Shining a deep red light for three minutes a day into your eye, even through the eyelid, can significantly improve declining eyesight, finds a new University College London-led study, the first of its kind in humans.
Scientists believe the discovery, published this week in the Journals of Gerontology, could help the millions of people globally with naturally declining vision by signaling the dawn of new affordable home-based eye therapies.
In the UK, there are currently around 12 million people over the age of 65—and all will have some degree of visual decline because of retinal aging.
“As you age, your visual system declines significantly, particularly once over 40,” said the study’s lead author Professor Glen Jeffery from the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology.
“Your retinal sensitivity and your color vision are both gradually undermined,” he continued. “To try to stem or reverse this decline, we sought to reboot the retina’s aging cells with short bursts of longwave light.”
The pace of aging in an eye’s retina is partially set when the cells’ mitochondria, whose role is to produce energy (known as ATP) and boost cell function, start to decline.
Mitochondrial density is greatest in the retina’s photoreceptor cells, which have high energy demands. As a result, the retina ages faster than other organs with a 70% ATP reduction over life, causing a significant decline in photoreceptor function as they lack the energy to perform their normal role.
Researchers built on their previous findings in mice, bumblebees, and fruit flies, which all found significant improvements in the function of the retina’s photoreceptors when their eyes were exposed to deep red (long wavelength) light.
“Mitochondria have specific light absorbance characteristics influencing their performance: longer wavelengths spanning 650 to 1000nm are absorbed and improve mitochondrial performance to increase energy production, rather like re-charging a battery.” said Professor Jeffery.
The retina’s photoreceptor population is formed out of cones that mediate color vision, and rods, which provide peripheral vision and adapt vision in low/dim light.
At the start of the study, 24 people (12 male, 12 female) between the ages of 28 and 72 with no ocular disease were tested for the sensitivity of their rods and cones. Rod sensitivity was measured in dark adapted eyes (with pupils dilated) by asking participants to detect dim light signals in the dark, and cone function was tested by subjects identifying colored letters that had very low contrast and appeared increasingly blurred—a process called color contrast.
All participants were then given a small LED torch to take home and were asked to look into its deep red 670nm light beam for three minutes a day for two weeks (participants were free to close their eyes and place them over the devices since the red light is not filtered by the eye lid.) They were then re-tested for their rod and cone sensitivity.
The researchers found that although the 670nm light had no impact in younger individuals, significant improvements were obtained in those around 40 years old and over.
Cone color contrast sensitivity (the ability to detect colors) improved by up to 20%, particularly in the blue part of the color spectrum that is more vulnerable in aging. Rod sensitivity (the ability to see in low light) also improved significantly, though less than color contrast.
“Our devices cost about £12 to make, so the technology is highly accessible to members of the public.”
“Our study shows that it is possible to significantly improve vision that has declined in aged individuals using simple brief exposures to light wavelengths that recharge the energy system that has declined in the retina cells,” said Professor Jeffery. “The technology is simple and very safe, using a deep red light of a specific wavelength that is absorbed by mitochondria in the retina to supply energy for cellular function.
This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.
Edited and reprinted article from University of College London
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First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream – Phys.org
New research provides the first direct evidence for the Gulf Stream blender effect, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water across the swift-moving current. The results have important implications for weather, climate and fisheries because ocean mixing plays a critical role in these processes. The Gulf Stream is one of the largest drivers of climate and biological productivity from Florida to Newfoundland and along the western coast of Europe.
The multi-institutional study led by a University of Maryland researcher revealed that churning along the edges of the Gulf Stream across areas as small as a kilometer could be a leading source of ocean mixing between the waters on either side of the current. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on July 6, 2020.
“This long-standing debate about whether the Gulf Stream acts as a blender or a barrier to ocean mixing has mainly considered big ocean eddies, tens of kilometers to a hundred kilometers across,” said Jacob Wenegrat, an assistant professor in UMD’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and the lead author of the study. “What we’re adding to this debate is this new evidence that variability at the kilometer scale seems to be doing a lot of mixing. And those scales are really hard to monitor and model.”
As the Gulf Stream courses its way up the east coast of the U.S. and Canada, it brings warm salty water from the tropics into the north Atlantic. But the current also creates an invisible wall of water that divides two distinct ocean regions: the colder, fresher waters along the northern edge of the Gulf Stream that swirl in a counterclockwise direction, and the warmer, saltier waters on the southern edge of the current that circulate in a clockwise direction.
