For 17 years, Charmaine Nelson has asked new students at McGill University if they knew that slavery occurred in Canada. She can recall just one student who said that they did. Most only knew of the “Underground Railroad,” the network of safe houses and secret routes for enslaved people in the U.S. to escape to Canada that was used from approximately 1833 to 1865.

But Canada’s history with slavery goes back much further.

“We’re obscuring, falsifying — and completely erasing in many instances — a 200-year history and we’re enshrining a 30-year history,” said Nelson, an art history professor who has researched the visual culture of slavery, in a phone interview with “What we’re omitting then in the Canadian landscape, across the board in our curriculum, from the youngest children into university age, is the 200-year history of slavery in Canada.”

There’s no absence of information on slavery in Canadian archives, as many scholars like Nelson, who have pored over fugitive ads, personal accounts and newspaper articles from centuries ago, will tell you. It has simply been ignored and left out in favour of the sunnier histories told in Heritage Minutes.

It’s what Natasha Henry, the president of the Ontario Black History Society, calls “systemic silence.”

“It is widely ignored,” she told “There’s a sense that it does not have to be taught. In the instruction of our beginnings, it’s not part of that narrative.”

Individual teachers have chosen to instruct students about the country’s history with slavery, but it is not enshrined in most curriculums.

“Through that mechanism of the curriculum, you get the systemic silencing and ignoring of this,” she said. “We’re producing students who have no idea (about slavery in Canada).”

The effects of silencing that part of history can be felt today, too, said Lance McCready, an associate professor at the University of Toronto. McCready has done research interviewing hundreds of Black students in Canadian schools and found that many of them feel the school system isn’t built for them.

“One of the reasons they feel like it is not set up for Black people is they don’t see themselves reflected in the curriculum,” he told CTV’s Your Morning on Thursday.

“This creates part of the mental health issues with Black students as they go through the school system not seeing themselves, feeling like this whole place where they’re supposed to be experiencing a positive learning environment is actually not for them.”

Here is a brief history of slavery in Canada, including some select moments from the first two hundred years. This is not intended to be a complete history.


Thousands of people were enslaved in New France, including the colony of Canada, during the 1600s. Most of them were Indigenous tribes who were called panis, and many were African from Madagascar and Guinea. Enslaved people in New France were “chattel slaves,” meaning they were traded, bought and sold like property.

One of the earliest records of an enslaved African in New France was a boy of about six years old in 1629, according to a Canadian Encyclopedia article by Henry. The boy was eventually given the name Olivier Le Jeune, and records show he was a “domestique,” the common word for a slave in Quebec records.


Slavery was enshrined into laws as a means for white settlers to keep the system going. One example of this was in 1760, after the British conquered New France, in the capitulation of Montreal, settlers agreed to a specific clause to preserve enslavement. “The Negroes and panis of both sexes shall remain, in their quality of slaves, in the possession of the French and Canadians to whom they belong,” read article XLVII.


The number of African slaves increased significantly following the defeat of the British in the American Revolution, said Henry. And in 1790, the Upper Canada government passed an “imperial statute” to encourage the immigration of white​ Americans northward. The statute allowed them to bring Black enslaved people duty-free. They were referenced alongside “household furniture, utensils of husbandry, or cloathing [sic],” according to Henry.

By the 1790s, records show that there were between 1,200 and 2,000 enslaved Black people in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and P.E.I., about 300 in what is now known as Quebec, and up to 700 in what is now known as Ontario.


Even when apparent inroads were made in the law, slavery persisted in Canadian areas. For example, in 1807, the Slave Trade Act abolished the trading of slaves in the British Empire, but this only meant that there could be no new slaves. According to records, this may have intensified conditions for some enslaved people in Canada.

“It’s important to use that to talk about the will of white settlers to ensure that human bondage continued,” said Nelson, adding that some slave owners may have sought ways to “work around” the change in laws. “Then you get the growth of domestic slavery and the breeding of African women.”


