An eight-mile wall of prehistoric rock art featuring animals and humans has been discovered in the Amazonian rainforest after it was created up to 12,500 years ago.
The historical artwork, which is now being called the ‘Sistine Chapel of the ancients’, was uncovered on cliff faces last year in the Chiribiquete National Park, Columbia, by a British-Columbian team of archaeologists funded by the European Research Council.
The date of the paintings has been based on the portrayal of extinct animals from the ice age such as the mastodon – a prehistoric relative of the elephant which hasn’t been seen in South America for at least 12,000 years.
There are also depictions of palaeolama – an extinct member of the camel family, as well as giant sloths and ice age horses.
Human handprints can also be seen. In the Amazon most native tribes are believed to be descendants of the first Siberian wave of migrants who are thought to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge up to 17,000 years ago.
The eight-mile wall of prehistoric rock art featuring animals and human and created up to 12,500 years ago has been discovered by a team of team of archaeologists
During the ice age this land bridge stayed relatively untouched because snowfall was very light. It stretched for hundreds of kilometres into the continents on either side so provided a way for people to cross into different areas.
Although it is unclear exactly which tribe created the paintings, there are two main indigenous tribes of the Amazon which are believed to have been around for thousands of years – the Yanomami and the Kayapo.
The first report of the Yanomami, who live between the borders of Brazil and Venezuela, was in 1759 when a Spanish explorer found a chief of another tribe who mentioned them.
The team uncovered the historical artwork, which is now being called the ‘Sistine Chapel of the ancients’, on cliff faces last year in the Chiribiquete National Park, Columbia
Among the paintings are discovery hat were created up to 12,500 years ago, are ones depicting the now now-extinct mastodon that once inhabited North and Central America and , the palaeolama- an extinct camelid.
Much less is known about the origin of the Kayapo tribe, which is estimated to have a population of roughly 8,600.
Amazon natives didn’t keep written records until relatively recently and the humid climate and acidic soil have destroyed almost all traces of their material culture, including bones.
Until the discovery of these paintings, anything known about the region’s history before 1500 has been inferred from scant archaeological evidence such as ceramics and arrow heads.
It is believed that these ancient images, which give a glimpse into a now lost civilisation, were created by some of the first ever humans to reach the Amazon.
The fascinating discovery, which happened last year but was kept secret, will now feature in a Channel 4 series Jungle Mystery: Lost Kingdoms of the Amazon, in December.
The site is deep in the heart of Colombia in the Serrania de la Lindosa area. It is so remote that after the British-Colombian research team drove for two hours, they were forced to trek on foot for another four.
The site is deep in the heart of Colombia in the Serrania de la Lindosa area. It is so remote that after the British-Colombian research team drove for two hours, they were forced to trek on foot for another four
Led by a professor of archaeology at Exeter University, Jose Iriarte, the research team was funded by the European Research Council.
Mr Iriarte told The Observer: ‘When you’re there, your emotions flow … We’re talking about several tens of thousands of paintings. It’s going to take generations to record them … Every turn you do, it’s a new wall of paintings.
‘We started seeing animals that are now extinct. The pictures are so natural and so well made that we have few doubts that you’re looking at a horse, for example. The ice-age horse had a wild, heavy face. It’s so detailed, we can even see the horse hair. It’s fascinating.’
The documentary’s presenter, Ella Al-Shamahi, an archaeologist and explorer, shared her excitement at seeing the images being brought back to life.
She told The Observer: ‘The new site is so new, they haven’t even given it a name yet.’
Ella Al-Shamahi, an archaeologist and explorer, shared her excitement at seeing the images being resurrected
During their trek, the explorers were faced with some of the area’s most dangerous predators.
At one point the team even came face to face with the deadliest viper in the Americas – the bushmaster.
The only option for the team was to walk past the snake, knowing that if they were attacked there was a vanishingly small chance they would make it to hospital in time.
The territory where the paintings have been discovered was only recently unsealed after being completely off limits due to Colombia’s raging civil war that lasted for 50 years.
And managing to enter the area still takes careful negotiation.
Some of the paintings are extremely high up on relatively sheer rock face, which at-first baffled the research team.
However, professor Iriarte believes that depictions of wooden towers among the paintings serve to explain how the indigenous people managed to get to such extreme heights.
