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Interaction between light and material promises new platform for computing – Space Daily

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A collaboration between McMaster and Harvard researchers has generated a new platform in which light beams communicate with one another through solid matter, establishing the foundation to explore a new form of computing.

Their work is described in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, an associate professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at McMaster, explains that the technology brings together a form of hyrdrogel developed by the Harvard team with light manipulation and measurement techniques performed in her lab, which specializes in the chemistry of materials that respond to light.

The translucent material, which resembles raspberry Jell-O in appearance, incorporates light-responsive molecules whose structure changes in the presence of light, giving the gel special properties both to contain light beams and to transmit information between them.

Typically, beams of light broaden as they travel, but the gel is able to contain filaments of laser light along their pathway through the material, as though the light were being channeled through a pipe.

When multiple laser beams, each about half the diameter of a human hair, are shone through the same material, the researchers have established that they affect one another’s intensity, even without their optical fields overlapping at all – a fact that proves the gel is “intelligent.”

The interaction between those filaments of light can be stopped, started, managed and read, producing a predictable, high-speed output: a form of information that could be developed into a circuit-free form of computing, Saravanamuttu explains.

“Though they are separated, the beams still see each other and change as a result,” she says. “We can imagine, in the long term, designing computing operations using this intelligent responsiveness.”

While the broader concept of computing with light is a separate and developing field unto itself, this new technology introduces a promising platform, says Derek Morim, a graduate student in Saravanamuttu’s lab who is co-first author on the paper.

“Not only can we design photoresponsive materials that reversibly switch their optical, chemical and physical properties in the presence of light, but we can use those changes to create channels of light, or self-trapped beams, that can guide and manipulate light,” he says. “Further study may allow us to design even more complex materials to manipulate both light and material in specific ways.”

Amos Meeks, a graduate student at Harvard’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, said the technology helps to advance the idea of all-optical computing, or computations done solely with beams of light.

“Most computation right now uses hard materials such as metal wires, semiconductors and photodiodes, to couple electronics to light,” said Meeks, who is also co-first author of the research. “The idea behind all optical computing is to remove those rigid components and control light with light. Imagine, for example, an entirely soft, circuitry-free robot driven by light from the sun.”

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STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Physicists trap light in nanoresonators for record time

St Petersburg, Russia (SPX) Jan 24, 2020


An international team of researchers from ITMO University, the Australian National University, and Korea University have experimentally trapped an electromagnetic wave in a gallium arsenide nanoresonator a few hundred nanometers in size for a record-breaking time. Earlier attempts to trap light for such a long time have only been successful with much larger resonators.

In addition, the researchers have provided experimental proof that this resonator may be used as a basis for an efficient light fr … read more


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Perseid meteor shower: when to catch it in Manitoba | CTV News – CTV News Winnipeg

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The peak of a spectacular space light show is expected to happen by the end of the week.

The Perseid meteor shower is expected to be at its best and brightest the night of Aug. 12 going into the morning of Aug. 13.

Scott Young, an astronomer at the Manitoba Museum, said this is an annual event that will produce dozens of shooting stars throughout the night.

“Every meteor is a piece of dust from outer space that is crashing into the earth at tremendous speed and basically vaporizing in a poof and a flash of light, and that it is what we see as a meteor,” he said. “On certain nights of the year, the earth in its orbit around the sun actually goes through a cloud of dust, sort of like an interplanetary dust bunny, essentially, and all that dust hits on the same night … and so we are basically crashing through the dust left behind by a comet.”

The cloud of dust was left behind by the comet Swift-Tuttle, which last passed by the earth in 1992. Since then, the meteor shower has reached its peak between Aug. 11 and 13.

For those who are looking to enjoy the meteor show, Young suggests people get away from city lights, especially this year as the shower also coincides with a full moon.

“The moon can wash out those fainter meteors, and also if you are in the city, city lights will also wash out those fainter meteors. If you want to see the best show, you want to go late Friday after midnight, into the early morning hours of Saturday.”

If people can’t see the shower that night, Young says not to worry as the Perseid meteor shower is already happening right now and will continue to the end of August. As long as people are away from bright lights, Young says they should be able to see some shooting stars.

He recommends going to places like Birds Hill Provincial Park to enjoy the shower, but noted if people can find a place that is away from direct light, whether that be a park within the City of Winnipeg, or even a person’s backyard, he suggests people will be able to see something.

Once the meteor shower is over, however, Young does have a cautionary tale to share.