The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 abolished slavery in the British Empire, setting off some of the most well-known stories relating to Canada and slavery, including the Underground Railroad.

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Is more testing behind the record numbers of COVID-19 cases in Canada? Your testing questions answered –



We’re answering your questions about the pandemic. Send yours to, and we’ll answer as many as we can. We publish a selection of answers online and also put some questions to the experts during The National and on CBC News Network. So far, we’ve received more than 55,000 emails from all corners of the country.

COVID-19 testing is a crucial part of tracking and managing the pandemic. It has become a part of daily life that’s often necessary for returning to work or school or for keeping friends and family safe. 

But it also generates a lot of confusing news and advice from case counts to wait times to ever-changing instructions about who needs to get tested, when, how and why.

It’s no wonder CBC readers have lots of questions. We checked with experts to get some of the answers.

Is the present spike in COVID-19 cases in Canada related to the increase in testing?

Many provinces have been breaking daily new case records for COVID-19, including British Columbia, Alberta, SaskatchewanManitobaOntario, and Quebec. But these provinces are all running more tests now than they were at the previous peak in the spring when a shortage of tests meant even people with very typical COVID-19 symptoms couldn’t get tested. So, are the increased case counts simply due to more testing? For the most part, no. But the amount of testing does make a difference.

For Ontario, the new records are partly due to the increase in testing, said Dr. Sumon Chakrabarti, an infectious disease specialist with Trillium Health Partners in Mississauga, Ont., in an interview with CBC News Network.

Ontario completed over 48,000 tests on Oct. 7 (two days before setting a record of 949 cases in one day) — about quadruple the 12,000 it ran on April 24 when the province hit a spring peak of 640 cases. 

At that time, Chakrabarti estimates about three-quarters of cases were being missed, and there were likely closer to 2,500 cases a day in late April.

However, the real number of cases in Canada is definitely higher than it’s been since the spring peak. 

All things being equal, if you test more of the population, you will end up testing more people with COVID-19, which will cause the case counts to go up, but you will typically test even more people without COVID-19, causing the percentage of positive tests to decrease, said Cynthia Carr, founder of the Winnipeg-based epidemiology consulting firm EPI Research Inc.

But in fact, the percentage of tests that come back positive is increasing in many places, including Manitoba. In that province, the real number of cases is “definitely an increase relative to the spring.” 

And in Ottawa, SARS-CoV-2 virus levels in waste water in recent weeks are the highest they’ve been since testing began in June. That’s a measure of COVID-19 prevalence independent of the amount of testing at testing centres, said Raywat Deonandan, an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Ottawa. 

The good news? Coronavirus levels in waste water seem to be going down since the province imposed stricter restrictions on social gatherings in the city before Thanksgiving.

WATCH | How sewage can be used to track COVID-19:

Wastewater samples from sewage are being used to determine the existence of COVID-19 in communities and could give advance warning of where a second wave is taking shape. 2:03

If we can test feces in waste water for coronavirus, why are we still doing invasive nasal swabs?

Having your nose swabbed can feel really uncomfortable, but Dr. Matthew Cheng, an assistant professor of medicine at McGill University, said there are practical reasons for it:

  • Public health doctors are more interested in knowing if the virus is in the respiratory tract, which the nose is part of, as it’s mainly spread via the respiratory tract.

  • Lab protocols are optimized to process lots of respiratory samples and having other kinds of samples could slow down analysis.

He said that there’s lots of work underway to be able to quickly analyze respiratory tract samples that are easy for people to collect themselves, such as “swish and gargle” saliva tests. Lastly, many people may not find collecting a stool sample easier than getting a swab in the nose.

WATCH | A closer look at saliva-based tests:

Instead of waiting in a long line for a COVID-19 test that involves getting a swab stuck up the nose and sometimes waiting days for results, scientists are developing saliva-based tests and produce results in minutes. Is the future of testing more comfortable and done at home? 5:58

How long are test samples good for?

