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Giant, Half-Billion-Year-Old Predator Fossil Pulled Out of Canadian Rockies – Gizmodo

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An artist’s impression of T. gainesi from the front.
Illustration: Lars Fields, © Royal Ontario Museum

During the Cambrian Explosion over 500 million years ago, the oceans teemed with weird creatures that were busy redefining what life looked like on Earth. One of those creatures was just chiseled out of the Canadian mountains and is now one of the largest animals known from the time period.

The animal is Titanokorys gainesi, and it was built like a tank. T. gainesi had multifaceted eyes, a ring-shaped mouth that looks like a pineapple slice, claws to snap up prey, a trail of flaps for swimming, and a head covered in a massive carapace. It was a member of a primitive arthropod group called radiodonts. The fossil’s morphology and the circumstances of its discovery were published today in Royal Society Open Science.

“The first specimens were found in 2014, but it wasn’t until 2018 that we discovered a particularly pristine carapace [and] we recognized the significance of this find,” said Joe Moysiuk, a paleobiologist at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto and co-author of the paper, in an email to Gizmodo. “My coauthor Jean-Bernard split a particularly large slab of shale, and I recall hearing a gasp followed by a lot of yelling and everyone crowding around. We’ve found a lot of cool things, but this one really left an impression!”

The rock holding a T. gainesi fossil.
The holotype specimen of T. gainesi, with carapace at bottom and two ridge plates at top.
Photo: Jean-Bernard Caron, © Royal Ontario Museum

The team found the fossil in Canada’s Burgess Shale, a stretch of rock in western North America that has yielded stupendously well-preserved remains of the animals that lived during the Cambrian (541 million to 485 million years ago), when the area was covered by sea. T. gainesi and other predators like it would have been filter feeders, sifting through the mud and sucking up any tasty morsels they came across.

Some of that petrified seabed, lifted up over time by tectonic shifts, now makes up the shale high in Canada’s Yoho National Park. To get the fossil down the mountain, Moysiuk said, the team wrapped it in foam, duct tape, and cut-up bits of pool noodle, then suspended the bundle from a helicopter.

Two years ago, the same team found an animal similar in shape to T. gainesi; they named it Cambroraster falcatus for the way it resembled Han Solo’s Millennium Falcon. The shale preserves even the soft tissue remains of those Cambrian creatures, meaning that paleontologists can study itsy-bitsy evolutionary relics in greater detail than they can in many dinosaurs, which turned up some 300 million years later. (Yeah, there’s more time separating the first dinosaurs from the Cambrian period than there is separating those dinosaurs from us!)

Perhaps the most impressive feature of T. gainesi is its size. Most animals that inhabited the Cambrian oceans were smaller than a pinky finger; this one is about a foot and a half long. If the typical Cambrian critter were the average human height, a T. gainesi in relative proportion would be nearly 40 feet tall.

A C. falcatus is chased off by an even larger T. gainesi. Animation by Lars Fields, © Royal Ontario Museum

“The sheer size of this animal is absolutely mind-boggling, this is one of the biggest animals from the Cambrian period ever found,” said lead author Jean-Bernard Caron, a paleontologist at the Royal Ontario Museum, in a museum press release.

“These enigmatic animals certainly had a big impact on Cambrian seafloor ecosystems. Their limbs at the front looked like multiple stacked rakes and would have been very efficient at bringing anything they captured in their tiny spines towards the mouth. The huge dorsal carapace might have functioned like a plough,” Caron added.

You can imagine the creature as a massive carnivorous zeppelin, floating just above the seafloor as it dredged the muck for food. The discovery expands the team’s knowledge of predators with carapaces during the Cambrian period; for the sake of everyone who loves nightmare creatures, let’s hope they find more.

More: Scientists Find Huge Trove of Marine Fossils from the ‘Cambrian Explosion’ in China

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Bird reports rose during lockdowns | Cornell Chronicle – Cornell Chronicle

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Around 80% of bird species examined in a new study were reported in greater numbers in human-altered habitats during pandemic lockdowns, according to new research based on data from the eBird program at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

In the paper, “Reduced Human Activity During COVID-19 Alters Avian Land Use Across North America,” published Sept. 22 in Science Advances, researchers compared online eBird observations from the United States and Canada from before and during the pandemic. They focused on areas within about 100 km of urban areas, major roads, and airports.

Vast amounts of data from a likewise vast geographic area were vital for this study. The researchers used more than 4 million eBird observations of 82 bird species from across Canada and the U.S.

“A lot of species we really care about became more abundant in human landscapes during the pandemic,” said study senior author Nicola Koper of the University of Manitoba, which led the research. “I was blown away by how many species were affected by decreased traffic and activity during lockdowns.”

Reports of bald eagles increased in cities with the strongest lockdowns. Ruby-throated hummingbirds were three times more likely to be reported within a kilometer of airports than before the pandemic. Barn swallows, a threatened species in Canada, were reported more often within a kilometer of roads than before the pandemic.

A few species decreased their use of human-altered habitat during the pandemic. Red-tailed hawk reports decreased near roads, perhaps because there was less roadkill when traffic declined. But far more species had increased counts in these human-dominated landscapes.

The authors filtered pandemic and pre-pandemic eBird reports so that the final data sets had the same characteristics, such as location, number of lists, and level of birdwatcher effort.

