Estuaries edged by tall grasses and wildflowers that are home to birds, crabs, tiny fish and other wildlife are more effective than young coastal forests at capturing and storing carbon dioxide, says a study.
The Cowichan Estuary on Vancouver Island captures and stores about double the amount of carbon compared with an actively growing 20-year-old Pacific Northwest forest of the same area, said the recently published study in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science.
Tristan Douglas, a University of Victoria graduate and lead author, said so-called blue carbon, or the greenhouse gas stored in marine and coastal ecosystems, is different from those held on the land.
He said saltwater estuaries, where fresh water meets the ocean, hold as much carbon as forests even though they represent just a small fraction of the area.
“The plants and algae that grow on the sea floor surface and in the water, they’re very efficient at taking carbon dioxide and converting it into organic molecules,” he said.
Trees sequester greenhouse gases but they have a limited lifespan, die, decompose and are converted back into carbon dioxide, he said.
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In estuaries, Douglas said, carbon is quickly converted into plant-based material, buried in the sediment and becomes oxygen-free just a few millimetres under the surface.
“So, it’s very likely that the deposited organic matter won’t get readmitted as carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.”
The study said estuaries have far more potential at mitigating climate change than forests, especially because of the threat of wildfires, which send plumes of carbon back into the atmosphere.
“If the carbon that’s stored in estuaries is not disturbed, it doesn’t have that same risk of being all of a sudden converted back into mass amounts of carbon dioxide,” Douglas said.
Waterlogged areas with plants such as salt marsh grasses, sedges, mangrove forests and seagrasses are particularly efficient natural carbon sinks, the study said.
“They capture and store up to 70 per cent of the organic carbon resident in marine systems despite only occupying 0.2 per cent of the ocean surface.”
Douglas said the world has lost about 70 per cent of mangroves and about 30 to 40 per cent of all marshlands and sea grasses in the past 100 years, and will lose another 40 per cent if it’s a “business as usual approach,” in the next century.
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The study suggested that human activities have reduced the carbon capture and storage capacity of the 466-hectare Cowichan-Koksilah Estuary by about 30 per cent, equivalent to putting 53 gasoline-powered motor vehicles back on the road.
Eelgrass on about 129 hectares of the intertidal zone has been disturbed by log handling and storage, while about 100 hectares of salt marsh was drained for farming and cattle pasture since being settled by colonists, it said.
Douglas said it is up to policy-makers to make it worthwhile to protect these areas by adopting more sustainable land-use and development practices.
The Cowichan Estuary has traditionally been used by the Coast Salish people and it is an important area for harvesting shellfish, salmon and seaweed, among other things. But since the mid-1800s, the land has mainly been used for agriculture and sawmills, he said.
“A lot of the historical accounts of eelgrass describe it covering almost all of the lower intertidal area, but now it’s really relegated to less than a third of where it historically grew.”
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These estuaries act as a buffer by tempering the incoming tides and mitigating storms, he said.
A number of these areas have been wiped out to protect coastal communities, he said, leaving them no room to adapt to rising sea levels.
“It’s pushed beyond its level of natural resiliency,” Douglas said.
“They can withstand a lot of gradual change, but things have changed so fast, and they’re put through so much stress that they can’t keep up with these current land practice uses.”
© 2022 The Canadian Press
May's possible meteor storm offers chance to listen to 'shooting stars' on the radio – Space.com
“Shooting stars” from the tau Herculids meteor shower may be visible late this month, but you might want to listen for them instead.
Excitement among meteor enthusiasts is building as we get closer to the much-anticipated meteor outburst that might be produced by a concentrated trail of dusty debris from the nucleus of comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW 3) late Monday night into early Tuesday morning (May 30 to 31).
Even if you can’t get a good view of the show because of clouds or light pollution, you can “observe” the meteor shower a different way: by listening to it on the radio!
Under certain conditions, meteors can reflect radio waves in the same way the ionosphere propagates transmissions between widely separated ham-radio operators. The ionosphere usually reflects frequencies below 30 megahertz (MHz), but it’s transparent to higher frequencies, such as the FM broadcast band (88 to 108 MHz).
Such high-frequency (short-wavelength) radio signals generally pass unimpeded through the atmosphere in straight lines; they cannot follow the curvature of the Earth to reach a listener beyond the horizon. Yet when certain layers of the upper atmosphere become ionized, they can reflect the signals back to the ground far away. The lowest such layer, 60 to 70 miles (96 to 112 kilometers) up, is called the E layer of the ionosphere, and that’s the altitude where most meteors are seen.
