According to the team led by petrologist Jon Blundy, this trapped, subterranean brine is a potential ‘liquid ore’ containing a slew of valuable metals, including gold, lithium and several million tonnes of copper, all of which could be exploited by extracting the fluids to the surface via deep wells.
Employing this method could potentially reduce the cost of mining and ore processing. In addition to this, since geothermal power would be a significant by-product of this green-mining approach, operations would be carbon-neutral.
“Active volcanoes around the world discharge to the atmosphere prodigious quantities of valuable metals,” Blundy said in a media statement. “Green mining represents a novel way to extract both the metal-bearing fluids and geothermal power, in a way that dramatically reduces the environmental impact of conventional mining.”
To reach this conclusion, the researcher and his team at Oxford joined forces with Russian colleagues and worked on drill cores from a number of deep geothermal systems located in Japan, Italy, Montserrat, Indonesia and Mexico.
Using volcanology, hydrodynamic modelling, geochemistry, geophysics and high-temperature experiments, they were able to confirm their predictions of metal-rich brines.
The scientists say that geophysical surveys of volcanoes show that almost every active and dormant volcano hosts a potentially exploitable ‘lens’ of metal-rich brine. This means that metal exploration may not be limited to relatively few countries such as Chile, the DRC, or the US, as it is currently because volcanoes exist all around the world.
There are risks to this proposal, though. The main ones are related to the technology that has to be used as the process involves drilling into rock at 2 kilometres depth and at temperatures of more than 450°C. On top of this, the extracted fluids are corrosive, which places limits on the types of drilling materials and they tend to dump their metal load in the well-bore, a problem known as ‘scaling.’
These limitations mean that more research needs to be done around the dynamics of fluid flow and pressure-temperature control in the well-bore and that there will be a need to develop resistive coatings to prevent well-bore corrosion.
Luckily, many of these challenges are already being addressed through deep, hot geothermal drilling projects. In some cases these projects have reached temperatures over 500 °C; and occasionally they have tapped into small pockets of molten rock, for example in Iceland and Hawaii.
The latter challenge, however, is being addressed already as the Oxford team has patented an idea for fluid extraction that guarantees that the fluids continue to flow into the well once drilled, taking into account the permeability and porosity of hot, ductile rock.
Whether there is a risk of triggering volcanic eruptions, the researchers say it is very small, but must be assessed even though they are not planning to drill into magma itself, but into the hot rocks above the magma chamber, which greatly reduces the risk of encountering magma.
The scientists have spent the last five years de-risking the concept, and are now ready to drill an exploratory well at a dormant volcano. This will clarify many of the risks and challenges associated with the technique and will herald a new advance in the understanding of volcanoes and their bounty of energy and metals.
In their view, a working ‘brine mine’ could be 5-15 years away, depending on how well the challenges can be addressed.
A Grand Meteor Shower – Wawa-news.com – Wawa-news.com
Over the past few weeks, you have probably noticed a few meteors or “shoot stars” at night. You are witnessing one of the best meteor showers of the year. The Perseid Meteor Shower is now underway from July 14 to August 14. The best time to see the most meteors will be on the night of August 12 and into the morning hours of the 13. This year the crescent moon sets around 10:30 p.m. local time leaving us with a dark sky. By contrast, next year’s Perseids takes place under a full moon, drastically reducing the hourly rate.
If you have the chance to observe from dark skies absent of any stray lights, enjoy the band of our Milky Way Galaxy as this collective glow of billions of distant stars stretches from Sagittarius in the south to Cassiopeia in the northeast. Also, brilliant planets Jupiter and Saturn to Jupiter’s right will be out all night long to keep you company. There are unmistakable and located to the left of Sagittarius.
The peak of the Perseids produces about 90 meteors per hour but occurs late afternoon in daylight on the 12th. Towards the end of the night when the constellation Perseus is high in the sky around 3 a.m. we should still see from 50 to 60 meteors striking the atmosphere at 59 km/sec or 36 mi/sec. A higher number of bright fireballs may be seen on nights before the peak rather than nights after. The friction of comet debris causes the “flash” or “streak” which safely vaporize about 80 km high in the atmosphere with no chance of meteorites hitting the ground.
The parent comet is named Swift-Tuttle, a 26 km or 16 mi wide mountain of ice, dust and gravel that last appeared in 1992 in its 133-year orbit around the sun. It will return in the year 2125, replenishing a fresh path of comet debris ejected from the comet’s surface as it gets close to the sun. Here is where the solar radiation interacts with the comet, causing volatile material to vaporize and create the comet’s coma or cometary fog measuring close to 100,000 kilometres wide around the smaller nucleus. A dust tail forms as debris is blown off the comet’s surface much like confetti blowing off the back of a truck on the highway. As Swift-Tuttle retreated from the sun’s warming effects and back to the outer solar system, it faded away becoming a dark mountain once again only to be awakened by the sun upon its return.