With backlogs in testing in Ontario this fall, at least one local health director has complained about tests spoiling and having to be redone after they weren’t processed within 72 hours. Dr. Robert Cushman, acting medical director of Renfrew County and District Health Unit in Ontario, reported that the testing lab told him that about 10 tests had to be redone due to delays in processing.

So how long do they last?

It depends on how the swab is stored after collection, said Allison McGeer, an infectious disease specialist at Toronto’s Mount Sinai Hospital, but generally speaking, it should last weeks.

Benoît Hébert, a Quebec-based biotechnology consultant, said most biological samples including nasopharyngeal swabs can be stored at regular fridge temperatures for up to 72 hours and should be deep frozen if there is any delay in testing or shipping.

According to Public Health Ontario, tests have about a 95 per cent accuracy rate as long as the test is processed within seven days of collection, and the sample is taken using a nasopharyngeal swab.

As of mid-October, more than half the tests in Ontario were processed within two days, the Health Ministry told CBC News in an email. It said that accredited labs conducting testing must have equipment in place to keep specimens at a stable temperature before testing, and it recommends freezing samples to preserve them.

“In the event a laboratory would report a specimen as expired, they would contact the testing site to ensure that re-collection occurs,” the ministry said.

WATCH | A closer look at rapid COVID-19 testing:

Doctors answer viewer questions about COVID-19 testing in Canada, including how effective it is and who should be tested. 4:58

I got COVID-19 and isolated for the required time. But I’m still testing positive. What does that mean? 

“Many people have these lingering positive tests,” acknowledged Chakrabarti, and that can happen weeks or months after they recover. But at that point, he said, “they’re not actually contagious.”

Dr. Zain Chagla, medical director of infection control at St. Joseph’s Healthcare in Hamilton, explained that’s because COVID-19 tests detect genetic material from the virus, which can be shed from your body even when all the viruses are dead.

So how long is a COVID-19 patient contagious?

Chagla said that researchers trying to culture live virus from patients have found there are minimal amounts in most people 10 days after they experience their first symptoms and after 20 days in critically ill patients. That suggests they’re not contagious after those periods.

“There’s also been no case reports of people being infected by others who are 10+ days into their illness,” Chagla added in an email.

That’s why 10 days (instead of 14 days) is now the standard time recommended to self-isolate after your symptoms start in places such as Ontario and B.C. 

It also means long-haulers, people who are still experiencing symptoms months after they got infected, are not contagious.

WATCH | Doctors take questions and give answers about COVID-19 testing:

There is a growing push to have Canada focus on COVID-19 tests that detect who is contagious rather than who is positive for the virus. These tests are available elsewhere in the world, cheaper and can be done at home, but they aren’t approved in Canada. 6:05

I’ve recovered from COVID-19, but my boss says I need to test negative before I can return to work. Can they ask me for one?

Given that people can test positive for weeks or months after recovery and aren’t contagious, a request like this may be frustrating.

But the answer is yes.

Even if you’ve completed isolation and public health has cleared you, employment lawyer Howard Levitt said it’s within your employer’s rights to require a negative test — and they’re not obliged to pay you if you’re unable to work. 

“Safety trumps privacy. That’s the bottom line,” said Levitt, noting that employers could ask for a negative test result every two weeks, if they wanted to, needing no other reason than ensuring a safe workplace. 

So what can workers do?

You could try talking with your boss or getting a doctor’s note, said Maggie Campbell, a partner at Vancouver law firm Roper Greyell. 

Other than that, Levitt says there isn’t much you can do. You can offer to work from home, if possible, or you could take your employer to court, but he cautioned that courts may not be in workers’ favour in the current climate. 

“Employees should understand that anything an employer is doing to protect other employees of theirs will be seen very sympathetically by the courts.”

However, companies should be up-to-date with the latest public health guidelines, he said. 

If your employer sends you home without pay while awaiting a negative test result, you could apply for Canada Recovery Sickness Benefit, providing you are eligible.

