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Mars: Scientist claims that 100,000 people will live on the Red Planet by the end of the century – EconoTimes



Space agencies all over the world have been looking into the possibility of life on Mars or exploring Mars. A scientist has recently claimed that by the end of the century, there would be people living on the Red Planet.

Express reports that Dr. Robert Zubrin, mathematician, and aerospace engineer who also serves as head of the Mars Society, said that he is convinced that by the end of the century, decades from now, there would be approximately 100,000 people living on the Red Planet. Speaking to Polish publication WP Magazyn, Dr. Zubrin went on to explain that those people who will inhabit Mars will be able to adapt the environment to their needs with the latest technology they would have by that time. “Because one of the priorities for off-world colonies has to be strong independence from resource shipments from Earth. Therefore, we will have to learn how to efficiently harvest plants, use every single lead, lead a recalling scheme on an unimaginable scale, extract raw materials and process them into tools,” said Zubrin.

Regarding the upcoming missions to Mars from both NASA and Elon Musk’s SpaceX program, Dr. Zubrin believes that the SpaceX program may be what reaches the Red Planet first. Musk hopes that their program’s Mars mission would come to fruition over the next few years with the aid of their Starship Rocket. As to why Dr. Zubrin believes that Musk’s program would get to the Red Planet before the US space agency, he said, “Even if every one of his projects has a two or three-year delay, it would eventually be realized. His determination is enormous.”

In other related news, The Verge reports that Japan is also preparing for missions close to Mars. The country’s space agency JAXA announced that their Martian Moons Exploration or MMX is now onto its development stages to explore one of Mars’ moons, Phobos. The team behind the mission is currently undergoing planning and development stages, with the ideal launch date being in 2024.

If their Phobos mission is successful, then this would make Japan the first country to land on a Martian moon, and perhaps the first country to make a round-trip to the Red Planet’s system.

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Want to Buy Flights on Starship? Here's the New SpaceX Payload User's Guide, no Prices, Unfortunately – Universe Today



The development of the Starship – SpaceX’s super-heavy launch system that will take cargo and crews to orbit, the Moon, and even Mars – has been fraught with setbacks and frustration. But Musk has no intention of stopping and is even planning ahead for the day when the Starship and Super Heavy are making regular flights.

In keeping with this, SpaceX recently released a Payload User’s Guide for consumers that lays out what kind of services the launch system will provide – once it’s up and running. While no price points have been established yet, the guide provides a good summary of the Starship’s technical specifications and capabilities.

These are summarized early in the guide, where it states that “Starship has the capability to transport satellites, payloads, crew, and cargo to a variety of orbits and Earth, Lunar, or Martian landing sites… The uncrewed Starship allows for the transport of satellites, large observatories, cargo, refueling tanks or other unmanned assets.”

Artist’s impression of SpaceX’s Starship deploying cargo to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Credit: SpaceX

What follows is a detailed treatment of the Starship‘s payload fairing’s interface. The fairing is described as a “clamshell structure” that contains an integrator and remains closed until the time of deployment. Measuring 9 meters (29.5 ft) in diameter from the outside, SpaceX claims their fairing is “the largest usable payload volume of any current or in development launcher.”

The guide goes on to say that the geometry of the Starship allows for a 22 m (72 ft) extended payload volume, which can facilitate of novel payloads, rideshare opportunities, and the deployment of entire constellations of satellites (such as SpaceX’s Starlink internet satellites) in a single launch.

The spacecraft also takes a page from NASA’s Space Shuttle, offering the option of placing trunnion-style interfaces on the surface of the interior to accommodate more cargo. Attention is also given to how the launch system will also accommodate standard payload interface systems and electrical interfaces.

The guide then goes on to describe the payload environment in terms of its ability to handle axial and lateral accelerations (which will range from -2 g to 6 g axially and -2 g to 2 g laterally) as well as acoustics and shocks.

Artist’s rendering of a Starship taking off from a lunar base. Credit: SpaceX

In this respect, SpaceX is relying on industry standards and their own experience with the Falcon family of rockets (particularly the Falcon Heavy):

“Utilizing strong heritage and lessons learned from the development of the Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch systems, SpaceX is designing Starship and Super Heavy to provide as benign of a payload environment as possible.”

What follows, predictably, is a rundown of the launch system’s mass-to-orbit capabilities, based on the absence and presence of parking orbit refueling (POR). To Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which they define as a circular orbit of up to 500 km (310 mi), which in both cases would exceed 100 metric tons (110 US tons).

To Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), the system will be able to send 21 metric tons (23 US tons) without POR and over 100 with it. Potential landing sites are also specified for missions that require payload returns. They include SpaceX’s existing facilities at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida and Boca Chica, Texas.

As for payload deliveries to the Moon and Mars, they indicate that “Starship was designed from the onset to be able to carry more than 100 tons of cargo to Mars and the Moon.”

