Public instances of threats and intimidation of women in public life have intensified in recent weeks, with significant examples of abuse targeted toward politicians — most recently, Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland — as well as activists and journalists.
For weeks, a group of journalists, particularly journalists of colour, have publicly shared a series of private, anonymous emails they’ve received. Those emails contained specific, targeted and disturbing threats of violence and sexual assault, as well as racist and misogynistic language.
“It was very insidious, and the language around it was a perversion of some progressive language that was used to basically abuse and torment us. Also, we were told we were put on a list of journalists to be silenced,” Erica Ifill, a columnist for The Hill Times and a podcast host, told CBC Radio’s The House for a segment that aired Saturday.
The online harassment crossed over once more into an in-person encounter on Friday, when Freeland faced a tirade of verbal abuse during an incident in Grande Prairie, Alta.
In a video circulating widely on social media, several people, one of whom is filming, are seen approaching Freeland as she and several others walk through Grande Prairie’s city hall toward an elevator.
During the brief encounter, the man yells at Freeland, calling her a “traitor,” a “f—ing b—h” and telling her to leave the province.
The couple are told to leave by others in the building and eventually exit out to the parking lot.
Freeland, who was born in Peace River, about 200 kilometres from Grande Prairie, was on a multi-day tour of Saskatchewan and Alberta, meeting with officials, businesspeople and workers.
She acknowledged the incident in a tweet on Saturday.
“What happened yesterday was wrong. Nobody, anywhere, should have to put up with threats and intimidation,” Freeland wrote.
“But the Alberta I know is filled with kind and welcoming people, and I’m grateful for the warm welcome I’ve received from so many people in Edmonton, Grande Prairie and Peace River over the past few days. One unpleasant incident yesterday doesn’t change that.”
LISTEN | The House hears from journalists, activist, targeted by online harassment:
CBC News: The House18:02Toxic harm online — what can fix it?
Harassment condemned by politicians
The actions in the video have been widely condemned by politicians and others across the country Saturday. Conservative leadership candidate Jean Charest called it “gross intimidation” and “dangerous behaviour” in a tweet. Former Liberal cabinet minister Catherine McKenna called it “beyond the pale.”
Alberta Premier Jason Kenney referred to the incident as “reprehensible” and Conservative MP Dan Albas said, “What our Deputy PM experienced yesterday has no place here in Canada.”
The verbal harassment and threats directed at Minister <a href=”https://twitter.com/cafreeland?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw”>@cafreeland</a> during her visit to Alberta yesterday were reprehensible.<br><br>If you disagree with a politician, by all means exercise your right to protest. But screaming threatening language & physical intimidation cross the line.
In an interview with CBC News, Grande Prairie city councillor Dylan Bressey said the encounter was “completely ridiculous.”
“Something we’re seeing Canada-wide — and our community isn’t immune — is that there are people who feel disenfranchised, and are angry and are scared, but they’re expressing it completely inappropriate ways that don’t help anybody.”
Legislation just one piece of the puzzle: expert
Harassment has long been a problem for Canadians in public life, especially women. McKenna, for example, was at times forced to have additional security because of harassment she received, and many other MPs have revealed threats made against them.
One of the most extreme examples of online harassment played out in London, Ont. recently, when transgender activist and Twitch streamer Clara Sorrenti was forced to leave the country after a campaign of harassment that included an instance of “swatting” — when a threat of violence sent under her name but without her knowledge led armed police to show up at her door and arrest her.
Prior to the 2021 election, the federal government introduced legislation aimed at protecting Canadians from what it calls online harms, but that bill died when the election was called, and, after widespread critique, new legislation is back in consultations.
Legislation governing how social media platforms grapple with harmful content is just one piece of the puzzle when it comes to online harassment, said Emily Laidlaw, Canada research chair in cybersecurity law at the University of Calgary. Reforms to the legal system, education and other policies areas like cybersecurity and privacy were all important as well, she told The House.
“It’s across all kinds of different law and social silences that we need to tackle online harms, and that’s actually what makes it so difficult,” Laidlaw said.
Yuan Stevens, a lawyer who specializes in human rights and technology, likened the issue to smoking, in which education and awareness led to both legal changes and a shift in public attitudes.