It is unclear whether the paintings had a sacred purpose but Iriarte noticed that many large animals are surrounded by humans with their arms raised – seemingly in a pose of worship.
Presenter Al-Shamahi added that some people don’t realise that the Amazon hasn’t always been a rainforest and was in fact much more ‘savannah-like’ thousands of years ago.
She said that it is fascinating to see these ancient depictions of what the land would have looked like so many years ago.
Iriarte is convinced there are many more paintings to be found in the region and his team will be visiting again as soon as the coronavirus pandemic allows.
Jungle Mystery: Lost Kingdoms of the Amazon starts at 6.30pm on Channel 4 on December 5. The rock art discovery is in episode 2, on December 12.
Source:- Daily Mail
NASA Curiosity rover celebrates 3000th day on Mars with stunning panorama of planet – Barrie 360 – Barrie 360
Sophie Lewis – CBS News
NASA’s Curiosity rover just celebrated a major milestone — 3,000 days on the surface of Mars. To mark the occasion, the space agency has released a stunning new panorama of the red planet, captured by the rover.
Curiosity landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. However, scientists track its activities in Martian days, called “sols,” which are a bit longer than Earth days, at 24 hours and 39 minutes.
The epic new panorama, released by the space agency on Tuesday, captures the view of the 96-mile-wide Gale Crater and part of Mount Sharp, its central mountain. It was taken by Curiosity’s eyes, AKA the Mast Camera.
Curiosity has been gradually climbing and exploring the 3-mile-tall Mount Sharp since 2014. Its most recent find, captured in the panorama, is a series of distinctive “bench-like rock formations,” which can form due to erosion, as well as landslides.
The mountain’s rock layers were shaped by bodies of water billions of years ago. “Curiosity’s team has seen benches before in Gale Crater, but rarely forming such a scenic grouping of steps,” NASA said.
“Our science team is excited to figure out how they formed and what they mean for the ancient environment within Gale,” said Curiosity’s project scientist, Ashwin Vasavada of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The panorama is actually a composite of 122 images taken by Curiosity on November 18. After it was taken, the rover continued to higher ground, working its way toward the next major layer, called the “sulfate-bearing unit.”
Since its mission began, Curiosity has been in search of conditions that may have once supported life, gathering rock samples along the way to analyze.
It’s had a number of major accomplishments, including finding evidence the planet once had persistent liquid water, discovering that the planet was once suitable for life and finding organic carbon molecules, the building blocks of life. It also found present and active methane in the red planet’s atmosphere, detected radiation levels that could post health risks to humans, and concluded that Mars’ atmosphere used to be much thicker than it is today.
Curiosity will soon be joined by its sibling rover, Perseverance, when it lands on the red planet in February. Perseverance is designed to bring samples from Mars back to Earth, marking the first round-trip mission to another planet.
In Photos: Hubble Captures Echoes Of Violent Supernova ‘Fireworks’ That Lit-Up Night Sky In The Third Century – Forbes
The Hubble Space Telescope has captured light from a supernova blast—an exploding star—that would have been seen from Earth 1,700 years ago.
Although there are no known records of anyone seeing it, a cosmic explosion that’s been compared to fireworks would have been visible to people in Earth’s southern hemisphere.
It’s now visible to the Hubble Space telescope as a delicate greenish-blue shell—a supernova remnant (SNR)—in a nearby galaxy to the Milky Way called the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC).
The SNR is called 1E0102.2-7219, or E0102 for short. Here’s everything you need to know about how Hubble’s spectacular images have been used to precisely date an incredible supernova explosion.
What and where is E0102?
E0102 is the leftovers of a massive explosion of a star in a nearby dwarf galaxy—the SMC.
The images from Hubble show the aftermath of a supernova—the dissipating energy has created a spectacular display of greenish-blue filaments.
The above image of part of the SMC shows that E0102 is “close”—about 50 light-years—from a massive star-forming region of glowing hydrogen emission called N 76 and Henize. You can see that as the pink-ish section in the upper-right of the image. E0102 is at the center of the image.
What do we know about the star?
Not much, though it may have been a Wolf-Rayet star—a very large and old star made from heavy elements that had probably blown-off its hydrogen before the explosion.