WATCH | Labour lawyer answers questions about work during pandemic:

Employment lawyer Howard Levitt answers your question about work during the COVID-19 pandemic, including when it’s in your best interest to refuse to go back to work. 14:13

I have symptoms but tested negative. Do I still have to self-isolate?

It’s always best to check with your health-care provider or local public health unit for advice specific to your personal situation. But symptomatic individuals may be advised to continue isolating for the remainder of the isolation period, even if they get a negative result. 

That’s because a negative result isn’t a guarantee that you don’t have the virus.

According to Dr. Kelly MacDonald, head of the infectious disease program at the University of Manitoba, the nasal swab test is accurate 99 per cent of the time in a laboratory setting, but in a clinical setting errors can happen when the sample is taken. For example, the swabbing may not be done properly. 

A negative test could also mean that you were tested too early before viral levels are high enough to be reliably measured

Ultimately, context is important, and your doctor or local health unit would form their advice on a number of factors, including whether there was exposure to a known case, the kind of symptoms you have, how long you’ve had them and whether you’re a student, or you work with vulnerable individuals, for example.

And even if you don’t have COVID-19, you could still be contagious with something else — perhaps the flu — in which case, the same public health advice to stay home when sick would still apply.

On the other hand, if you get a positive test, you almost certainly have COVID-19 — the false positive rate is very low — less than one per cent of tests overall, estimates Dr. Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, a medical microbiologist at St. Boniface Hospital in Winnipeg.

WATCH | Why people with COVID-19 symptoms should be reassessed if they test negative:

Infectious disease physician Dr. Isaac Bogoch discusses new research on the rate of ‘false negatives’ in coronavirus tests and why people with persistent COVID-19 symptoms should be reassessed even if they test negative.  2:24

If you’re a contact of someone who tested positive, why are you supposed to get tested within 2 weeks of exposure? Wouldn’t the virus still be developing?

While it can take up to 14 days for symptoms to develop, Charkrabarti said that most people start to develop symptoms within seven days.

“And you can actually test positive a couple of days before that,” he said.

So ideally, you should wait about three to four days after exposure before getting tested, he recommends. 

However, any result could still be a false negative, so if you were exposed, you should remain in quarantine for 14 days even if you test negative.

Are tests at pharmacies as accurate as those at provincial testing centres?

Two provinces have been offering tests in pharmacies to people without COVID-19 symptoms: Alberta and Ontario.

In general, people with no symptoms are more likely to get a false negative than those with symptoms, but it’s not known by how much.

In Alberta, the tests are identical to those offered at provincial testing sites and analyzed at the same labs, the provincial Health Ministry says. That means they should have similar accuracy to tests of asymptomatic people at testing centres. However, Alberta announced on Oct. 20 that it would stop testing asymptomatic people with no known exposure to COVID-19 — the only people who could get tested in pharmacies.

In Ontario, there are some differences between pharmacy tests and those offered at provincial testing centres. Pharmacy tests use shorter nasal swabs instead of the long nasopharyngeal swabs, and they’re sent to the California lab of Quest Diagnostics instead of in-province labs, says the provincial Health Ministry.

Chagla says the sensitivity may be slightly lower with the shorter swabs, but this shouldn’t be a big risk, as the probability of asymptomatic people having COVID-19 is lower than people with symptoms, especially if they haven’t been exposed.

WATCH | How pharmacy testing works in Ontario:

CBC’s Tahmina Aziz speaks with Thibert and outlines the criteria Windsorites must meet to be tested in a pharmacy. 1:45

I think I had COVID-19, but I’m better now. Can I be tested to confirm?

The nose swabs at testing centres can only detect current or very recent infections, not whether you’ve been previously infected. To find that out, you need an antibody test. Such tests are available 14 days after active infection, with a doctor’s prescription, in some provinces. Dynacare offers the service in Ontario and Quebec. Ichor Blood Services offers it in some communities in Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick. The fee is typically $70 to $80.

However, studies have shown that even among those infected, antibodies fade with time, and it happens far more quickly in those who never showed symptoms.