“We get dozens calls of people seeing an interesting rock on the ground and thinking that they’ve found a meteorite. There are no meteorites that will fall and actually land on the ground from this shower. These are little pieces of dust and they completely vaporize in the atmosphere. You might find meteorites out there, but they are very, very rare and so don’t get all excited about every rock that you find after this. The odds are it’s a meteor-wrong and not a meteorite.”

Young said weather-permitting, the Manitoba Museum will livestream the shower on its social media channels.

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NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captured two festive-looking nebulas – Tech Explorist

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The image shows NGC 248, about 60 light-years long and 20 light-years wide. They are two nebulas, situated to appear as one. The nebulas, together, are called NGC 248.

Initially discovered in 1834 by the astronomer Sir John Herschel, NGC 248 resides in the Small Magellanic Cloud, located approximately 200,000 light-years away in the southern constellation Tucana.

Small Magellanic Cloud is a dwarf galaxy that is a satellite of our Milky Way galaxy. The image is part of a study called Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE).

The dwarf satellite galaxy contains several brilliant hydrogen nebulas, including NGC 248. Intense radiation from the brilliant central stars is heating hydrogen in each nebula, causing them to glow red.

The study’s principal investigator, Dr. Karin Sandstrom of the University of California, San Diego, said“The Small Magellanic Cloud has between a fifth and a tenth of the amount of heavy elements that the Milky Way does. Because it is so close, astronomers can study its dust in great detail and learn about what dust was like earlier in the history of the universe.”

“It is important for understanding the history of our galaxy, too. Most of the star formation happened earlier in the universe, at a time when there was a much lower percentage of heavy elements than there is now. Dust is a critical part of how a galaxy works, how it forms stars.”

The image is part of a study called Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE). The data used in this image were taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys in September 2015.

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When To See An ‘Earth-Grazer’ This Weekend: Don’t Write-Off The Perseid Meteor Shower, Says Expert – Forbes

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If you’ve ever laid down a blanket or set up a lawn chair to watch a meteor shower there’s a good chance it was to watch the Perseids.

Due to peak at 01:00 UT on Saturday, August 13, 2022, normal advice would be to be outside at that time (in Europe) or just as soon as its gets dark on Friday, August 12 (North America).

As I’ve already reported, this year the Perseids coincides with a full Moon, so all but the brightest meteors and “fireballs” (larger, brighter meteors) will be visible. So from the 50-75-or-so “shooting stars” you might normally see during the peak of the Perseids only a few—albeit bright—meteors will be visible.

It’s almost not worth the bother, I said, advising you to go watch this instead next weekend.

However, there is another opinion. In an article published on the American Meteor Society’s website, fireball coordinator Robert Lunsford says that despite the bright full Moon visible meteor rates during the peak of the Perseid meteor shower will be better than 95% of all other nights this year.

When to see the Perseid meteor shower

“Most of the Perseid meteors are faint and bright moonlight will make it difficult to view,” he writes. “Despite the glare of moonlight, the Perseids produce many bright meteors that can still be easily seen despite the bright moonlight.”

He also advises two great times to watch for shooting stars—just after sunset on Friday, August 12 and just before dawn on Saturday, August 13.

Perseids: ‘Earth-grazers’ just after sunset

You’ll need patience, but to see an “Earth-grazer” is unforgettable.

Just after sunset is actually thee worst time in terms of numbers of shooting stars you might see, but the few that do come your way this time of night are special.” The reason is that they just skim the upper regions of the atmosphere and will last much longer than Perseids seen during the morning hours,” writes Lunsford. “Most of these “earth-grazing” Perseids will be seen low in the east or west, traveling north to south.”

Perseids: ‘shooting stars’ before dawn

The activity from the Perseid meteor shower will peak where you are as the radiant—the constellation of Perseus—rises higher into the night sky. “Theoretically, the best time to watch the Perseids is just before the break of dawn when the radiant lies highest in a dark sky,” writes Lunsford. That’s about 04:00 local time, though he also reveals that experienced observers often say the hour between 03:00 and 04:00 is usually the best.

Perseids: ‘shooting stars’ in a moonless sky

If you want to look for Perseids in a dark, moonless sky then you’re mostly out of luck this year. By the time the full Moon is rising long after midnight the meteor rates will have vastly reduced, though it may be worth shooting star-gazing after August 19, 2022.

When is the Perseid meteor shower in 2023?

The Perseid meteor shower will next year peak—in thankfully moonless skies—at around 07:00 UT on August 13, 2023 (so 03:00 EST and midnight PST), which will be ideal for North America.

Wishing you clear skies and wide eyes.

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