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Canadian wildfires drive smoke into U.S., with no letup expected soon

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Northeastern U.S. airports issued ground stops early Thursday as the weather system that’s driving the ongoing Canadian-American smoke out — a low-pressure system over Maine and Nova Scotia — “will probably be hanging around at least for the next few days,” according to National Weather Service meteorologist.

“Conditions are likely to remain unhealthy, at least until the wind direction changes or the fires get put out,” Brian Ramsey of the NWS said. “Since the fires are raging — they’re really large — they’re probably going to continue for weeks. But it’s really just going be all about the wind shift.”

That means at least another day, or more, of a dystopian-style detour that’s chased players from ball fields, actors from Broadway stages, delayed thousands of flights and sparked a resurgence in mask wearing and remote work — all while raising concerns about the health effects of prolonged exposure to such bad air.

Across the eastern U.S., officials warned residents to stay inside and limit or avoid outdoor activities again Thursday, extending “Code Red” air quality alerts in some places for a third straight day as forecasts showed winds continuing to push smoke-filled air south.

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See a timelapse of fire haze around NYC skyline

 

The U.S. National Weather Service released timelapse video on Wednesday showing worsening conditions around New York City.

Air delays, but few cancellations: Buttigieg

Disruptions to arrivals and departures were noted by a few northeastern U.S. airports early Thursday.

“Reduced visibility from wildfire smoke will continue to impact air travel today,” the FAA said, advising travellers who might be affected to check its website for updates.

A person on a bicycle is shown in the foreground in front of a grey, hazy city skyline.
A person cycles past the skyline in Philadelphia shrouded in haze, on Thursday. The intense wildfires are blanketing the northeastern U.S. in a haze, leading to health warnings and travel and event disruptions. (Matt Rourke/The Associated Press)

U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg, in an MSNBC interview, said the smoke was affecting the multiple airports in the New York-New Jersey, Philadelphia and Maryland-D.C. areas “in a big way.”

“If there’s good news, it’s that this has led to relatively few cancellations; we’ve been able to keep the system going through ground delay programs,” Buttigieg said, while noting that travellers to the affected airports over the next few days should check for updates.

Cancellations and postponements in the world of sports that began the previous day continued on Thursday.

Major League Baseball postponed a home game at Nationals Park between Washington and the visiting Arizona Diamondbacks to June 22. As well, the New York Racing Association cancelled live racing in Belmont, N.Y., two days before the facility is scheduled to host the final leg of the Triple Crown with the Belmont Stakes.

“Based on current forecast models and consultation with our external weather services, we remain optimistic that we will see an improvement in air quality on Friday,” association president and CEO David O’Rourke said in a statement.

Plumes of fine particulate matter were experienced on Wednesday as far south as North Carolina. Health officials from Vermont to South Carolina and as far west as Ohio and Kansas warned residents that spending time outdoors could cause respiratory problems due to high levels of fine particulates in the atmosphere.

In Washington, Mayor Muriel Bowser ordered schools to cancel outdoor recess, sports and field trips Thursday. In suburban Philadelphia, officials set up an emergency shelter so people living outside can take refuge from the haze.

In Baltimore, the Maryland Zoo was closing early Thursday due to the conditions.

New York Gov. Kathy Hochul said the state was making a million N95 masks — the kind prevalent at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic — available at state facilities, including 400,000 in New York City. She also urged residents to stay put.

“You don’t need to go out and take a walk. You don’t need to push the baby in the stroller,” Hochul said Wednesday night. “This is not a safe time to do that.”

A woman in a mask and a reflective vest hands out a mask to a person.
Metropolitan Transportation Authority employee Shanita Hancle, left, hands out masks at the entrance to a subway station in New York City on Thursday. (Seth Wenig/The Associated Press)

More than 400 fires burning

More than 400 blazes burning across Canada have left 20,000 people displaced. The U.S. has sent more than 600 firefighters and equipment to Canada, among the countries that are helping in the effort to tamp the fires.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau spoke to U.S. President Joe Biden by phone on Wednesday. Trudeau’s office said he thanked Biden for his support and that both leaders “acknowledged the need to work together to address the devastating impacts of climate change.”

