After the first sampling failed, the persistent Mars rover is now preparing for its second attempt. The Mars stone plays this leading role.
A few weeks ago, the Perseverance team suffered a major setback. The four-wheeled robot cart succeeded Not taking a sample from the surface of Mars. Meanwhile, the team knows what went wrong. And so Perseverance is now preparing for a second – hopefully successful – attempt.
One of the main persistence missions on the red planet is to collect monsters. The robotic cart does this using an advanced drill and chisel attached to the end of its two-meter-long robotic arm. In total, Perseverance holds at least 43 samples of titanium tubes that it will fill with Martian rocks and regolith. Then, Perseverance will prepare these sealed flasks to return to Earth for further analysis during a future sample return mission.
During the first sampling attempt, Perseverance targeted rocks from an area in the Jezero Crater known as the “Crater Floor Fractured Rough.” This is where Jezero’s deepest (and oldest) exposed rock layers and other interesting geological features can be found. Unfortunately, the first samples were not taken exactly according to plan. The data that Perseverance sent back to Earth showed that the sample tube it had brought with it remained empty. With this, the first tenacity test of the Mars rover unfortunately failed.
This has gone wrong
The persistence team then collected and studied new data in depth. They also looked at camera images produced by WATSON – located at the end of the robot’s arm. In the end, the researchers were able to figure out the problem. The rock that Perseverance wanted to sample turned out to be very crumbly. The rocks instantly disintegrate into fine-grained powder and dust, making it impossible to store in a sample tube. Although the crushed rock could not be collected during the first sampling attempt, this sample tube now contains a sample of the Martian atmosphere.
Sure enough, the intention is that perseverance basically collects rock monsters. And so the Perseverance team is now preparing for the second attempt. Meanwhile, the robot car continued its way into a mountain ridge, some 455 meters away. He called this hillside “Castle”, which means “castle” in French; An indication of how this steep spot looks out over the bottom of the Jezero Crater. The rim is covered with a layer of rock that appears to resist wind erosion, a sign that the shale is likely to hold up during excavation.
Perseverance is now preparing for its second ascent attempt. This week, the rover will scrape its six-foot robotic arm off the surface of a rock called Rochette. In this way, persistence eliminates the upper layer, so to speak, giving scientists a better view of the lower layers. Then they can decide if they want to take a sample. If the team decides to collect a sample, a second sampling will be attempted next week.
To make sure this second attempt had a more successful outcome, the researchers added an extra step. After the rover uses its Mastcam-Z camera system to look inside the sample tube, the rover pauses for sampling. The team can then use this time to review the photos to make sure the rocks have been collected. Once confirmed, they will instruct the perseverance to close the sample tube.
Why would the researchers at Citadelle want to collect a sample? “It is likely that there are ancient rocks in the South Sittah area,” explains researcher Vivian Sun. “Collecting a smaller sample first can help us correctly reconstruct the complete timeline of Jezero.” Eventually, the researchers hope to fill all the tube samples they bring with them with interesting samples from Mars. “By bringing it back to Earth, we hope to answer some scientific questions,” said researcher Ken Farley. “For example, we also hope to know the composition of the atmosphere of Mars. That is why – in addition to rock samples – we are also interested in atmospheric samples.” Thus the first “failed” attempt at sampling – which, as mentioned, involved a sample of the atmosphere. For Mars – not completely wasted.
SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space – Californianewstimes.com
Give a few seconds (or a minute or two if needed) to startle and gaze at the Earth’s scenery from the recently launched SpaceX Crew Dragon above.
on Wednesday,Tied to the SpaceX Crew Dragon with one of the upgrades: Cupola. The transparent dome at the top of the Dragon Capsule provides the Inspiration 4 crew with the best views of the Earth that up-and-coming astronauts can dream of. This is the first time a cupola has been installed on a dragon. Dragons typically carry astronauts and cargo to the ISS, with docking ports at the top instead of windows.
A short video posted to the SpaceX Twitter account hours after the launch shows the cupola’s transparent dome against the Earth, which is a pale blue marble.
As the Crew Dragon orbits from a height of 585 kilometers (more than 360 miles), our planet is exposed to the sun and slowly roams around the orbs.
Inspiration 4’s crew (commander Jared Isaacman, doctor’s assistant, childhood cancer survivor Haley Arseno, aerospace engineer Chris Sembroski, African-American geology professor Sian Proctor) are in orbit for three days. Ride and stare at the cupola and the earth.
And did you say that the cupola is right next to the dragon’s toilet? Yeah, the view of the earth should be visible from the crew dragon’s bathroom. Isaacman told insiders Toilets are one of the few places where you can separate yourself from others with privacy curtains and have the best toilet windows of mankind. “When people inevitably have to use the bathroom, they will see one view of hell,” he said.
