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First images of asteroid strike from Webb, Hubble telescopes – Phys.org

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The true measure of DART’s success will be exactly how much it diverted the asteroid’s trajectory.

The James Webb and Hubble telescopes on Thursday revealed their initial images of a spacecraft deliberately crashing into an asteroid, marking the first time the two most powerful space telescopes have observed the same celestial object.

The world’s telescopes turned their gaze towards the space rock Dimorphos earlier this week for a historic test of Earth’s ability to defend itself against a potential future life-threatening asteroid.

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Astronomers rejoiced as NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) impactor slammed into its pyramid-sized target 11 million kilometers (6.8 million miles) from Earth on Monday night.

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Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, Cristina Thomas , Ian Wong, Animation: Joseph DePasquale (STScI)

Images taken by Earth-bound telescopes showed a vast cloud of dust expanding out of Dimorphos—and its big brother Didymos which it orbits—after the spacecraft hit.

While those images showed matter spraying out over thousands of kilometers, the James Webb and Hubble images “zoom in much closer”, said Alan Fitzsimmons, an astronomer at Queen’s University Belfast involved in observations with the ATLAS project.

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This animated gif combines three of the images NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captured after NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) intentionally impacted Dimorphos, a moonlet asteroid in the double asteroid system of Didymos. The animation spans from 22 minutes after impact to 8.2 hours after the collision took place. As a result of the impact, the brightness of the Didymos-Dimorphos system increased by 3 times. The brightness also appears to hold fairly steady, even eight hours after impact. Credit: NASA, ESA, Jian-Yang Li (PSI). Animation: Alyssa Pagan (STScI)

James Webb and Hubble can see “within just a few kilometers of the asteroids and you can really clearly see how the material is flying out from that explosive impact by DART”, Fitzsimmons told AFP.

“It really is quite spectacular,” he said.

Observations from the space telescopes will help reveal how much—and how quickly—matter sprayed from the asteroid, as well as the nature of its surface.

Images taken by the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes after NASA's DART spacecraft smashed into an asteroid
Images taken by the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes after NASA’s DART spacecraft smashed into an asteroid.

‘A beautiful demonstration’

An image taken by James Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) four hours after impact shows “plumes of material appearing as wisps streaming away from the center of where the impact took place”, according to a joint statement from the European Space Agency, James Webb and Hubble.

James Webb’s images were shown in red because the telescope operates primarily in the , which allows it to peer further into the universe than ever before.

The images from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 were blue because it shows the impact on .

Hubble images from 22 minutes, five hours and eight hours after impact show the expanding spray of matter from where DART hit on the asteroid’s left.

The true measure of DART’s success will be exactly how much it diverted the asteroid’s trajectory, so the world can start preparing to defend itself against bigger asteroids that could head our way in the future.

Hubble images from 22 minutes, five hours and eight hours after impact show the expanding spray of matter
Hubble images from 22 minutes, five hours and eight hours after impact show the expanding spray of matter.

However, it will take Earth-bound telescopes and radar days or even weeks to work out exactly where Dimorphos is, compared to where it would have been.

Measurements using that data will probably start next week, Fitzsimmons said.

“The problem we have at the moment is that there’s still a lot of dust and debris around the asteroids,” he said.

“How quickly astronomers can make that measurement will depend on exactly how efficient DART was,” he added. The more the asteroid has been knocked off course, the easier it will be to measure.

Since launching in December and releasing its first images in July, James Webb has taken the title of most powerful space telescope from Hubble.

With astronomers lined up for precious time to peer into the universe, the DART test is the first time both telescopes have observed the same event.

Fitzsimmons said the images were “a beautiful demonstration of the extra science you can get by using more than one simultaneously”.


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‘Incredible’: Astronomers hail first images of asteroid impact


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How A Hellish Planet Made Of Diamonds Covered By A Lava Ocean Got Where It Is Today

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In recent decades it’s become clear that the universe is teeming with planets and astronomers have begun to catalog them by the hundreds. Most of the worlds we’ve discovered so far are remarkably inhospitable and the closer we look at some, the more hellacious they seem to appear.

