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Fermenting ferns? Rare dinosaur stomach fossil opens door to ancient world – The Observer



Fresh ferns, loaded with spores, lightly dusted with leaves and twigs and perfectly seasoned with locally sourced charcoal.

Sound good? It did to an ankylosaur about 110 million years ago, as evidenced by amazingly complete fossils of what was certainly the tank-like dinosaur’s last meal.

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“It’s pretty exciting,” said Caleb Brown, a curator at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology and co-author of a paper published Tuesday on what is one of probably only three fossilized dinosaur stomachs discovered.

“We can start recontructing the life histories and ecologies of these animals.”

The dining dinosaur was first unearthed in 2011 in a northern Alberta Suncor oilsands mine, where many excavators have learned to look for fossils as they dig. When this one turned up, a crew from the Tyrrell followed shortly afterward.

It was an amazingly well-preserved ankylosaur from the early Cretaceous period. Low but large — the species could reach eight metres long and weigh eight tonnes — the fossil took two weeks to remove.

It then took 5 1/2 years for technician Mark Mitchell to clean and prepare it, which is why the species now bears the Latin name markmitchelli. The restored specimen, complete with body armour and outer skin, was remarkable enough for a 2017 National Geographic magazine feature.

But for paleontologists, the fun was just starting. They began looking at a fossilized structure that co-author Jim Basinger of the University of Saskatchewan described as looking like a “squashed basketball.”

It was in the right place for a stomach and it held gastroliths, small stones dinosaurs used to help digest their food, much as some birds do today.

“There’s a great mess of them and they’re quite distinctive,” said Basinger.

The scientists eventually compiled 16 pieces of evidence that the squashed basketball was, in fact, a stomach.

“It’s unquestionable,” Basinger said.

There are only two other fossilized stomachs in the world that scientists are this sure about. Neither opens doors to the past the way this one does.

About 80 per cent of this last meal was a particular species of ferns. The fossils are so well preserved their spores identify them.

There are bits of other plants and twigs so immaculate that their growth rings are being used to estimate weather at the time. And there is charcoal from burned woody material.

Brown points out ferns aren’t that nutritious. A beast this size would need digestion capable of getting the most from them.

That means this dinosaur may have fermented its food, much like many animals today.

“All big herbivores today use some form of fermentation,” Brown said. “For this animal, it was almost certainly fermenting those ferns.”

Which raises other interesting questions: How much fermented fern does it take to move an eight-tonne lizard? How much energy might it need? Where might that much fodder be found?

The charcoal provides a clue. It probably came from an ancient forest fire where ferns would have been abundant in the first flush of new growth, much as they are today.

“(The dinosaur) was taking advantage of a charred landscape,” Basinger said. Many modern animals do the same, chowing down on tender, nutritious and low-hanging new growth that follows the flames.

More than just reassembling skeletons, modern paleontology is starting to rebuild ecosystems that haven’t existed for millions and millions of years.

“That’s something we can start playing with,” Brown said.

The fossils tell individual stories, too.

Basinger said, given the undigested contents of its stomach, this ankylosaur died quickly. It was surrounded by marine fossils, and researchers believe it slipped or fell into a large river, where it drowned and was swept out to sea.

“Whatever happened to the poor dinosaur, it would have happened pretty fast after it had eaten.”

This report by The Canadian Press was first published June 2, 2020

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COVID-19: Vancouver bar patrons may have been exposed to virus – Cape Breton Post



Vancouver Coastal Health is alerting bar patrons who were at Vancouver’s Hotel Belmont a week ago that they may have been exposed to the novel coronavirus.

The VCH says individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 attended the hotel’s bar and nightclub on both June 27 and 29.

Bar-goers who patronized the Hotel Belmont, located at the corner of Nelson and Granville streets, on either of those nights are advised to monitor themselves for 14 days.

“As long as they remain healthy and do not develop symptoms, there is no need to self-isolate and they should continue with their usual daily activities. If you have no symptoms, testing is not recommended because it is not accurate or useful,” the VCH said in a statement.