 

Masking up (again) and other ways to protect yourself from smoky air

 

With wildfire smoke enveloping major parts of Ontario and Quebec, we look at some ways you can protect yourself — including masking up. Plus, a Q&A from viewers with respirologist Dr. Samir Gupta.

Biden also urged affected residents to follow guidelines set by local officials to stay safe.

“It’s critical that Americans experiencing dangerous air pollution, especially those with health conditions, listen to local authorities to protect themselves and their families,” Biden said on Twitter.

Smoke from the blazes has been lapping into the U.S. since last month but intensified with recent fires in Quebec, where about 100 were considered out of control Wednesday.

Eastern Quebec got some rain Wednesday, but Montreal-based Environment Canada meteorologist Simon Legault said no significant rain is expected for days in the remote areas of central Quebec where the wildfires are more intense.

 

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Canadian Sikhs protest against Indian government over murder – CTV News

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Unpacking India-Canada tensions amid Trudeau’s bombshell allegations

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Montreal, Canada – When Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced last week that his government was investigating possible ties between India and the June killing of a Canadian Sikh leader, Moninder Singh says one of his initial feelings was “validation”.

“For 40 years, our community has been working to bring foreign interference from India to light,” said Singh, spokesman for the British Columbia Gurdwaras Council, a coalition of Sikh temples, including the one where Hardeep Singh Nijjar was killed.

His sense of validation was “not only at the fact that foreign interference by India was being recognised”, Singh told Al Jazeera, but also that Nijjar’s death “wasn’t some localised matter; that there was a foreign hand in it”.

“But on the other side of it, there was also – amongst myself and the whole community – a sense of frustration, as well, as it [took] an assassination of a Sikh leader in a gurdwara for this acknowledgement to happen.”

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Nijjar was fatally shot outside a Sikh temple in Surrey, a city southeast of Vancouver, on June 18. His death immediately fuelled concerns and outrage within the local community, but it was Trudeau’s allegations, made in the House of Commons, that set off a diplomatic crisis between Canada and India.

“Any involvement of a foreign government in the killing of a Canadian citizen on Canadian soil is an unacceptable violation of our sovereignty,” the prime minister said on September 18.

India has forcefully denied Canada’s claims – calling them “absurd” and politically motivated. It has also accused Canada of not doing enough to stem anti-India activism and what it dubs “Sikh extremism”.

The ongoing row has highlighted long-simmering tensions between the two countries over a Sikh campaign for a sovereign state in India’s Punjab region known as the Khalistan movement that has supporters in parts of Canada.

It also has raised questions about the future of their relationship, as both have expelled each other’s diplomats. India has announced the suspension of visa processing for Canadians, as well.

“Such unsubstantiated allegations seek to shift the focus from Khalistani terrorists and extremists, who have been provided shelter in Canada and continue to threaten India’s sovereignty and territorial integrity,” the Indian government said on September 19.

 

Sikh diaspora in Canada

Nijjar, a prominent Canadian Sikh leader who served as president of the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara where he was killed, advocated for Khalistan.

Dating back decades but now largely dormant inside India itself, the movement retains some support in the Sikh diaspora, including in Canada, which is home to a Sikh community of more than 770,000 people – the largest outside of India.

In 2020, India accused Nijjar of making “hateful speeches” and “seditionary and insurrectionary imputations” and designated him as being “involved in terrorism” – allegations (PDF) rejected by Singh, who was a close associate of the slain leader. “There’s no evidence behind any claims they’ve made,” Singh said.

Nijjar’s killing, he added, aimed “to silence a very prominent Sikh leader that was advocating for Sikh sovereignty in Khalistan”.

That was echoed by Prabjot Singh, the Canada-based editor of the Panth-Punjab Project digital platform and a supporter of the Khalistan movement, who told Al Jazeera he was 13 or 14 years old when he was first told to be careful about being too vocal about his political views.