Astronauts who have been to space often talk about a phenomenon called the “overview effect.” Looking at the planet from above, the idea is that the way we think about the planet and the mass of humankind that depends on it will change. There may be a lot of revelation at the end of the Inspiration 4 journey, as I don’t know if they thought of it while sitting in the can.
The mission is the first mission to take off from the Florida coast on Wednesday night and be launched with four civilians. It is expected to return to Earth on Saturday and land in the Atlantic Ocean.
SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space Source link SpaceX Crew Dragon cupola provides awe-inspiring view of the Earth from space
Oldest human footprints in North America found in New Mexico – Al Jazeera English
Fossilised footprints dating 23,000 years push back the known date the continent was colonised by thousands of years.
Footprints dating back 23,000 years have been discovered in the United States, suggesting humans settled North America long before the end of the last Ice Age, according to researchers.
The findings announced on Thursday push back the date at which the continent was colonised by its first inhabitants by thousands of years.
The footprints were left in mud on the banks of a long-since dried up lake, which is now part of a New Mexico desert.
Sediment filled the indentations and hardened into rock, protecting evidence of our ancient relatives, and giving scientists a detailed insight into their lives.
The first footprints were found in a dry lake bed in White Sands National Park in 2009. Scientists at the United States Geological Survey recently analysed seeds stuck in the footprints to determine their approximate age, ranging from 22,800 to 21,130 years ago.
“Many tracks appear to be those of teenagers and children; large adult footprints are less frequent,” write the authors of the study published in the American journal Science.
“One hypothesis for this is the division of labour, in which adults are involved in skilled tasks whereas ‘fetching and carrying’ are delegated to teenagers.
“Children accompany the teenagers, and collectively they leave a higher number of footprints.”
Researchers also found tracks left by mammoths, prehistoric wolves, and even giant sloths, which appear to have been approximately at the same time as the humans visited the lake.
The Americas were the last continent to be reached by humanity.
For decades, the most commonly accepted theory has been that settlers came to North America from eastern Siberia across a land bridge – the present-day Bering Strait.
From Alaska, they headed south to kinder climes.
Archaeological evidence, including spearheads used to kill mammoths, has long suggested a 13,500-year-old settlement associated with so-called Clovis culture – named after a town in New Mexico.
This was considered the continent’s first civilisation, and the forerunner of groups that became known as Native Americans.
However, the notion of Clovis culture has been challenged over the past 20 years, with new discoveries that have pushed back the age of the first settlements.
Generally, even this pushed-back estimate of the age of the first settlements had not been more than 16,000 years, after the end of the so-called “last glacial maximum” – the period when ice sheets were at their most widespread.
This episode, which lasted until about 20,000 years ago, is crucial because it is believed that with ice covering much of the northern parts of the continent, human migration from Asia into North America and beyond would have been very difficult.
Oldest human footprints in North America found in New Mexico – CTV News
Fossilized footprints discovered in New Mexico indicate that early humans were walking across North America around 23,000 years ago, researchers reported Thursday.
The first footprints were found in a dry lake bed in White Sands National Park in 2009. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey recently analyzed seeds stuck in the footprints to determine their approximate age, ranging from around 22,800 and 21,130 years ago.
The findings may shed light on a mystery that has long intrigued scientists: When did people first arrive in the Americas, after dispersing from Africa and Asia?
Most scientists believe ancient migration came by way of a now-submerged land bridge that connected Asia to Alaska. Based on various evidence — including stone tools, fossil bones and genetic analysis — other researchers have offered a range of possible dates for human arrival in the Americas, from 13,000 to 26,000 years ago or more.
The current study provides a more solid baseline for when humans definitely were in North America, although they could have arrived even earlier, the authors say. Fossil footprints are more indisputable and direct evidence than “cultural artifacts, modified bones, or other more conventional fossils,” they wrote in the journal Science, which published the study Thursday.
“What we present here is evidence of a firm time and location,” they said.
Based on the size of the footprints, researchers believe that at least some were made by children and teenagers who lived during the last ice age.
David Bustos, the park’s resource program manager, spotted the first footprints in ancient wetlands in 2009. He and others found more in the park over the years.
“We knew they were old, but we had no way to date the prints before we discovered some with (seeds) on top,” he said Thursday.
Made of fine silt and clay, the footprints are fragile, so the researchers had to work quickly to gather samples, Bustos said.
“The only way we can save them is to record them — to take a lot of photos and make 3D models,” he said.
Earlier excavations in White Sands National Park have uncovered fossilized tracks left by a saber-toothed cat, dire wolf, Columbian mammoth and other ice age animals.
The Associated Press Health and Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Department of Science Education. The AP is solely responsible for all content.
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