WATCH | A closer look at the 1st antibody test Health Canada approved in May:

Health Canada says it has authorized the first COVID-19 serological test for use in the country to detect antibodies specific to the virus.   3:09

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Happy ending for young Montreal couple who overcame immigration obstacles –



When Bayan Assi, 29, learned that his wife would finally be allowed to come to Canada, the relief was overwhelming.

“It was an exhilarating moment. It was like so much pressure was removed off your chest, [and] put on the side,” Assi said.

The couple married in January. And since then, Assi, a Canadian citizen, has been trying to bring Rawand Shamseddine, 30, to Canada.

His efforts intensified after a horrific explosion in August levelled parts of Beirut, where Shamseddine was living. At least 200 people were killed and more than 6,000 were injured in the blast.

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) established a program designed to reunite families affected by the explosion. Shamseddine applied, but was told she did not qualify and was turned down.

Bayan Assi’s wife Rawand Shamseddine will soon be on her way to Canada. 1:09

After the couple’s plea to IRCC last week, Shamseddine was finally issued a temporary residence permit (TRP) to be able to come to Canada.

“It was the first time I saw her truly smile, after all this disaster and catastrophe that she’s been going through,” said Assi. “It was like a glimpse of hope on her face.”

Assi’s relief is tempered with concern for other couples who are also trying to navigate the Canadian immigration process.

“I think there needs to be a lot more attention to the details of every application,” he said.

Assi added that he believes his wife’s file may not have been properly reviewed, and because of that she was initially denied.

Bayan Assi 29, a computer engineer and his wife Rawand Shamseddine 30, who has a masters degree in music education, together in Lebanon. (Submitted by Bayan Assi)

“Her file, which was made for people affected by the explosion in Beirut, was treated as a normal tourist visa,” he explained.

Should have been eligible from the start

Joseph Daoura, a lawyer who deals with immigrations cases, praised Canadian embassy staff and IRCC for their efforts.

“They did a great job,” said Daoura. “They reviewed their decision which is now in line with the guidance and instructions given [after] the Beirut explosion.”

But he explains that Shamseddine should have been eligible from the start — under Canada’s federal reunification program — since she is married to a Canadian citizen and was living in the area affected by the Beirut explosion.

Daoura says another case he worked on with embassy staff also ended in a happy ending.  He said he’s glad officials there are taking a “humanitarian approach” to reuniting families.

The TRP issued to Shamseddine allows her to live in Canada for a period of time, while she waits for approval of her spousal sponsorship visa.

Assi says he’s looking forward to Shamseddine’s arrival and the start of their lives together.

“It’s really starting from point zero, and building [a life] with her, [which] is going to be something beautiful and something I look forward to.”

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Canada quietly prepares for the possible challenges of a Biden presidency –



Joe Biden dropped in on Ottawa back in December 2016 — just a month before becoming the former U.S. vice president — to salute a Canadian-American relationship that would soon be tested by Donald Trump.

“The partnership between Canada and the United States is among the most robust, most complex and most important in the world,” Biden told premiers and Indigenous leaders as his host, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, sat by his side. “We are deeply interconnected in every way. Our people. Our economy. Our environments.”

Those were reassuring words coming from a man who knows Canada well, whose personal and professional connections to this country are deep — and who could very well be the president-elect of the United States next week.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and then-U.S. Vice President Joe Biden arrive at a state dinner in Ottawa on Dec. 8, 2016. (Justin Tang/Canadian Press)

The family of Biden’s first wife came from Canada; they visited often before she was killed, along with their young daughter, in a horrifying traffic accident in 1972.

At a dinner party during that same December visit four years ago, Biden said his sons wanted to be Mounties when they grew up.

“We are more like family than allies,” he said at the dinner. “At least, that’s the way the vast majority of Americans feel about Canada and Canadians, and I hope you feel that way about us as well.”