“Don’t voice your opinions too loud,” the 32-year-old recalled relatives and friends telling him.

“Pretty much anybody calling for a separate state or even [anybody who has] politics that are critical of human rights violations … India interprets [that] as extremism,” Prabjot Singh said.

“That strategy of labelling political activism and human rights advocacy as extremism is its attempt to delegitimise any critique of India and to hopefully inspire a security-based response against political speech.”

For him, the issue centres around the question of Sikh sovereignty; he says that since the end of British rule nearly 80 years ago, when Punjab was split between India and its neighbour Pakistan, the Indian authorities have rejected “any kind of discussion” of what that could mean.

“The root of this is that unresolved transfer of power in 1947 and really grappling with this question of Sikh self-determination and what it’s going to look like today,” he said. “And for us, it’s unequivocally Khalistan.”

Diverse opinions

While the Khalistan movement traces its roots to the end of British colonial rule, Reeta Tremblay, a professor emerita of political science at the University of Victoria who specialises in South Asia, said the “ethno-nationalist” push really grew in the 1970s and 1980s.

That’s when there was a rise in what Tremblay described as a “very strong, violent political insurgency” among Sikhs in India, who today make up about two percent of the population, demanding their own state.

That campaign culminated in a June 1984 military raid ordered by then-Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on the holiest site in Sikhism – the Golden Temple – to root out separatist leaders. Hundreds of people were killed in India’s Operation Blue Star, and months later, Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, setting off a new wave of anti-Sikh riots, arrests and deadly violence.

Tremblay told Al Jazeera that many members of the Sikh diaspora whose families sought refuge in countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia amid the violence in Punjab still carry unresolved memories of what happened there.

A banner with the image of Sikh leader Hardeep Singh Nijjar
A banner with the image of Hardeep Singh Nijjar is seen at the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara temple in Surrey, British Columbia, September 20, 2023 [Chris Helgren/Reuters]

“There has been no truth and reconciliation with this community,” she said. Still, she added that Canadian Sikhs who are active in the Khalistan movement today remain a small – albeit vocal – minority.

“You can’t really label all the Sikh community [in Canada by] saying that they are terrorists and they are actively pursuing [this]. They might have sympathies for the Khalistani groups, but it’s a very small minority which pursues it,” she said.

Gurpreet Singh, an independent journalist and broadcaster with Spice Radio 1200 AM in Burnaby, British Columbia, agreed. “[The] Sikh community is also very diverse – not all the Sikhs support Khalistan,” he said.

Even supporters of Khalistan such as Nijjar, whom Gurpreet Singh said he interviewed about one month before he was killed, argue that they are not doing anything unlawful. Nijjar, for example, was helping organise a non-binding referendum on an independent Sikh state, which drew the ire of New Delhi but fell within the bounds of Canadian law.

“He always insisted that, ‘We want Khalistan through democratic and peaceful means’, and [a] referendum is a democratic exercise,” said Gurpreet Singh.

The journalist said the Khalistan movement has re-emerged stronger in recent years in response to the policies of India’s Hindu nationalist Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has been in power since 2014.

Modi’s government has targeted political opponents, journalists and religious minorities, including Muslims and Sikhs, in what rights groups have said is an ongoing effort to stifle dissent. New Delhi has rejected accusations of rights abuses as interference in its internal affairs.

“This current right-wing, Hindu nationalist government is trying to create a false enemy,” Gurpreet Singh told Al Jazeera.

“Khalistan was a dead movement. It was done. It was decimated by the mid-90s. How come they have re-emerged and become so strong and vocal?” he said. “Ever since [Modi] became the prime minister, this movement became stronger. With what is happening with minorities, I would say it’s like a spillover effect of that.”

Indian intelligence in Canada

India, however, views the Khalistan movement as a threat to its national security.

In April, Indian authorities arrested a 30-year-old Sikh leader in Punjab, Amritpal Singh, who had been calling for an independent Sikh homeland. Police accused Singh and his supporters of a series of offences, including attempted murder.