Case in point is 55 Cancri e, also known as 55 Cnc or by its nickname, Janssen. This world orbits so close to its star, known as Copernicus or 55 Cnc, that a year on its surface passes in only 18 hours and temperatures can soar over 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Enduring such extreme conditions for so long has led scientists to suggest that the scalding world could have an interior full of diamonds, covered by a surface ocean of molten lava.

Makes Mauna Loa seem almost minor league on the cosmic scale of volcanism.

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There’s a reason that we keep spotting so many relatively hot planets next to their stars. Call it an inherent bias of our existing tech: it’s just easier to see planets orbiting close in to their stars.

In fact, most exoplanets discovered and cataloged so far have a very good chance of being so-called “hot Jupiters” — giant planets orbiting close-in. Being massive and next to your local source of light makes you especially easy to spot.

So 55 Cancri e is actually an important exoplanet as one of the first small, rocky planets found orbiting extremely close to its star.

Now researchers have made use of a new tool called EXPRES (for EXtreme PREcision Spectrometer) at the Lowell Discovery Telescope in Arizona to make ultra-precise measurements that helped them determine the orbit of this hellish world in more detail.

They found that the planet orbits Copernicus right along the equator of the star and that it likely originally orbited further out and was slowly pulled into its current alignment by the gravitational pull of the star and other objects in the unusual star system.

The system is located only 40 light years from Earth and consists of main-sequence star Copernicus paired with a red dwarf star. The binary duo also count at least five exoplanets that all have very different orbits among their cosmic family.

The new research, led by Lily Zhao at Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics and published in Nature Astronomy, posits that the interactions between these oddball family members shifted Janssen to its current, insufferable orbit.

Although it was pushed, pulled and prodded into its current position, Zhao says that even in its original orbit, the planet “was likely so hot that nothing we’re aware of would be able to survive on the surface.”

What a waste of so much diamond.

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Rare Mars eclipse by the full moon wows stargazers with occultation (video) – Space.com

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On Wednesday (Dec. 7), skywatchers around the world were treated to a celestial show as the full moon eclipsed Mars in the night sky.

The rare event, known as a lunar occultation, refers to one celestial body — in this case, Mars — appearing to disappear or hide behind another — in this case, the moon. This occultation was particularly noteworthy because Mars was at opposition, meaning Earth was directly between it and the sun, making the Red Planet appear particularly bright in the night sky

Related: See Mars at opposition in these free webcasts tonight (Dec. 8)

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View of the last full moon of 2022 through Christmas lights in San Salvador, El Salvador. (Image credit: Camilo Freedman/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

Last night’s occultation of Mars by the full moon produced some gorgeous images from observers around the world. The Griffith Observatory in California had a great view of the moon and Mars joining up on Dec. 7 and caught a time-lapse of the Red Planet disappearing behind Earth’s celestial companion as seen in the video above.

In addition, skywatchers around the world have been posting gorgeous images of the lunar occultation of Mars on social media, offering a look at one of the year’s most-watched celestial events.

Astrophotographer Andrew McCarthy caught Mars and the full moon (opens in new tab) in a beautiful close-up:

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Spaceflight photographer John Kraus caught a stunning shot of Mars (opens in new tab) as it appeared behind the moon following occultation:

Amateur astrophotographer Tom Williams produced a gorgeous image of the moon and Mars by combining multiple photographs, and offered an explanation of how he made the image (opens in new tab) on Twitter.

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Amateur astronomer and photographer Tom Glenn produced a breathtaking image of Mars (opens in new tab) rising above the moon by stacking 15 different photograph frames.

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Astronomer and science communicator Phil Plait caught Mars creeping behind the moon (opens in new tab) just prior to occultation.

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The lunar occultation of Mars by the full Cold Moon was particularly noteworthy because the Red Planet only appears at opposition every 26 months, so the next opposition won’t occur until January 2025.

Mars was also especially close to Earth during this event, which occurred while the planet was at perigee, or its closest point to Earth in its orbit. The record for closest approach between Mars and Earth was set in 2003 at just 34.8 million miles (56 million kilometers); according to NASA, Mars and Earth won’t be this close for another 265 years, until 2287. 

Editor’s Note: If you snap a great photo of either Mars at opposition or the lunar occultation and would like to share it with Space.com’s readers, send your photo(s), comments, and your name and location to spacephotos@space.com

Editor’s Note: This piece was updated at 4:30 p.m. EST (2130 GMT) on Dec. 8 to indicate that the record for Mars’ closest approach to Earth was set in 2003.