“I think a holistic effort will be needed in Canada that isn’t just ban this, prohibit that, punish that,” he said, but instead one that tackles attitudes toward people of colour, women, LGBTQ people and others and addresses the “root causes” of harassment, threats and violence.
‘It’s psychological warfare’
Ifill, The Hill Times columnist, described how the campaign against her and other journalists appeared to be targeted, expanding from a few people to a group of more than a dozen, many of them people of colour.
“Each email they become more intricate. They are creating scenarios based on our past work to torment us with,” Ifill told guest host Ashley Burke.
“It’s more than just an e-mail. It’s a concentrated effort. It’s psychological warfare.”
The pattern of harassment of journalists is incredibly alarming and completely unacceptable. This type of behaviour has no place in our society. No journalist should ever be threatened for doing their job.
Raisa Patel, who previously worked with CBC News, including for The House, was one of the journalists who spoke up in support of colleagues and then received an email of her own.
She told Burke that while the emails contained racism and misogyny, “Several of us felt no reaction to that element to these emails because that’s something that we’re used to receiving as female and racialized journalists. But what was particularly alarming was the targeted nature of this campaign.”
The journalists said they also struggled with police responses, including difficulty reporting the incidents in the first place and convincing police to take action.
“It was very difficult to try and get police to see the very co-ordinated nature of this campaign and some of the more serious threatening elements to it. Since we’ve gone public, I think that process has improved somewhat,” said Patel.
Danielle Smith: Facts about Alberta’s new premier, United Conservative Party leader
CALGARY — Former journalist and business owner Danielle Smith won the United Conservative Party’s leadership race on Thursday and, in doing so, becomes Alberta’s next premier. Here are some facts about Smith:
Born: April 1, 1971 in Calgary.
Family: She is married to David Moretta and has a stepson.
Before politics: Smith graduated with degrees in economics and English from the University of Calgary. She was a trustee for the Calgary Board of Education. She wrote editorials with the Calgary Herald and hosted a current affairs TV show called “Global Sunday.” She was a provincial director for the Canadian Federation of Independent Business. She and her husband now own and operate The Dining Car restaurant in High River.
Politics: In 2009, she won the leadership of the Wildrose Alliance, later to become the Wildrose Party. In the 2012 provincial election, Smith won a seat in the constituency of Highwood and the party took over official Opposition status from the Liberals, In 2014, she led eight Wildrose members across the floor to join the governing Progressive Conservatives. After much backlash, she lost in the 2015 election.
Quote: “After everything I’ve done in the past to divide the movement, then try to bring it together the wrong way, I feel like I owe it to the conservative movement to do what I can to be a force of unity.”
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Oct. 6, 2022.
The Canadian Press
Iran flight relatives say Canada a haven for regime officials
OTTAWA — Relatives of those killed when Iran’s military shot down Flight PS752 in January 2020 say Canada has become a safe haven for regime officials.
“Canada has become a safe haven for the criminals of the Islamic Republic of Iran,” Hamed Esmaeilion testified Thursday afternoon to the House justice committee.
Esmaeilion leads a group representing grieving families, many of whom are aware of numerous people who have worked for the regime, or are related to senior officials, moving freely in Canada.
“This is a big concern for Iranian people,” he said.
Amid a brutal crackdown on women’s and human rights protesters across Iran, the federal Liberals are facing mounting pressure to deem a section of Iran’s army as a terrorist group.
That has coincided with the 1,000-day anniversary of the downing of Flight PS752 near Tehran, which killed 176 people, most of whom were headed through Ukraine to Canada.
No one has been held accountable.
Esmaeilion chalked that up to a naive bureaucracy that sees Iran as a normal country.
“It’s mainly the legal teams or the advisers; they still believe in negotiation with Iran because they don’t see Iran, or the Iranian regime, as a Mafia group,” he said.
“If you change your mindset, that you’re not negotiating with Switzerland or a democratic country, then it would solve the problem.”
He said he’s told officials that Canadians would never play a hockey game with North Korea, and yet Canada’s national men’s soccer team was scheduled to play with Iran back in June, before Canada Soccer cancelled amid political pushback.