But as the movement has largely retreated in India after the state’s crackdown decades ago, the Indian government has pushed other countries – notably Canada – to do more to root out groups and individuals it accuses of being involved with Sikh separatism.

This long-standing position has hardened under Modi and his ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). More recently, support in the Sikh diaspora for Indian farmers’ protests against contentious farm bills passed by the Modi government renewed tensions between the two countries.

But India’s concerns over Sikh separatists in Canada really ramped up in the 1980s with the downing of Air India Flight 182, explained Michel Juneau-Katsuya, a former senior intelligence officer with the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS).

The June 1985 bombing, which authorities have said was carried out by Sikh separatists based in British Columbia in retaliation for Operation Blue Star, killed all 329 people on board. Canada describes it as “the worst terrorist attack” in its history.

“We do have extremists in Canada since 1985 and we’ve been investigating those and we’ve been monitoring those and we’ve been trying to neutralise those as much as possible,” Juneau-Katsuya told Al Jazeera.

Canada and India bolstered intelligence-sharing in 2018 to tackle “terrorism and violent extremism”, and for years before that, the two countries had been deploying intelligence officers to each other’s countries, said Juneau-Katsuya.

Justin Trudeau delivers a statement in Canada's Parliament
‘We’re not looking to provoke or cause problems,’ Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says [Blair Gable/Reuters]

But he added that since the 1980s, India also has been “covertly sending operators” to infiltrate Sikh communities in Canada. “Those operators have been spying on the community, collecting information on individuals, reporting the information back to New Delhi,” he said. “And that community literally lives in fear because of that foreign interference.”

According to Juneau-Katsuya, a major problem for Canadian authorities is that India wants them to employ what he called “Indian methods” to deal with the issue of Sikh separatism.

Rights groups such as Human Rights Watch have documented the Indian government’s hardline approach in Punjab in the 1980s and 1990s, including so-called “counterinsurgency operations” that “led to the arbitrary detention, torture, extrajudicial execution, and enforced disappearance of thousands of Sikhs”.

“It’s not going to happen” in Canada, said Juneau-Katsuya, who served as CSIS chief for the Asia-Pacific region, including India, in the 1990s. “Thus, their criticism, thus their grievance with us that we are not acting more decisively like they do.”

Fears of polarisation

Now, with tensions between India and Canada reaching a fever pitch, some members of the South Asian diaspora in Canada have cautioned that the heated discourse could deepen divisions and political polarisation.

Last week, Indian media outlets zeroed in on comments made by Gurpatwant Singh Pannu, leader of the United States-based group Sikhs for Justice, which has been banned in India, after Canada levelled its allegations against the country.

Pannu, who has been accused (PDF) by New Delhi of being “involved in terrorism”, called on all Hindus to leave Canada in a video posted online. His statement drew condemnation from Canadian legislators, including several of Sikh descent.

“To Hindus across Canada. This is your home and you deserve to be here,” Jagmeet Singh, the leader of the New Democratic Party, wrote on social media.

 

“To Hindu Canadians & and Indians from all backgrounds: Anyone who says you do not deserve to be safe & welcomed in your home does not embody the values of freedom & kindness we hold dear as Canadians,” Harjit Sajjan, Canada’s minister of emergency preparedness, also said.

For Gurpreet Singh, the journalist, Pannu’s comments are unacceptable.

“Not all Hindus are RSS [Hindu supremacist group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh] supporters; not all Sikhs are Khalistanis,” he said. “But this kind of discourse is creating problems, frictions, and creating divisions because you are made to choose your sides.”

He said a similar “us versus them” discourse played out in the South Asian diaspora in the 1980s after Operation Blue Star in Punjab. “They were living in a very polarised environment,” Gurpreet recalled.

“That environment is being recreated and Modi is definitely responsible for this – no doubt about it. But Sikhs for Justice and people like Pannu who made that statement [are] actually complimenting him. So I’m a bit concerned.”