Artist’s illustration of a SpaceX Starship lands on Mars. Credit: SpaceX

As for crewed missions, that’s where things get especially interesting. In keeping with SpaceX’s vision of making life “multi-planetary,” the Starship crew configuration emphasizes moving people in style. As they wrote:

“Drawing on experience from the development of Dragon for the Commercial Crew Program, the Starship crew configuration can transport up to 100 people from Earth into LEO and on to the Moon and Mars. The crew configuration of Starship includes private cabins, large common areas, centralized storage, solar storm shelters and a viewing gallery.”

No price information is available yet, but since the launch system is intended to be entirely-reusable, one has to assume it will be competitive with other launch services (and even SpaceX’s previous launch vehicles). What’s more, cost-effectiveness is something that is written right into SpaceX’s mission statement.

At present, it remains unknown when the Starship and Super-Heavy will begin making commercial flights. With the issues they’ve been experiencing testing the Starship prototypes, it is clear that the 2022 deadline for missions to the Moon may not happen. However, Musk is known for being optimistic about his timelines, not to mention his tenacity and perseverance in the face of setbacks.

Further Reading: SpaceX

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SpaceX's Third Starship Prototype Collapsed Last Night – Universe Today



Top Image Credit: LabPadre w/ Maria Pointer

SpaceX just cannot catch a break! Last night, during the same cryogenic proof test that killed the previous two prototypes, SpaceX’s SN3 prototype experienced a structural failure. On-site video footage provided by famed NASASpaceFlight member BocaChicaGal shows the SN3 experiencing what appears to be a leak, followed by the fuselage collapsing.

The cryogenic proof test consists of the vehicle’s fuel tanks being filled to capacity with nitrogen (and sometimes oxygen) that is cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This test is carried out after an ambient pressure test, where the vehicle is filled with gas at room temperature to see if it can handle the kinds of pressure conditions it will experience during flight.

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The test began late on Thursday (April 2nd) and continued into the morning until the SN3 suffered a rupture during what appeared to be the end of the test. This comes a little over a month after the second prototype (SN1) exploded on the Boca Chica facility’s launch pad on the evening of Feb. 28th, 2020, during a similar cryogenic proof test.

During that test, the liquid oxygen tanks blew out the bulkhead, which sent the vehicle’s fuselage to collapse inward and jump several meters into the air. The wrecked prototype then fell to the landing pad on its side, followed shortly thereafter by the methane tanks exploding out of the top bulkhead and flying 150 to 300 meters (500 – 1000 ft) from the pad.

The previous failure (also experienced during the cryogenic proof test) happened on November 20th, 2019. At this time, the Mk. 1 prototype suffered a failure that caused its top bulkhead to explode (and the nose cone to be hurled beyond the facility) followed by a secondary explosion from the bottom bulkhead.

In response to both incidents, Musk responded by saying that these types of failures are expected during load tests and would provide information vital to the construction of future prototypes. In fact, the design of the SN3 (Serial incorporated lessons learned from these two previous vehicles and took advantage of improved manufacturing techniques, where each ring consisted of a single welded piece of steel.

Another notable feature on the SN3 was the new, internally mounted deployable leg design, which was visible in photos shared by Musk via Twitter on March 30th. These legs were included to accommodate the short hop test flights that the SN3 would have conducted. Musk noted at the time that the legs would be longer with the SN4 and subsequent prototypes since they would be making higher flights.

Responding to this latest setback, Musks tweeted, “We will see what data review says in the morning, but this may have been a test configuration mistake.” This was posted to his official Twitter account in the early morning hours of April. 3rd. About ten hours prior, he related how the SN3 passed its ambient temperature pressure test the night before and that they were proceeding to the cryogenic test.

Four hours after that, he tweeted, “Some valves leaked at cryo temp. Fixing & will retest soon.” These tests took place just a week after the SN3 underwent final assembly and was delivered to the test facility in Boca Chica, events that were shared by Musk and LabPadre via Twitter. LabPadre was also on hand to witness the rupture experienced by SN3 and captured it on video (shown below).

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At the time, it was clear that Musk intended to move ahead with testing as quickly as possible. Had things gone as planned and the SN3 passed the cryogenic proof test, Musk and his teams of engineers at Boca Chica would have proceeded with a static fire test, followed by a hop test that would see the prototype fly to an altitude of 150 m (500 ft), the same height achieved by the Starship Hopper.

These were originally scheduled to take place between April 1st and April 3rd (static fire test) and April 6 to April 8 for the flight test. However, those timelines were contingent on the successful completion of the cryogenic proof test. As he did after the previous failures, Musk has stated that rather than attempt to salvage the wrecked prototype, his company will be proceeding with the construction of the next vehicle (SN4).

This prototype has already begun construction at Boca Chica and was visible during the ambient temperature pressure test on Thursday, April 2nd. It is unclear right now when it will be assembled and put through its paces, but it seems likely at this point that the 150-m flight tests SpaceX hoped to make with SN3 will now be performed by SN4.

Of course, we should remind ourselves that test likes these happen for a reason. In short, they ensure that failure does not take place during a crucial point – like a crewed mission! In the meantime, onwards and upwards for the Starship and SpaceX!