How much ocean mixing occurs across the Gulf Stream has been a matter of scientific debate. As a result, ocean models that predict climate, weather and biological productivity have not fully accounted for the contribution of mixing between the two very different types of water on either side of the current.
To conduct the study, the researchers had to take their instruments to the source: the edge of the Gulf Stream. Two teams of scientists aboard two global-class research vessels braved winter storms on the Atlantic Ocean to release a fluorescent dye along the northern front of the Gulf Stream and trace its path over the following days.
The first team released the dye along with a float containing an acoustic beacon. Downstream, the second team tracked the float and monitored the concentration of dye along with water temperature, salinity, chemistry and other features.
Back on shore, Wenegrat and his coauthors developed high-resolution simulations of the physical processes that could cause the dye to disperse through the water in the manner the field teams recorded. Their results showed that turbulence across areas as small as a kilometer exerted an important influence on the dye’s path and resulted in significant mixing of water properties such as salinity and temperature.
“These results emphasize the role of variability at very small scales that are currently hard to observe using standard methods, such as satellite observations,” Wenegrat said. “Variability at this scale is not currently resolved in global climate models and won’t be for decades to come, so it leads us to wonder, what have we been missing?”
By showing that small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream may have a significant impact, the new study reveals an important, under-recognized contributor to ocean circulation, biology and potentially climate.
For example, the Gulf Stream plays an important role in what’s known as the ocean biological pump—a system that traps excess carbon dioxide, buffering the planet from global warming. In the surface waters of the Gulf Stream region, ocean mixing influences the growth of phytoplankton—the base of the ocean food web. These phytoplankton absorb carbon dioxide near the surface and later sink to the bottom, taking carbon with them and trapping it in the deep ocean. Current models of the ocean biological pump don’t account for the large effect small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream could have on phytoplankton growth.
“To make progress on this we need to find ways to quantify these processes on a finer scale using theory, state-of-the-art numerical models and new observational techniques,” Wenegrat said. “We need to be able to understand their impact on large-scale circulation and biogeochemistry of the ocean.”
The research paper, “Enhanced mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” Jacob O. Wenegrat, Leif N. Thomas, Miles A. Sundermeyer, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Jody M. Klymak, R. Kipp Shearman, and Craig M. Lee, was published in the July 6, 2020 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Jacob O. Wenegrat el al., “Enhanced mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” PNAS (2020). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2005558117
University of Maryland
First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream (2020, July 6)
retrieved 6 July 2020
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Strange pink snow in the Italian Alps might be a red flag – CNET
Pink snow, also called “watermelon snow,” has appeared at the Presena glacier in northern Italy, according to researcher Biagio Di Mauro of the Institute of Polar Sciences at Italy’s National Research Council. While it’s not uncommon for the Italian alps to be “pretty in pink” in spring and summer, scientists become cautious when the phenomenon, which is caused by algae, starts happening more frequently.
Di Mauro told CNN that 2020’s lack of snowfall and higher temperatures have nurtured the algae’s growth. More algae could lead to ice melting faster.
When Di Mauro tweeted clarification for an article from The Guardian, he said the algae was probably Chlamydomonas nivalis, a snow algae. He also said the algae’s relationship with climate change hasn’t been proven yet.
Di Mauro tweeted photos of the pink snow on Monday.
Across the ocean, in late May,, caused by microscopic algae. Though microscopic, the green blooms could be spotted by satellites. The color might also have connections with the impact of warming climates, researchers said.
Canadarm3 will help pave way for Canadian boots on moon, and maybe Mars, Space Agency says – National Post
When humankind makes its long-awaited return to our nearest celestial neighbour, Canada will lend a hand. Literally.
The Canadian Space Agency has recently announced that our nation and the Brampton, Ontario-based company MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates, will design and build Canadarm3, a new robotic arm for use aboard the U.S.-led Lunar Gateway. In 1999 the company purchased Spar Aerospace, which developed the first two arms, also known as remote manipulator systems or RMS.
“We will be the masters of robotics on Gateway,” says Gilles Leclerc, whose enthusiasm for the project is matched only by his out-of-this-world job title of Director General, Space Exploration, Canadian Space Agency.
The Lunar Gateway, slated to begin construction in 2023, is a small space station that will remain in lunar orbit, providing a rendezvous location for ships travelling from the Earth to the moon, as well as landers on their way to the lunar surface. It could also be used as a staging area for future crewed flights to Mars.
Pompeo says U.S. looking at banning Chinese social media apps, including TikTok: Fox – TheChronicleHerald.ca
NHL, NHLPA on verge of labour peace; plan to resume games Aug. 1 – TSN
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