So, as a meteoroid vaporizes as it passes through Earth’s atmosphere, it briefly ionizes air molecules along its path. Forming an expanding column or cylinder several miles or more in length, these ions can scatter and reflect radio waves, in much the same way a high-altitude jet reflects sunlight and leaves a glowing contrail against the darkening sky after sunset. But because the ion trails disperse rapidly, the reflected radio waves generally last only a few seconds.
Tiny particles tend to vaporize at the bottom of the E layer. Large particles, in contrast, begin to flame higher up. And predictions for the particles shed from comet SW 3 suggest that a majority of these will be large. Such meteors produce longer-lasting ionization, and because they start to “flame on” higher up, they can reflect signals from more distant transmitters.
On the ground, the meteor’s presence is signaled by the momentary enhancement of FM reception from a distant station.
How to listen for meteors on the radio
For this radio method to work, find a frequency where no nearby FM station is broadcasting. You will have a better chance of success by scanning the low-frequency end of the FM band, below 91.1 MHz. Why there? Because that’s where the lower-power stations, chiefly run by colleges, are found, and they’re usually free from local interference from the high-power commercial stations. In fact, unless you live in a very unpopulated region of the country, your chances of finding an open frequency free of interference above 91.1 MHz is rather small, so you’ll need to tune to a distant station on a clear frequency below 91.1 MHz.
FM Atlas, published from 1970 to 2010, provided listings of all FM stations in North America, with the unique feature of frequency-by-frequency maps. Bruce Elving, publisher of the FM Atlas, was a longtime proponent and expert in all things FM. He died in 2011, but as a tribute to his love and dedication to FM radio, the 21st and final edition of FM Atlas (2010) is available for free, courtesy of AmericanRadioHistory.com. You can also see a complete listing of AM and FM stations in the 2010-2011 edition of the M Street Directory.
What do meteors sound like?
Normally, when you’re tuned in to an “empty” radio frequency, you just hear a hissing noise. But as meteors zip through the atmosphere, a distant or silent station will abruptly “boom in” for anywhere from a fraction of a second to several seconds. You might also hear what initially sounds like a “pop” or a whistle, and then as the ionization trail dissipates, the station will quickly fade away. Because of their height, meteors best reflect signals from stations 800 to 1,300 miles (1,300 to 2,100 km) from you.
When should you listen for meteors?
The best time to listen is when the radiant is 45 degrees above the horizon as seen from a point midway between you and the transmitter. At the predicted peak time for Tuesday morning’s potential meteor outburst, parts of Maine and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island will have the radiant close to that preferred altitude, while eastern New York, New England and southern Quebec will not be far behind, at about 50 to 55 degrees.
Also, it is best to tune to a station located in a direction perpendicular to the radiant. Because the SW 3 radiant will be near the brilliant orange star Arcturus in the constellation Boötes, which will be toward the western part of the sky, the better listening directions will be to the north and south of you.
Most meteors are heard but not seen
If you are watching for meteors while monitoring your radio, most of the time, you will hear a “ping” of reception, but you won’t see a corresponding meteor streak in the sky. Recall that most of the meteors you hear are roughly halfway between you and the radio station — about 400 to 650 miles (650 to 1,050 km) away. So they are occurring either near the horizon or just below it. Back in the 1970s, members of the Nippon Meteor Society in Japan who made extensive records of radio meteors noted that only 20% to 40% of meteors heard on the radio were simultaneously observed visually.
What if you can’t find a clear frequency?
Particularly in large metropolitan areas, finding a clear or empty FM frequency may be all but impossible, even below 91.1 MHz. In many ways, finding a clear frequency seems to go hand in hand with trying to find a dark sky free of light pollution. You’ll probably have a much better chance in rural or country locations.
But if you can’t find a clear FM frequency, don’t despair. You can still listen for meteors on livemeteors.com. A Yagi antenna in the Washington, D.C., metro area constantly detects 55- or 61-MHz analog TV signals in Ontario reflected off of meteor trails. When a meteor passes over — ping! — there is an echo. It’s the next best thing to having free access to a giant government radar!
Good luck, and good listening!
Joe Rao serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York’s Hayden Planetarium (opens in new tab). He writes about astronomy for Natural History magazine (opens in new tab), the Farmers’ Almanac (opens in new tab) and other publications. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom (opens in new tab) and on Facebook (opens in new tab).