“If you develop any of these symptoms of COVID-19, please seek COVID-19 testing and immediately self-isolate. Please call ahead and wear a mask when seeking testing.”

The VCH said there is no known risk to anyone who attended the Hotel Belmont outside these two dates.

Copyright Postmedia Network Inc., 2020

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Italy's melting glaciers face new threat: Pink ice – Deutsche Welle



Glacier scientists are investigating the appearance of pink ice at Italy’s Presena Glacier, an Alpine region known for skiing and outdoor sports. Research suggests the algae could contribute to increased glacial melt.

Striking photos and videos have been making the rounds on social media in recent days, with people marveling over the appearance of pink ice in the Italian Alps.

The colored ice — known as “watermelon snow” — has been spotted at the Presena Glacier, a popular winter sports area in Italy’s northern Trentino region, which is already feeling the effects of climate change. The area has seen at least 15% of its glaciers retreat since the beginning of the century, and researchers are now looking into whether the proliferation of this natural phenomenon, caused by algae, could speed up the melting process even further.

The pink ice is caused by a naturally occurring algae, common to snowy regions around the world

Key facts

  • Even if we act swiftly to curb carbon emissions in the coming decades, more than a third of the world’s remaining glaciers are expected to disappear by the end of the century
  • Glaciers in the European Alps have shrunk by about half since 1900, according to the European Environment Agency. Climate scientists have warned the Alps could be ice free by 2100 if nothing is done to curb CO2 emissions
  • Algal bloom — more commonly associated with the world’s oceans — also darkens the surface of glaciers, increasing the amount of sun they absorb and, therefore, how quickly they melt
  • The algae found in Italy, likely Chlamydomonas nivalis, are quite common in the Alps and snowy regions around the world, according to Biagio Di Mauro of Italy’s National Research Council

Read more: Switzerland: High-altitude wake for melted Pizol glacier

Algae: Bad news for glacial melt

Algae found in the Alps remain dormant during the winter, and only begin to spread on the ice in the spring and summer months when conditions are ideal: increased light and nutrients, plenty of meltwater and a temperature slightly above freezing.

It turns shades of pink and red when exposed to sunlight, which causes it to produce a naturally protective red carotene layer to shield it from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

An aerial picture above the Presena glacier near Pellizzano shows pink colored snow

Di Mauro says the ice, darkened by the algae, absorbs the sun’s rays and melts faster, eating away at the glacier

Fingers points to closeup shot of the red algae

Chlamydomonas nivalis, which exhibits its red coloring in the closeup, uses pollutants carried in snow as food

But it doesn’t just give snow the look of strawberry gelato. Algal bloom can also tint ice shades of brown, violet yellow or green, as seen in a recent survey that analyzed the slushy coastal regions of Antarctica where warmer temperatures and the excrement of marine animals and birds cause it to spread.

Initial reports suggested the algae might be Ancylonema nordenskioeldii, a species common on the ice sheet in southwest Greenland. In a paper published earlier this year, Di Mauro wrote about his discovery of the first signs of this algae at the Morteratsch Glacier in Switzerland.

“Warm summers and dry winters create the perfect environment for the algae to grow. So, in the future the presence of algae on snow and ice could be favored by climate change,” Di Mauro told DW, though he said that remained to be proven.

Di Mauro said it was still unclear how the algae had made its way to the Alps from Greenland, or whether it had already spread elsewhere. But, he added, “I would not be surprised to find it on other glaciers in the Alps.”

Glacial scenery and green algae in the ice on Useful Island, Gerlache Strasit, Antarctic Peninsula

Algae doesn’t just color ice red

Algae ‘spectacular,’ but not glaciers’ main threat

No matter the color, the algae don’t help the already endangered glaciers. The bright, white surface of a typical glacier generally has a high albedo, meaning it reflects around 80% of the sun’s radiation back into the atmosphere. But as the algae spread over the surface of the glacier, it darkens the ice and causes it to absorb more solar radiation, heating the glacier and speeding up the melting process.