Even Biden’s choice for running mate on the 2020 Democratic ticket has strong Canadian ties. Sen. Kamala Harris spent her high school years in Montreal, where her mother was a professor at McGill University.

U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA) accepts the Democratic vice presidential nomination on August 19, 2020. (Kevin Lamarque/Reuters)

Harmony … up to a point

So, would a Biden win be good for Canada?

Observers say harmony would replace at least some of the discord of the past four years under President Trump — who deployed tariffs, insults and threats when dealing with his country’s largest trading partner.

“There are a number of policy areas in which a Biden administration would be much closer to Canada,” said former Trudeau foreign policy advisor Roland Paris, now a professor at the University of Ottawa’s Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

“Climate change, standing up for allies, defending democracy and human rights at home and abroad … the list goes on.”

There’s a ‘but’, of course.

“It’s also true that Joe Biden has run on a nationalist economic agenda and that has to be a concern in Ottawa,” Paris said.

Start with the slogans Trudeau and Biden chose for their pandemic economic recovery plans. Trudeau’s is “build back better.” Biden’s is “build back America better.”

Protectionist tendencies 

Biden’s platform doesn’t see Canada in the same light the candidate did four years ago.

Biden’s recovery plan includes “Buy American” measures in its $400 billion procurement strategy and commits to attracting new investment and returning manufacturing supply chains to the United States.

He also would rescind federal approval for the $8 billion Keystone XL pipeline project — still seen by many Canadians as a critical support for an energy sector in trouble. And despite his 36 years in the Senate, including two stints as chair of the powerful foreign affairs committee, Biden has never shown any inclination to solve the softwood lumber problem — the biggest, longest-running bilateral trade dispute between the two countries.

U.S. President Donald Trump’s reliance on tariffs to correct what he sees as trade imbalances has made the Canada-U.S. relationship less certain. (Alex Brandon/AP Photo)

It all represents a threat to the trading partnership — not the kind of threat that Trump’s tariffs on steel and aluminum represented, but one that still will require vigilance on the federal government’s part to protect Canada’s access to the U.S. market.

Democrats are, by tradition and inclination, more protectionist than Republicans because of their strong ties to the labour movement and a political base highly concentrated in urban America.

Ottawa braces for a sweep

Paris said the Trudeau government will have to be nimble in protecting Canada’s interests — especially if the Democrats also gain control of the Senate on Tuesday.

“I think there is likely to be strong support if that happens for a new Buy America approach by a Biden administration,” he said. “It points to the importance of Canada redoubling its efforts to reach out to politicians at all levels of government.”

Canada has been preparing for the possibility of a Democratic sweep. Trudeau spoke this week to his ambassador to the U.S., Kirsten Hillman, and the 13 Canadian consul-generals across the country.

One Canadian official, speaking on background, said the Biden and Harris connections to Canada have been “overblown” by the media.

But there are other ties. Biden’s campaign chair, Jen O’Malley Dillon, worked with Liberal operatives in advance of the 2015 Canadian election. Susan Rice, former national security adviser to Barack Obama, is married to a Canadian and also has close ties to both Biden and the Trudeau team.

Canadian officials have been renewing their contacts with American policy makers, emphasizing a shared commitment to reducing climate-changing emissions and promoting a coordinated North American response to the pandemic — including cooperation on vaccine research and the production of personal protective equipment.

“Joe Biden is a known commodity,” said Peter Boehm, a long-serving Canadian diplomat before his appointment to the Senate. “He knows the files. He has a long track record from his time in the Senate and vice-president, so it won’t be a steep learning curve if he becomes President Biden.”

Trudeau and his team are not taking sides ahead of Tuesday’s results. And even if Biden wins, his personal connections to Trudeau and Canada guarantee nothing as far as the bilateral relationship is concerned.

He’ll still be paid in U.S. dollars to defend U.S. interests — no matter how close his ties to this country might be.

WATCH: How a Biden presidency might affect Canada

If Joe Biden wins the U.S. presidential election, Canadians could feel the impact in areas like energy, trade and defence. 6:42

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