Calls for accountability

In the meantime, Canada has called on India to cooperate in its investigation into what happened to Nijjar. “We’re not looking to provoke or cause problems,” Trudeau told reporters late last week.

“But we are unequivocal around the importance of the rule of law, and unequivocal about the importance of protecting Canadians and standing up for our values,” the prime minister said.

India, for its part, has continued to deny any involvement in Nijjar’s case while doubling down on its claims that Canada is home to “growing anti-India activities and politically-condoned hate crimes and criminal violence”.

For Sikhs in the diaspora, especially those who actively support the Khalistan movement, concerns around Indian foreign interference persist – and many are calling for investigations into its extent.

Pritpal Singh, coordinator of the American Sikh Caucus Committee in the US, told The Intercept at the weekend that the FBI warned him and two other Sikh Americans in June about a threat to their lives. “They did not tell us specifically where the threat was coming from, but they said that I should be careful,” he said.

In an open letter on Friday, Pritpal Singh called on US lawmakers to “ensure the safety and security of Sikh Americans, who are increasingly targeted and threatened” amid “growing evidence of India’s transnational repression”.

Canada India killing
A sign asking for an investigation into India’s role in the killing of Hardeep Singh Nijjar, in Surrey, British Columbia, September 20, 2023 [Chris Helgren/Reuters]

Back in Canada, Moninder Singh at the BC Gurdwaras Council also told Al Jazeera that he was among five Sikh leaders – including Nijjar – who were warned by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s national security division last year about threats against their lives.

While the threat level against him eventually decreased, Singh said Nijjar’s remained high – and the slain leader delivered a speech on the day he was killed in which he said that “he felt that people were closing in on him”, Singh said.

The killing, he added, has generated a discussion around what steps to take “to not only secure ourselves here but also in securing justice for [Nijjar]”, and he called for a public inquiry into the Indian government’s interference in Canada.

“Now that it’s actually been formally declared on the Parliament floor, it should be followed up on. This is just the tip of the iceberg.”

SOURCE: AL JAZEERA
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Canada travel advisory to India updated to include protests, ‘negative sentiments’

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Canada has updated its travel advisory for India(opens in a new tab) to include warnings about protests and “negative sentiments” towards Canadians in light of a recent breakdown in Canada-India relations.

Global Affairs Canada is urging travellers to exercise a high degree of caution when visiting the South Asian country.

“In the context of recent developments in Canada and in India, there are calls for protests and some negative sentiment towards Canada on social media,” reads an update to the travel advisory. “Please remain vigilant and exercise caution.”

The update comes after Prime Minister Justin Trudeau accused India last week of being involved in the killing of a Canadian citizen wanted for several years by authorities in that country.

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Sikh activist Hardeep Singh Nijjar was gunned down in June(opens in a new tab) outside a Sikh temple in temple in Surrey, B.C., a Vancouver suburb with a high Sikh population. Nijjar was a prominent member of a political movement to create an independent Sikh homeland known as Khalistan. At the time of his murder, he was working with the group Sikhs for Justice to organize an unofficial referendum among the Sikh diaspora.

Trudeau called for India’s help to investigate before revealing there were “credible allegations” implicating India’s government in the killing. Then, last Tuesday, Canada expelled an Indian diplomat.

India called the allegations absurd and fired back by expelling a Canadian representative.

The Indian government also halted all visa services for Canadian citizens and, five days before Canada updated its travel advisory, urged Indian citizens in Canada to exercise caution over “growing anti-India activities and politically-condoned hate crimes and criminal violence” here.

“Given the deteriorating security environment in Canada, Indian students in particular are advised to exercise extreme caution and remain vigilant,” reads the travel advisory.(opens in a new tab)

Meanwhile, Sikh activists are urging the diaspora in Canada to gather outside Indian embassies in protest of the killing.

Over the weekend, Sikhs for Justice director Jatinder Singh Grewal told Reuters his organization will lead demonstrations outside the Indian embassies and consulates in Toronto, Ottawa and Vancouver to increase public awareness about Nijjar’s killing.

– With files from The Canadian Press and Reuters

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