Astronomers think that because the colors of E0102 indicate that it was rich in oxygen rather than hydrogen and helium.
How did astronomers use Hubble’s images?
Although E0102 was previously known about, its age was unknown. Treating E0102 as forensic evidence, astronomers used Hubble’s observations of E0102 taken a decade apart to calculate the cloud’s expansion rate.
They did that by calculating how fast 22 separate oxygen-rich knots of debris in the SNR had moved in 10 years. They then traced it back to the point in space where the progenitor star must have exploded.
Why Hubble’s longevity was so crucial
“A prior study compared images taken years apart with two different cameras on Hubble, the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS),” said Danny Milisavljevic of Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, one of the leaders of the research team whose paper was presented yesterday at the 237th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.
“But our study compares data taken with the same camera, the ACS, making the comparison much more robust; the knots were much easier to track using the same instrument,” he said.
“It’s a testament to the longevity of Hubble that we could do such a clean comparison of images taken 10 years apart.”
What is the SMC?
The Small Magellanic Cloud is a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. It’s about 200,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. It’s really easy to see in the night skies in the southern hemisphere.
Wishing you clear skies and wide eyes.
Creation by catastrophe – Skywatching – Castanet.net
Collision of the Galaxies sounds like a good title for a spectacular disaster movie.
Actually, a lot of things in the universe depend on things smashing together, including galaxies. The object
Arp 299 is two galaxies in collision.
The two, designated NGC 3690 and IC 694, lying about 134 million light years away from us, have been in the process of collision for around 700 million years. The Hubble Space Telescope image can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arp_299. The image is dotted with many bright, blue stars.
This is interesting because there are only two types of bright, blue star. One kind are young stars that will dim down a bit as they settle down.
The other kind are stars that collected an exceptionally large amount of hydrogen when they formed. These stars shine extremely brightly, run out of fuel soon, collapse and then explode. These explosions are called supernovae.
In either case, these blue stars cannot be very old. This relates to another interesting aspect of this pair of galaxies: the oddly large number of supernova explosions. What has produced these unusual circumstances?
If you look at a nearby spiral galaxy, such as our close neighbour, the Andromeda Galaxy, you will see the spiral arms glowing with little knots of pink, and sparkling with young stars.
If we could go a couple of million light years off into space, our galaxy, the Milky Way, would look much the same. The reason is that the spiral arms of galaxies are loaded with hydrogen gas, the primary ingredient for making stars.
If we look closer, we will see that these clouds are not uniform; some regions are much denser than others. On occasion, something triggers one of these denser regions to collapse, forming one or more stars.
These youngsters are hot and blue, and their high output of ultraviolet radiation makes the surrounding clouds glow pink. This pink, a characteristic of hydrogen, is known as hydrogen-alpha emission.
Therefore, when we look at a distant galaxy, those pink glows mean two things:
- There is hydrogen to glow
- Hot, blue stars to make it glow.
However, the jewel-box of bright, blue stars we see in the Arp 299 pair of galaxies is really unusual. Some major event caused massive collapses of hydrogen clouds, forming showers of new stars. We are pretty sure this outburst of star formation was caused by the two galaxies colliding.
Paradoxically, collisions between galaxies are not totally catastrophic; they trigger the formation of new stars and planets.
When we look at the computer simulations of collisions between galaxies (there are many on the web), they look pretty catastrophic. One can imagine stars and planets being annihilated on a huge scale.
The youtube on this link is a good example of what we believe a collision between two galaxies would look like. However, the situation is nothing like as bad as it looks.
The nearest star to us, after the Sun, lies about four light years away. This distance is fairly typical of the average distance between stars. So the chance of stars in two colliding galaxies passing close to one another is tiny. Even as fragments fly around and the galaxies combine, all the inhabitants of worlds in those galaxies will see is their equivalent of the Milky Way changing shape over millions of years.
However, for the gas clouds between the stars it’s a different matter. These will collide and collapse, forming lots of new stars.
We will get a chance to experience this first hand. The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are racing toward each other at 110 km/s, and will collide in about four billion years. There are computer simulations of this collision on the web.
- The only easily visible planet is Mars, which can be found high in the southwest during the evening.
- The Moon will reach First Quarter on the 20th.
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