Further Reading: NASA SpaceFlight

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Great Barrier Reef endures third mass bleaching event in five years – The Weather Network



Scientists that are monitoring the Great Barrier Reef in Australia report that it has suffered its third mass bleaching event in five years. The reef is considered to be the largest living structure in the world, but warming temperatures are straining the corals and are causing these bleaching events to become increasingly common.

A study that was published in April 2018 found that half of the Great Barrier Reef had died since 2016 when this region of the world experienced abnormally warm temperatures. The El Niño and La Niña weather patterns contributed to the extreme conditions, however, neither event was occurring when this year’s mass bleaching took place.

Bleached branching coral (foreground) and normal branching coral (background). Keppel Islands in the Great Barrier Reef. Credit: Acropora/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 3.0

Oceans cover over 70 per cent of the Earth’s surface and have the capacity to store more than 1,000 times the amount of heat than the atmosphere, which is why aquatic environments are particularly sensitive to the greenhouse gas emissions we release.

Corals start to bleach when the water becomes too hot and causes them to expel the colourful algae that live on them. The coral relies on the algae because it is their primary food source, while the coral provides the algae with a protected environment and nutrients needed for photosynthesis. The absence of the colourful algae leaves the coral with a stark white appearance.


The ecosystems within oceans are complex and can stretch over vast areas, making conservation efforts unique and specific for each region. While the frequency of mass bleachings is worrisome, the good news is that coral reefs can recover if temperatures return back to normal.

Marine experts face many decisions when choosing how to best protect coral reefs and have found that increased monitoring and involvement from local governments and communities have been key factors in successful coral reef conservation projects.

See below for a look at the inspiring work that organizations are doing to conserve coral reefs across the world.

USAID Project REGENERATE, Maldives

The Maldives is a low-lying atoll nation in the Indian Ocean and their economy largely relies on coral reefs for their tourism and fishing industries. Despite experiencing mass bleachings in 1998, 2010, and 2016, the IUCN says that these coral reefs have shown a “great capacity for resilience.”

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Coral reef in the Maldives. Credit: Tchami/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY 2.0

Project REGENERATE is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and helps local governments and researchers access science and technology and use education and monitoring while providing sustainable financing mechanisms to support resilient marine management.

Southern Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project (LRCP), Philippines

Coral reefs located in the Southern Leyte province in the Philippines host some of the most biodiverse marine habitats in the world, but face many stressors including abnormally warm temperatures and pollution.

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A shark swimming through Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, which is a protected area of the Philippines in the middle of the Sulu Sea. Credit: Nikswieweg/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 3.0

Since 2002 the LRCP has worked with local stakeholders and researchers to increase data collection. The organization’s website says that learning more about the reefs will indicate how protected areas improve biodiversity and handle stressors that cannot be controlled, such as atmospheric temperatures.

North Bali Reef Conservation, Bali – Indonesia

Tianyar is a small fishing village on the northeastern coast of Bali and community work there is slowly repairing the damage that coral reefs have sustained over the past century. The North Bali Reef Conservation’s website says in the early 1900s coral was harvested and crushed into a fine white powder that would be painted onto homes of the wealthy. Pollution and disruption from the fishing industry have added further stress to reefs that were previously harvested or damaged by anchors dropped by visiting boats.

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Coral reef in Indonesia. Credit: Nick Hobgood/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 3.0

Some of the successful initiatives that the organization has created include a community recycling centre and the installation of over 3,000 artificial reefs that expand the habitat for many aquatic species.

Reef Rescuers, Seychelles

A mass bleaching event in 1998 killed up to 90 per cent of the coral reefs in some areas in Seychelles due to unusually warm temperatures. The reefs suffered another bleaching event in 2016, but by this point, the Reef Rescuers project was already underway.

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Anse Source d’Argent, Seychelles. Credit: dronepicr/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY 2.0

The project launched in 2010 and their website states that they were the world’s first large-scale coral reef restoration project. Their “coral gardening” technique involves collecting coral fragments from healthy sites, growing these fragments in underwater nurseries to maturity, and then replanting them into degraded reefs. They have successfully transplanted over 24,000 corals and have welcomed dozens of scientific divers from around the world to study their successful restoration techniques.

RangerBot, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

The Great Barrier Reef foundation designed the Rangerbot, which is the “world’s first autonomous underwater drone” that is dedicated to protecting coral reefs. This unique machine was designed to meet the foundation’s most pressing needs and is able to map expansive underwater areas, monitor coral bleaching indicators and water quality, and control pests like the Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish.

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The Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish resembles the biblical crown of thorns and is one of the largest starfish in the world. Credit: Matt Wright/ Wikimedia Commons. CC BY 2.5

In addition to the stress from warming temperatures, booming populations of Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish are challenging the Great Barrier Reef. These coral-eating starfish are not an invasive species but have been responsible for destroying significant amounts of coral reef. RangerBot is able to control the pests’ population by locating the starfish with SONAR and multiple cameras. The Crown-Of-Thorns are subsequently killed with a lethal injection from RangerBot.

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