Follow Brett on Twitter at @bretttingley (opens in new tab). Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom (opens in new tab) or on Facebook (opens in new tab).  

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NASA Artemis I – Flight Day 22: Orion Spacecraft Continues Its Journey Back to Earth – SciTechDaily

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On flight day 20, Orion captured the crescent Earth in the distance as the spacecraft regained communications with the Deep Space Network following its return powered flyby on the far side of the Moon. The spacecraft will splash down on Sunday, December 11. Credit: <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

NASA
Established in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government that succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). It is responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. Its vision is &quot;To discover and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity.&quot; Its core values are &quot;safety, integrity, teamwork, excellence, and inclusion.&quot;

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>NASA

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On day 22 of the 25.5-day Artemis I mission, the Orion spacecraft continues its journey back to Earth. Flight controllers and engineers continue to test the spacecraft and its systems in preparation for future flights with a human crew aboard.

The second part of the propellant tank slosh development flight test was conducted by engineers. This propellant slosh test is specifically scheduled during quiescent, or less active, parts of the mission. Propellant motion, or slosh, in space is difficult to model on Earth because, due to the lack of gravity, liquid propellant moves differently in tanks in space than on Earth.


On flight day 20, Orion approached the Moon ahead of the return powered flyby burn that committed the spacecraft to splashdown on Sunday, December 11. Credit: NASA

For the test, flight controllers need to fire the reaction control system thrusters when propellant tanks are filled to different levels. The reaction control thrusters used are located on the sides of the service module and can be fired individually as needed to move the spacecraft in different directions or rotate it into any position. Each of these engines provides about 50 pounds of thrust. Engineers measure the effect the propellant sloshing has on spacecraft trajectory and orientation as Orion moves through space.

The test was first performed after the outbound flyby burn, and now again after the return flyby burn, to compare data at points in the mission with different levels of propellant onboard. Approximately 12,060 pounds of propellant has been used, which is 215 pounds less than estimated prelaunch, and leaves a margin of 2,185 pounds over what is planned for use, 275 pounds more than prelaunch expectations. The first prop slosh test objective was completed on day eight of the mission as Orion prepared to enter the distant retrograde orbit.


On flight day 20, Orion approached the Moon ahead of the return powered flyby burn that committed the spacecraft to splashdown on Sunday, December 11. Credit: NASA

A few key milestones for Orion remain, including the entry system checkouts and propulsion system leak checks on mission days 24 and 25, respectively.

Orion will travel at around 25,000 mph (40,000 km/h) while reentering Earth’s atmosphere, testing the world’s largest ablative heat shield by reaching temperatures up to 5,000 degrees <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Fahrenheit
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale, named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit and based on one he proposed in 1724. In the Fahrenheit temperature scale, the freezing point of water freezes is 32 °F and water boils at 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure.&nbsp;

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Fahrenheit (2,800 degrees <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Celsius
The Celsius scale, also known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. In the Celsius scale, 0 °C is the freezing point of water and 100 °C is the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Celsius) – approximately half the temperature of the surface of the sun. The heat shield is located at the bottom of the Orion capsule, measuring 16.5 feet (5 meters) in diameter, and sheds intense heat away from the crew module as Orion returns to Earth. The outer surface of the heat shield is made of 186 billets, or blocks, of an ablative material called Avcoat, a reformulated version of the material used on the Apollo capsules. During descent, the Avcoat ablates, or burns off in a controlled fashion, transporting heat away from Orion. Learn more about Orion’s heat shield in the Artemis I reference guide.


Artemis All Access is your look at the latest in Artemis I, the people and technology behind the mission, and what is coming up next. This uncrewed flight test around the Moon will pave the way for a crewed flight test and future human lunar exploration as part of Artemis. Credit: NASA

On Thursday, December 8 at 5 p.m. EST, NASA will host a briefing to preview Orion’s return scheduled for Sunday, December 11 and to discuss how the recovery teams are preparing for entry and splashdown. The briefing will be live on NASA TV, the agency’s website, and the NASA app.

Watch the latest episode of Artemis All Access (video embedded above) for a look back at recent mission accomplishments and a preview of splashdown, including parachute information.

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