Esmaeilion said he’s certain people affiliated with Tehran have been responsible for slashing his tires and making phone calls he found threatening.
The RCMP has previously said it is “aware of reports relating to victims experiencing threats, harassment and intimidation.”
And while the Liberals have said they updated their sanctions list Monday based on impact from Esmaeilion’s group, he said there were many more officials that relatives suggested months ago.
“I’m shocked that I don’t see (Supreme Leader) Ali Khamenei on the list,” he said, adding that President Ebrahim Raisi and former foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif should be listed.
He also called out Iran’s delegate for the Montreal-based International Civil Aviation Organization, saying Farhad Parvaresh should be kicked out of Canada.
This week, a crowd of Iranian Canadians took to Parliament Hill, demanding Ottawa deem the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a terrorist group.
Experts have said that such a change would be hard to enforce, given that Iran has conscripted millions into the force’s non-combat roles. A terror listing compels Ottawa to freeze assets held inside Canada and deny entry into the country.
Esmaeilion said that is a serious concern, and there may be as many as 15,000 people already living in Canada in that situation. But he said their military documents clearly state whether they had a senior rank and if they had joined the IRGC by choice.
“We can exempt those people. We have talked to several lawyers, and this is a simple solution for putting the IRGC on the list.”
He also reiterated calls to hold responsible those in charge of the downing of the flight that killed his wife and daughter. Esmaeilion’s group wants Canada to refer the case to the ICAO and the International Criminal Court.
“So far, after 1,000 days, we have no road map; we have no time frame,” he said.
In a Wednesday interview, Transport Minister Omar Alghabra said Canada wants to see justice for the victims of Flight PS752, but must exhaust all avenues with Iran before any international tribunal will take on the case.
“The process is painful, it’s long, it’s cumbersome, it’s complicated,” he said.
“These international bodies are flawed, they’re imperfect, but they are our best way to hold Iran accountable.”
Alghabra said Canada has been helping lead reforms that aim to prevent another catastrophe, such as the Safer Skies initiative. The idea is to have a global body assess when conflict makes it unsafe for civilian flights, and advise companies and states to not take off.
The flight Iran shot down took off hours into a military operation in response to the U.S. assassination of senior Iranian military official Qasem Soleimani.
“PS752 should not have been flying when there was a conflict nearby,” Alghabra said.
– With files from Caitlin Yardley in Montreal.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Oct. 7, 2022.
Dylan Robertson, The Canadian Press
Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement, explained – CTV News
The Supreme Court of Canada will take time to weigh arguments about the constitutionality of an 18-year refugee agreement between Ottawa and Washington after hearing a challenge Thursday from claimants and human rights advocates.
The Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement (STCA) allows Canada to turn away asylum seekers seeking entry from the U.S. at official land border crossings.
However, human rights groups say the U.S. is not a “safe country” for asylum seekers and the pact allows Canada to skirt its international obligations for refugee claimants.
CTVNews.ca breaks down what the agreement entails.
WHAT DOES THE STCA DO?
The Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement was signed in 2002 and came into effect in 2004. Under the agreement, those seeking refugee status in either Canada or the U.S. must make their claim in the first country they enter.
That means most asylum seekers who attempt to cross into Canada at an official crossing are turned away and are told they need to make their asylum claim in the U.S., and vice versa. The only exemptions apply to unaccompanied minors and those with close family members living in Canada.
“If one of those narrow exemptions does not apply, you’re not able to make a claim for refugee protection in Canada. And so what that means is that you’re ordered to be removed or deported, and they contact U.S. authorities,” Amnesty International’s Julia Sande told CTV’s Your Morning on Thursday.
But the agreement has one key loophole: it only applies to official land border crossings. That means that asylum seekers who manage to make a refugee claim within Canada while bypassing an official border crossing won’t be sent back to the U.S.
This has prompted tens of thousands of asylum seekers to enter Canada at irregular crossings, such as Roxham Road, a rural road that goes through the border between Quebec and New York State.
HOW MANY ASYLUM SEEKERS HAVE CROSSED IRREGULARLY?