Read more:Living in hope and fear beside India’s retreating Himalayan glaciers  

This isn’t a new problem for glaciers, though. Matthias Huss, a glaciology professor at ETH Zurich, told DW in an email that organic material, dust and combustion residue — soot and ash — can accumulate on glaciers over time and “significantly” reduce their ability to reflect the sun’s rays.

Huss doesn’t think the pink algae will affect “glacier retreat significantly.” He said that while the pink algae are “very spectacular,” they only last for a relatively short time and aren’t very widespread in the Alps. He believes it’s possible that algae may contribute to a slight additional reduction in ice volume by the end of the century, but said more research was necessary.

A closeup of insulating tarps on a glacier

Some ski resorts have begun covering their slopes with insulating tarps in the summer, preserving up to 70% of the snow

A glacier in Trentino covered with insulating tarps

On a large scale, however, this would be too expensive and could cause more environmental damage

The main cause of glacial melt, however, continues to be climate change. In a 2019 study published by the European Geosciences Union (EGU), Huss said that if nothing is done to curb global CO2 emissions “the Alps will be mostly ice free by 2100, with only isolated ice patches remaining at high elevation, representing 5% or less of the present-day ice volume.”

The study, co-authored by Huss, Harry Zekollari of the Delft University of Technology and Daniel Farinotti of ETH Zurich, used computer models to examine ice flow and melt processes. It showed that glaciers in the Alps were already on track to lose about 50% of their total volume by mid-century, no matter what happens with emissions. Algae growth did not factor into their projections.

‘Alps are Europe’s water tower’

Ice fields are an integral part of the Alpine ecosystem and economy, as they attract tourists and “act as natural fresh water reservoirs” for agriculture and hydroelectricity, said the EGU study.

“The Alps are Europe’s water tower,” said Huss. “If the glaciers begin to provide less water during the summer, this could become problematic in periods of drought.” However, he said, given that the glaciers aren’t expected to disappear completely before the end of the century, in the worst-case scenario they will likely provide enough water for decades to come.

Read more: Hotter, higher seas to worsen extreme floods without ‘urgent and ambitious’ action: UN

According to Zekollari, it might be possible to save “approximately one-third of the present-day [glacial] volume by the end of the century,” if the world follows CO2 curbs on par with the 2015 Paris climate agreement.

But he said the signs weren’t very positive at the moment, with the US abandoning the Paris accord and the EU still stuck in discussions of how it will reach its “ambitious goals.”

“It is clear that our actions today and decisions we make in the near future will have a large effect on the evolution of glaciers in the second part of the 21st century,” said Zekollari.

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Officials warn of possible coronavirus exposure at Vancouver nightclub | Dished – Daily Hive



Patrons who visited Vancouver’s Hotel Belmont bar and nightclub during the nights of Saturday, June 27, and Monday, June 29, are being warned of possible COVID-19 exposure.

In a notice, Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) stated individuals who tested positive for the virus attended the facility’s bar and nightclub on those two evenings.

“As a precaution, we are advising people who attended the bar and nightclub areas of the Hotel Belmont during the nights of Saturday, June 27 and Monday, June 29 to monitor themselves for 14 days,” said VCH.

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“As long as they remain healthy and do not develop symptoms, there is no need to self-isolate and they should continue with their usual daily activities.”

Those who don’t show symptoms do not need to get tested because it is “not accurate or useful,” stated VCH.

Symptoms of COVID-19 may include fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, cough, sore throat, fatigue, runny nose, sore throat loss of smell and/or diarrhea.

“If you develop any of these symptoms of COVID-19, please seek COVID-19 testing and immediately self-isolate. Please call ahead and wear a mask when seeking testing.”

Anyone with further questions is encouraged to contact public health at 604-675-3900.

VCH confirms there is no ongoing risk to the community.

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