Paragon Humidity Control Technology Flies on Boeing's CST-100 Starliner – Benzinga – Benzinga
TUCSON, Ariz. , May 27, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Paragon Space Development Corporation (Paragon) is excited to announce that its Humidity Control Subassembly (HCS) has been successfully tested and operated on the Boeing CST-100 Starliner Orbital Flight Test-2 prior to its successful landing on Wednesday, May 25th. Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner successfully docked with the International Space Station (ISS) for the first time on May 20, 2022 after lifting off May 19th from Florida. The HCS platform was developed by Paragon under a fixed price development and production contract to Boeing and is built upon Paragon’s patented technology as well as decades worth of time-tested experience and knowledge focused on development of life support systems for extreme environments.
“It’s really quite an accomplishment to have the HCS aboard this historic mission – the first truly new humidity control technology developed in 60 years of human spaceflight. It is a testament to the excellent work and dedication of our team at Paragon, and that of our partners at Boeing,” said Grant Anderson, Paragon’s President and CEO. “Our team is excited that the HCS system passed its debut flight to the ISS and will support the transport of humans back and forth for years to come.”
The HCS will provide essential life support functionality for next generation human spaceflight operations and is the most recent spaceflight technology fielded by Paragon for the ever-expanding human spaceflight market. Paragon’s HCS technology is being integrated into the Northrop Grumman HALO module and will provide contingency life support capability during crewed Artemis missions to–and around–the Moon.
“As humanity accelerates into space, with new missions ahead and new technological, exploration and scientific goals to achieve, it will be systems like the HCS that make it all possible. Without life support and environmental controls, you don’t have human spaceflight – it’s really that simple,” noted Barry Finger, Paragon’s VP of Engineer, adding that, “With Boeing’s vision and stick-to-it approach, as well as that of all the partners on this fantastic team, we all made the difficult a reality – and that is what we at Paragon see as our strength.”
For over 29 years, Paragon has been on the forefront of systems designed for extreme environments in sea, land, air, and space. Paragon has a successful history of providing design, analysis and/or hardware on every human space program of record since 1999. Paragon has grown their design, analysis, manufacturing, and operational capabilities to support the most current and forward-leaning civil and commercial space programs. For more information and other news, visit www.paragonsdc.com.
Media Contact: Leslie Haas, 520-382-4814, firstname.lastname@example.org.
View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/paragon-humidity-control-technology-flies-on-boeings-cst-100-starliner-301556421.html
SOURCE Paragon Space Development Corporation
NASA Moves Forward With Next-Gen Solar Sail Project – ExtremeTech
Getting from point A to point B in the solar system is no simple feat, and inefficient, heavy rockets aren’t always the best way. Therefore, NASA has announced it is moving ahead with a new solar sail concept that could make future spacecraft more efficient and maneuverable. The Diffractive Solar Sailing project is now entering phase III development under the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program, which could eventually lead to probes that use solar radiation to coast over the sun’s polar regions.
The concept of solar sails is an old one — they were first proposed in the 1980s. The gist is that you equip a vessel with a lightweight sail that translates the pressure from solar radiation into propulsion. The problem is that a solar sail has to be much larger than the spacecraft it’s dragging along. Even a low-thrust solar sail would need to be almost a square kilometer, and you need to keep it intact over the course of a mission. Plus, you have little choice but to fly in the direction of sunlight, so you have to make tradeoffs for either power or navigation. Futuristic diffractive light sails could address these shortcomings.
This work is being undertaken at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory under the leadership of Amber Dubill and co-investigator Grover Swartzlander. The project progressed through phase I and II trials, which had the team developing concept and feasibility studies on diffractive light sails. The phase III award ensures $2 million in funding over the next two years to design and test the materials that could make diffractive light propulsion a reality.
A diffractive light sail, as the name implies, takes advantage of a property of light known as diffraction. When light passes through a small opening, it spreads out on the other side. This could be used to make a light sail more maneuverable so it doesn’t need to go wherever the solar winds blow.
The team will design its prototypes with several possible mission applications in mind. This technology most likely won’t have an impact on missions to the outer solar system where sunlight is weaker and the monumental distances require faster modes of transportation. However, heliophysics is a great use case for diffractive lightsailing as it would allow visiting the polar regions of the sun, which are difficult to access with current technology.
A lightsail with the ability to essentially redirect thrust from a continuous stream of sunlight would be able to enter orbit over the poles. It may even be possible to maneuver a constellation of satellites into this difficult orbit to study the sun from a new angle. In a few years, NASA may be able to conduct a demonstration mission. Until then, it’s all theoretical.
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