They travel through space, and they’ve puzzled astronomers since they were first discovered just over decade ago. They’re called fast radio bursts, and thanks to a team of Canadian scientists, a new signal has been precisely located in a nearby galaxy. It’s a major step to figuring out where these enigmas come from in our universe.
The findings are in part due to the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Fast Radio Burst collaboration, a team made up of more than 50 scientists across North America. The team collects data from a radio telescope stationed at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory south of Penticton, B.C.
FRBs are bright bursts of radio waves that come from far beyond Earth’s galaxy. Lasting less than a second, the phenomenon was first reported in 2007. Many have been spotted since, but only around a dozen have been shown to repeat — a quality crucial to spotting them again so researchers can find out more.
There are many theories of what they could be, but with such a small sample size, astronomers can’t rule much out just yet. They’ve only traced the origins of two repeating signals so far.
“They’re telling us something about an energetic arena we’ve had very little insight of to date,” said Paul Delaney, a professor in the physics and astronomy department at York University who was not involved in the study.
“It’s going to give us a window into new astrophysics, and that gives us a better understanding of the universe as a whole,” he said.
The team, co-led by the universities of British Columbia, Toronto and McGill, along with the National Research Council of Canada, has been working toward that goal since 2017.
Extragalactic signal discovery! Canada’s <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/CHIME?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>#CHIME</a> telescope detects second-ever repeating fast radio burst, a collaboration between <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/UofT?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>#UofT</a> <a href=”https://twitter.com/UofTArtSci?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@uoftartsci</a> <a href=”https://twitter.com/UBC?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@ubc</a> <a href=”https://twitter.com/mcgillu?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@mcgillu</a> <a href=”https://twitter.com/NRC_CNRC?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@nrc_cnrc</a> <a href=”https://twitter.com/Perimeter?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@perimeter</a>. ? <a href=”https://t.co/pNSn8goz4U”>https://t.co/pNSn8goz4U</a> <a href=”https://t.co/02K1p7I22j”>pic.twitter.com/02K1p7I22j</a>
The telescope’s ability to look at large portions of the sky at a time gives the team a better look at the random and elusive behaviour of FRBs, said the University of Toronto’s Mubdi Rahman, CHIME research associate and co-author of the study.
“Unlike most other telescopes, CHIME stays stable and doesn’t point at things. It lets the sky move,” he said.
After co-ordination with CHIME, the latest burst to be tracked, known as FRB 180916.j0158+65, was spotted and tracked by the European VLBI Network, eight telescopes spanning the globe.
The eight-metre Gemini North telescope in Hawaii was the crucial last piece to trace the FRB to a spiral galaxy 500 million light years away, according to results published in the Jan. 9 edition of Nature.
Since the discovery, scientists have found nine more repeating signals from space, according to a report released earlier this week. That means they could be localized, too, identifying the environments in space they come from, what causes them — and eventually, what these massive energy bursts are.
But CHIME can’t localize FRBs on its own. After seeing the signals repeat, it can narrow down the origins to certain parts of the sky. CHIME can then team up with more precise telescopes to match it with a galaxy. It’s set to get an extension in a few years that will enable it to localize data points on its own.
Right now, the telescope is predicted to detect between two and 50 FRBs per day, an event rate scientists consider very high. That’s putting CHIME, a Canadian led and funded project, at the forefront of FRB research.
CHIME was also behind the first repeater ever spotted, FRB 121102. It was traced to a different environment, a dwarf galaxy in 2017.
Both repeaters tracked so far have been found to originate from star-forming galaxies, an attribute that might be important for further research, said Deborah Good, a post-doctoral student at UBC and CHIME researcher.
“It’s hard to say. We always have to be really careful about generalizing from a really small number like this,” she said. “But it also means that every data point we get is super important.”
The International Space Station just swerved to avoid space junk – Deseret News
- “Five minutes ago, the ISS avoided a conjunction with the U.S. space debris, the Pegasus carrier rocket remnants,” Rogozin said, per the report.
- According to Sky News, the mission control specialists “calculated how to correct the orbit” of the 100-meter wide space station to protect it from the collision.
- The engines of Russia’s expendable Progress cargo spacecraft, which is currently docked on the station, will be used to boost the station 1.2 km higher, per the report.
Earlier this week, NASA postponed a spacewalk, originally planned for Tuesday, when it received a space debris warning from ISS.
- “Due to lack of opportunity to properly assess the risk it could pose to the astronauts, teams have decided to delay the Nov. 30 spacewalk until more information is available,” the agency said via Twitter.
NASA received a debris notification for the space station. Due to the lack of opportunity to properly assess the risk it could pose to the astronauts, teams have decided to delay the Nov. 30 spacewalk until more information is available. https://t.co/HJCXFWBd3Y pic.twitter.com/swj5hqusSo
— International Space Station (@Space_Station) November 30, 2021
According to Sky News, NASA tracks more than 23,000 pieces of space junk, though there is much more debris too small to track but large enough to threaten human spaceflight.
And these debris travel at speeds up to 17,500 mph. “Even tiny paint flecks can damage a spacecraft when traveling at these velocities,” said NASA.
Newly Discovered Dinosaur Had A Unique Weaponized Tail – IFLScience
A newly discovered species of ankylosaur protected itself from predators with a tail weapon that is unlike anything in the paleontological record. Indeed, in an effort to describe it, the best comparison dinosaur describers could find was the Mesoamerican war club, the macuahuitl. The advantages and disadvantages of this slashing blade compared to the spikes and maces developed by other armored dinosaurs remain a mystery, but the discovery proves Gondwanan Cretaceous species were in need of as much protection as their northern hemisphere counterparts.
