14 November is World Diabetes Day, which aims to raise awareness of diabetes and help improve the lives of the more than half a billion people living with diabetes worldwide. For patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, maintaining a healthy blood glucose level can be challenging. Automated insulin delivery (AID) systems, or hybrid closed-loop systems, have been developed to make the job easier. Such systems allow for a complete circle of communication between a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump, which tracks blood glucose and automatically adjusts insulin delivery to help control blood glucose levels.
According to GlobalData analysis, the CGM and insulin pumps market was valued at $10.7bn last year. It is expected to reach $20.2bn in 2030, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.3% from 2021 to 2030. The market is driven by the increase in the prevalence of people with diabetes and growing awareness among consumers regarding the availability of new technological advancements such as AID in the market. While AID systems are primarily used in type 1 diabetes (T1D), patients with type 2 diabetes taking multiple daily injections can also benefit from this technology. Based on a few large, randomised, controlled outpatient studies for children and adults, recent developments in AID systems have led to improved clinical outcomes, including overall time-in-range improvement by an average of 10%, reduced frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalisations, and decreases in hypoglycaemia and time-below-range.
According to GlobalData’s clinical trials database, there have been more than 60 ongoing or planned clinical trials for AID. Most of them focus on the safety and efficacy in different subpopulations, including young children, athletes and pregnant women. Other trials test innovation in improving pipeline or marketed AID systems, such as better interoperability between different pumps and CGMs, more affordable devices, and easier general usability.
Recently, an NIH-funded research team led by Dr Russell at Massachusetts General Hospital developed an AID system with less user input than existing methods. The researchers tested the device in a randomized trial with more than 300 participants with T1D in 16 clinical centres in the US. It was found that this system could safely improve glucose control with much less input from users and their healthcare providers, making day-to-day management of T1D easier and thereby improving quality of life. The more positive clinical outcome is expected to boost the innovation and application of AID, driving the device market to a new level in the future.
HIV/AIDS progress in Brazil
December 1 is World AIDS Day, a time to raise awareness and show support for those living with AIDS or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Treatment of HIV/AIDS has come a long way since the first cases became public in the 1980s.
And Brazil is one country that led the way; its pioneering programs to identify and treat patients recognized the world over.
In recent years, however, the country’s progress has shown to be slipping.
Early RSV season primarily impacts infants
Dear Doctors: What can I do to protect my baby from RSV? What are the symptoms? People are talking about a “tripledemic,” and it has my husband and me worried. We’re both vaccinated for the flu and COVID-19, and we are being super careful when we’re out and about. What else can we do?
Dear Reader: RSV is short for respiratory syncytial virus. It’s a common winter virus that can affect people of any age. In most cases, RSV infection causes mild symptoms similar to the common cold. However, infants and children younger than 2, whose immune systems are still developing, are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill.
RSV is the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and young children in the United States. It is also the leading cause of bronchiolitis in that age group. That’s a lung infection in which the smallest airways become inflamed and swollen, and an increase in mucus production impedes air flow into and out of the lungs.
This year, as with the flu, RSV season has arrived early. Hospitals throughout the U.S. are reporting a surge of serious infections among infants and younger children.
The virus enters the body through the airways and the mucous membranes. It can remain viable on hard surfaces — such as a doorknob, night table or dinnerware — for several hours. It can also persist on softer surfaces, such as a tissue or the skin. Someone can become infected by breathing in the viral particles that remain airborne following a cough or a sneeze, or by touching their mouth, nose or eyes after direct contact with contaminated droplets.
Someone who is sick with RSV typically remains contagious for between four and eight days. However, due to their still-developing immune systems, it’s possible for infants to continue to spread the virus for several weeks, even after symptoms of the disease have abated. There is no vaccine for this virus, and no targeted treatments. Prevention relies on the same precautions you use to avoid any respiratory illness. That is, keep your baby away from people who are ill, avoid close contact with people outside your home and be vigilant about hand hygiene.
Symptoms of RSV arise between three and six days after infection. They can include a runny nose, sneezing and coughing, fever, a decrease in appetite and lung congestion that can cause wheezing. These symptoms tend to be progressive, arriving in stages as the body mounts its attack against the virus. But in very young patients, the first, and sometimes only noticeable, symptoms of RSV can be increased fussiness, a decrease in activity and difficulty breathing.
Treatment for RSV consists of managing symptoms. The specific avenue of care depends on a child’s age, general health and symptoms. In infants, treating RSV includes a focus on adequate hydration and remaining alert for any signs of problems with breathing. The majority of RSV infections run their course in a week to 10 days. Parents of younger infants should check with their pediatricians for guidance on treatment, particularly medications. If your child has difficulty breathing, isn’t drinking enough fluids or has worsening symptoms, call your health care provider right away.
Eve Glazier, M.D., MBA, is an internist and associate professor of medicine at UCLA Health. Elizabeth Ko, M.D., is an internist and assistant professor of medicine at UCLA Health. Send your questions to firstname.lastname@example.org, or write: Ask the Doctors, c/o UCLA Health Sciences Media Relations, 10960 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1955, Los Angeles, CA, 90024. Owing to the volume of mail, personal replies cannot be provided.
AIDS Memorial Quilt comes to Palm Beach County
PALM BEACH COUNTY, Fla. — The largest piece of community folk art in the world, a tribute to victims of AIDS, is on display in Palm Beach County.
Now through Dec. 15, three different panels of the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt, often known as the AIDS Quilt, will be on display at three different Palm Beach County Public Library locations.
The quilt is a giant tribute to the lives of people who have died due to AIDS or AIDS-related causes.
The quilt weighs around 54 tons and was started in the 1980s during the early years of the AIDS pandemic.
The AIDS Memorial Quilt is comprised of nearly 50,000 panels containing 91,000 names of the men, women and children who lost their lives to the immune system disease.
The blocks, which make up the panels, are stitched by individuals in communities across the nation, including one librarian right in Palm Beach County.
Katrina Brockway, a librarian at the Hagen Ranch Road Branch Library, said she feels it brings tragedy a bit closer to home.
“It becomes so much more personal when you see these quilt panels and all of these people who were loved and didn’t have the same opportunity to escape this,” Brockway said. “So you can remember them, what they went through, and what their loved ones have gone through.”
Visitors can see the quilt panels during normal library hours at the library’s main branch on Summit Boulevard at the Jupiter branch and at the west Boca Raton branch.
Click here for the library’s hours and more information on upcoming AIDS events at the library.
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