Since February 2017, Canada has seen 67,805 irregular crossers enter the country. Of these, 28,332 (41 per cent) have had their refugee claims approved. In addition, 19,646 refugee claims have been rejected, 13,369 are still pending and the rest have either been withdrawn or abandoned, according to the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB).
Irregular crossings into Canada surged after Donald Trump became president of the United States in 2017, as concerns grew over his anti-immigration rhetoric and executive orders limiting the number of refugees admitted.
According to data from the IRB, the number of irregular crossings peaked between July and September 2017. During this time period, 8,558 asylum seekers irregularly crossed into Canada, corresponding to an average of 2,853 per month.
The average number of irregular crossers per month dipped after that and hovered between 1,200 and 1,400 from late 2018 to early 2020. However, irregular crossings came to a near screeching halt after COVID-19 restrictions at the border were put in place in March 2020 and asylum seekers were sent back to the U.S. unless they met one of the exemptions.
In November 2021, as Canada continued lifting COVID-19 measures at the border, irregular crossers were once again allowed to enter the country and make a claim. Between April and June 2022, 4,512 irregular crossers entered Canada — the most seen since 2019, according to the IRB.
WHAT DO OPPONENTS OF THE STCA SAY?
In 2017, Amnesty International, the Canadian Council for Refugees, and the Canadian Council of Churches launched a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the Safe Third Country Agreement.
The organizations say the legislation underpinning the STCA violates Section 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees life, liberty and security of the person, in addition to Section 15, which guarantees equal protection and benefit under the law.
Sande says asylum seekers who are turned back from Canada often face immigration detention in the U.S.
“When people are in detention, they’re subjected to solitary confinement, staggering rates of sexual violence, really inhumane conditions, not given religiously appropriate food,” she said. “The detention in itself is problematic and harmful. But in addition, when you’re in detention, it’s a lot more difficult to access counsel.”
Sande says the increased difficulty accessing legal counsel means asylum seekers have a higher chance of being deported. On top of that, she said crossing the border at irregular crossings can come with serious risks.
Many of these crossers use Roxham Road, where the RCMP have set up a presence to handle the high volume of asylum seekers. But at other parts of the border, some asylum seekers have made long journeys on foot through empty farm fields in the winter, risking frostbite.
“We’ve heard of people losing fingers from frostbite and really putting themselves at risk. And so I would say it’s neither compassionate nor orderly,” Sande said.
Canada is also subject to the 1951 Refugee Convention, which stipulates that states cannot return refugees to dangerous countries. The human rights groups argue the pact lets Canada “contract out” its international obligations to refugee claimants without proper followup the U.S. is doing the job.
In July 2020, the Federal Court agreed, and ruled the Safe Third Country Agreement was unconstitutional. The federal government appealed the ruling and last December, the Supreme Court announced that it would hear the case.
WHAT HAVE FEDERAL PARTIES SAID?
The NDP and the Bloc Quebecois have long called on the federal government to suspend the Safe Third Country Agreement, and allow asylum seekers to cross into Canada at official crossings so they won’t have to make potentially dangerous journeys through irregular crossings.
Meanwhile, the Conservatives say the STCA should be strengthened to allow Canada to send irregular crossers back to the U.S.
The three opposition parties recently signed a letter calling for an inquiry looking at how public funds were used to build intake facilities at the border near Roxham Road.
In the House of Commons on Wednesday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said Canada “works with the U.S. government every day to improve the Safe Third Country Agreement.” Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) told CTV’s Your Morning the agreement “has served Canada well” and is necessary to ensure that the border “remains well-managed.”
“Canada believes that the STCA remains a comprehensive means for the compassionate, fair and orderly handling of asylum claims in our two countries,” IRCC said in an email statement.
Quebec Premier Francois Legault has also called on the feds to close the unofficial Roxham Road crossing and said his government does not have the capacity to deal with the influx of people. Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino said on Thursday the government is working “very carefully with Quebec” to manage the flow of asylum seekers.
“We transfer significant federal funds to that province every year to help with ensuring that there is due process, that there… is a baseline of support for people who are filing claims,” he told reporters before a cabinet meeting in Ottawa.
“We have to reach agreements, with partnerships with the United States, with Quebec, and that’s exactly what the federal government will do,” he added in French.
With files from The Canadian Press
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