Faced with the fearsome predators of the era, many herbivorous dinosaurs found armor insufficient developing tails that could do serious damage to the shins, and possibly soft underbellies, of anything that tried to eat them. Some may have also found these useful in mating conflicts with their own species.
Having failed to develop a more scientific term, paleontologists adopted the name “the thagomizer” after a Gary Larson cartoon. A paper in Nature describes a newly identified late Cretaceous ankylosaur from Chile, whose defining feature is its thagomizer, which even the paper’s headline calls “bizarre”.
The discovery is different enough from anything known it needs a new genus, and the authors have called it Stegouros, which confusingly has nothing to do with the famous Stegosauruses. The name comes from the Greek words for “roof” and “tail”; Stegouros lived 80 million years later and on the other side of the world from its near namesake. The species name is elengassen.
Only one Stegouros fossil has been found – another major contrast to the common Stegosaurus – but that one is almost complete. At 180-200 centimeters (6-7 foot) long, tail included, it is believed to have been fully grown.
The tail was relatively short by the standards of armored dinosaurs and ended in seven pairs of flat bony deposits that form a shape somewhat like a fern frond, for those unfamiliar with ancient Aztec weaponry. It could probably slice deep into any perceived threats.
S. elengassen had a skull and teeth similar to other ankylosaurs, including the much more common representatives in the northern hemisphere. The rest of its body, however, looks like a throwback to earlier times, including some features that do indeed resemble stegosauruses.
S. elengassen was found in a layer dated between 74.9-71.7 million years old from Magellanes as the southern tip of Chile. The site was a delta at the time in which many dinosaurs and other animals were trapped. At the time South America was still connected to Antarctica and Australia as part of the supercontinent Gondwana. It’s nearest known relatives appear to be the larger Antarctopelta and Australia’s Kunbarrasaurus, but Stegouros had several noticeable differences from each. The authors propose a new clade called Parankylosauria (“next to the ankylosaurs”) to combine these. ““The Parankylosauria lack many features of the ‘true’ ankylosaurs that were already present in the middle Jurassic, about 165 million years ago. Therefore, the roots of Parankylosauria must be very old , before that date ” said Dr Alexander Vargas of the University of Chile said in a statement.
The authors still believe ankylosaurs were genuinely less common in the southern hemisphere than in the north, but our limited knowledge of the Gondwana species also partially reflects the amount of exploration done there. No dinosaurs from Chile were described before 2011, Stegouros is the fourth in ten years.
Although they may not have been common, the fact the southern hemisphere ankylosaurs represented a line that stretched back almost 100 million years suggests tanks of the animal kingdom might still be around today, were it not for a meddling asteroid.
Total solar eclipse: How and where to watch – CTV News
For a few brief moments on Saturday, things will go dark in Antarctica as a total solar eclipse crosses over.
According to NASA, a solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves between the sun and Earth, casting a shadow onto Earth. When this happens it fully or partially blocks light from the sun in some areas.
NASA said on Saturday, some people in the southern hemisphere will be able to experience a total or partial eclipse of the sun. For parts of the world where the eclipse won’t be visible, such as Canada, NASA will live stream the event if the weather allows.
“For a total solar eclipse to take place, the sun, moon and earth must be in a direct line,” the NASA website reads.
The agency says people located in the centre of the moon’s shadow when it hits Earth will see a total eclipse. This time, that will be people in Antarctica.
The agency said the sky will become very dark, “as if it were dawn or dusk.”
According to NASA, depending on the weather, those in the path of a total solar eclipse may also be able to see the sun’s corona or outer atmosphere “which is otherwise usually obscured by the bright face of the sun.”
While people outside of Antarctica won’t be able to see a total solar eclipse, some may still see a “partial” solar eclipse.
This occurs when the sun, moon and Earth are “not exactly lined up,” NASA said.
When this happens the sun will look like it has a dark shadow on a part of its surface.
According to NASA, people in parts of Saint Helena, Namibia, Lesotho, South Africa, South Georgia, and Sandwich Islands, Crozet Islands, Falkland Islands, Chile, New Zealand and Australia will be able to see a partial eclipse.
“In many of these locations, the eclipse will occur before, during, and after sunrise or sunset,” the website reads. “This means that viewers will need to get a clear view of the horizon during sunrise or sunset in order to see the eclipse.”
Astronaut Chris Hadfield shared a photo on Twitter, showing which areas can expect to see what during the eclipse.
Time and Date has also released an interactive eclipse map, where viewers can type in their location to determine what they will be able to see, and when.
In order to safely view the eclipse, NASA said solar viewing glasses — not regular sunglasses — or a pinhole projector must be used.
“It is never safe to look directly at the sun,” the website reads. “Even if the sun is partly or mostly obscured.”
HOW TO WATCH IN CANADA
For those who won’t be able to see the eclipse in-person, NASA said it will be livestreaming the event on its website and YouTube channel, weather permitting.
The agency said the event will begin at 1:30 a.m. EDT, with totality expected at 2:44 a.m. EST.
If you can’t stay up that late, you’re in luck.
While these events don’t happen that often, NASA said in October 2023, an annular solar eclipse will cross North America, and a total solar eclipse is expected to cross the continent on April of 2024.
This story has been updated to reflect that a pinhole projector, not a pinwheel projector should be used to safely view solar eclipses.
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