“We also needed to be aware of the detectability issue,” said co-author Alison Johnston, assistant director of the Center for Avian Population Studies and Ecological Data in the Lab of Ornithology. “Were species being reported in higher numbers because people could finally hear the birds without all the traffic noise, or was there a real ecological change in the numbers of birds present?”

The study tested whether better detectability might be a factor in the larger bird numbers reported. If it was, the scientists expected that to be more noticeable for smaller birds, which are harder to detect beneath traffic noise. However, effects were noticed across many species, from hawks to hummingbirds, suggesting that the increased numbers were not only caused by increased detectability in the quieter environments.

“Having so many people in North America and around the world paying attention to nature has been crucial to understanding how wildlife react to our presence,” says lead author Michael Schrimpf, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Manitoba. “Studies such as this one rely on volunteer birdwatchers, so if you enjoy watching wildlife, there are many projects out there, like eBird and iNaturalist, that can use your help.”

The study was funded by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada with in-kind support provided by Environment and Climate Change Canada and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

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SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space – Californianewstimes.com

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Holy Molly.

SpaceX

Give a few seconds (or a minute or two if needed) to startle and gaze at the Earth’s scenery from the recently launched SpaceX Crew Dragon above.

on Wednesday, As part of the Inspiration4 mission, four civilians were blown up in a three-day orbital stay.Tied to the SpaceX Crew Dragon with one of the upgrades: Cupola. The transparent dome at the top of the Dragon Capsule provides the Inspiration 4 crew with the best views of the Earth that up-and-coming astronauts can dream of. This is the first time a cupola has been installed on a dragon. Dragons typically carry astronauts and cargo to the ISS, with docking ports at the top instead of windows.

A short video posted to the SpaceX Twitter account hours after the launch shows the cupola’s transparent dome against the Earth, which is a pale blue marble.

As the Crew Dragon orbits from a height of 585 kilometers (more than 360 miles), our planet is exposed to the sun and slowly roams around the orbs.

Inspiration 4’s crew (commander Jared Isaacman, doctor’s assistant, childhood cancer survivor Haley Arseno, aerospace engineer Chris Sembroski, African-American geology professor Sian Proctor) are in orbit for three days. Ride and stare at the cupola and the earth.

And did you say that the cupola is right next to the dragon’s toilet? Yeah, the view of the earth should be visible from the crew dragon’s bathroom. Isaacman told insiders Toilets are one of the few places where you can separate yourself from others with privacy curtains and have the best toilet windows of mankind. “When people inevitably have to use the bathroom, they will see one view of hell,” he said.

Astronauts who have been to space often talk about a phenomenon called the “overview effect.” Looking at the planet from above, the idea is that the way we think about the planet and the mass of humankind that depends on it will change. There may be a lot of revelation at the end of the Inspiration 4 journey, as I don’t know if they thought of it while sitting in the can.

The mission is the first mission to take off from the Florida coast on Wednesday night and be launched with four civilians. It is expected to return to Earth on Saturday and land in the Atlantic Ocean.

SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space Source link SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space

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Oldest human footprints in North America found in New Mexico – Al Jazeera English

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Fossilised footprints dating 23,000 years push back the known date the continent was colonised by thousands of years.

Footprints dating back 23,000 years have been discovered in the United States, suggesting humans settled North America long before the end of the last Ice Age, according to researchers.

The findings announced on Thursday push back the date at which the continent was colonised by its first inhabitants by thousands of years.

The footprints were left in mud on the banks of a long-since dried up lake, which is now part of a New Mexico desert.

Sediment filled the indentations and hardened into rock, protecting evidence of our ancient relatives, and giving scientists a detailed insight into their lives.

The first footprints were found in a dry lake bed in White Sands National Park in 2009. Scientists at the United States Geological Survey recently analysed seeds stuck in the footprints to determine their approximate age, ranging from 22,800 to 21,130 years ago.

“Many tracks appear to be those of teenagers and children; large adult footprints are less frequent,” write the authors of the study published in the American journal Science.

“One hypothesis for this is the division of labour, in which adults are involved in skilled tasks whereas ‘fetching and carrying’ are delegated to teenagers.

“Children accompany the teenagers, and collectively they leave a higher number of footprints.”

Researchers also found tracks left by mammoths, prehistoric wolves, and even giant sloths, which appear to have been approximately at the same time as the humans visited the lake.

Historic findings

The Americas were the last continent to be reached by humanity.

For decades, the most commonly accepted theory has been that settlers came to North America from eastern Siberia across a land bridge – the present-day Bering Strait.

From Alaska, they headed south to kinder climes.

Archaeological evidence, including spearheads used to kill mammoths, has long suggested a 13,500-year-old settlement associated with so-called Clovis culture – named after a town in New Mexico.

This was considered the continent’s first civilisation, and the forerunner of groups that became known as Native Americans.

However, the notion of Clovis culture has been challenged over the past 20 years, with new discoveries that have pushed back the age of the first settlements.

Generally, even this pushed-back estimate of the age of the first settlements had not been more than 16,000 years, after the end of the so-called “last glacial maximum” – the period when ice sheets were at their most widespread.

This episode, which lasted until about 20,000 years ago, is crucial because it is believed that with ice covering much of the northern parts of the continent, human migration from Asia into North America and beyond would have been very difficult.

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