The new comet dust lingers in space until Earth plows through the debris field in its yearly orbit around the sun, much like crossing the finish line of a race. This is why the Perseids and other known meteor showers occur at the same time each year. So gather a few friends and/or family members, set up chairs, bring snacks and take advantage of warm moonless conditions to view this epic display. Look up at the stars, listen to the crickets and frogs and let nature bring a sense of calm over you.
NASA, Boeing launch Starliner to the ISS: How to watch test flight live – CNET
Boeing is set to relaunch its Starliner crew capsule for a second attempt at docking with the International Space Station this Tuesday, Aug. 3 (there won’t be any humans aboard). Boeing’s to reach the ISS but landed safely back on Earth.
The mission was originally scheduled to take off Friday, but it’s now aiming for Tuesday after anfiring its thrusters shortly after docking with the station.
“The International Space Station team will use the time to continue working checkouts of the newly arrived Roscosmos Nauka multipurpose laboratory module (MLM) and to ensure the station will be ready for Starliner’s arrival,” said NASA in a statement.
Software defects and a communications link problem led to a premature end to the original Boeing test flight in 2019, though the CST-100 Starliner capsule landed safely back on Earth. The upcoming Orbital Flight Test-2 (OFT-2) mission is a chance for Boeing to thoroughly vet its hardware and software before a crew of three American astronauts flies on Starliner.
Both Boeing and SpaceX are part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, which is all about sending astronauts to the ISS from American soil. SpaceX has now delivered 10 astronauts to the ISS, and Boeing would like to catch up. First, it’ll need to show that its Starliner can safely reach the ISS and return to Earth.
NASA will livestream the launch, which is scheduled to occur at 10:20 a.m. PT (1:20 p.m. ET) on Tuesday Aug. 3. Coverage is expected to begin at 9:30 a.m. PT.
Starliner will lift off on a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket. The capsule will be packed with around 400 pounds of crew supplies and cargo. If all goes well, it’ll dock with the space station about 24 hours later, on Wednesday Aug. 4. Docking will also be covered live by NASA’s NASA TV.
ULA shared some scenic photos from the launch site on Monday as it prepares for liftoff.
Starliner will spend between five and 10 days at the ISS before bringing research samples back to Earth. Boeing will aim to bring the spacecraft back for a gentle parachute landing in the desert of New Mexico.
“OFT-2 will provide valuable data that will help NASA certify Boeing’s crew transportation system to carry astronauts to and from the space station,” NASA said in a statement July 22 after successfully concluding a flight readiness review.
The mission is a key step for NASA’s plans to run regular crewed launches from the US, ending its reliance on Russian Soyuz spacecraft. If all goes well, the first crewed mission, Boe-CFT, could launch in the next six months.
Follow CNET’s 2021 Space Calendar to stay up to date with all the latest space news this year. You can even add it to your own Google Calendar.
Meteor Shower 2021: Why There Are Only A Few Precious Hours In 2021 When You Can Reliably See ‘Shooting Stars’ – Forbes
Have you ever seen a “shooting star?” If you haven’t, you’ll no doubt have read articles imploring you to go outside and experience a “shower” of meteors.
There’s no such thing as a “meteor shower.”
Meteoroids don’t behave like that. “Shooting stars” are caused by Earth’s atmosphere colliding with clumps of dust left along its orbital path by a passing comet. They look like streaks and they last around a second, depending on the “shower” in question.
“Shooting stars” are sudden events that can happen anywhere in the night sky, but they’re sporadic. They rarely happen together. For instance, you might see one out of the corner of your eye and, five minutes later, see another one in a completely different part of the sky. Many of them you will miss. There are never two or three—or more—“raining down” at the same time, as composite photographs would suggest.
Besides, when you read that a “meteor shower” like the Lyrids, Orionids or Geminids could have “up to 150 shooting stars per hour,” what it really means that it might be possible to see that many (the so-called zenithal hourly rate or ZHR) in perfect conditions. That scenario is, in practice, impossible to achieve—you would need to be observing the entire night sky constantly, for many hours either side of the absolute “peak” of activity, and in super-dark skies.
However, the biggest factor that determines what you’re likely to see—and one many meteor shower-promoters fail to point out—is the effect of Moon and moonlight.
If there’s a first quarter Moon or anything brighter, particularly a full Moon, in the sky during the peak night(s) of a meteor shower, you can forget seeing anything other than the very brightest of “shooting stars.” And they’re very rare.
If the Moon is big and bright then, in effect, you’ll be observing from under a heavily light-polluted night sky even if you’ve gone to a dark sky destination.
So which meteor showers are the ones to go for in 2021? There are going to be three meteor showers in 2021 that will occur under near-ideal conditions.
The bad news?
The first (and by far the best) one isn’t until August 2021.
The good news?
It’s the Perseids, arguably the most famous and easiest meteor shower to observe in the northern hemisphere … largely because it occurs in the middle of summer when it’s easiest to be outdoors at night.
The best three meteor showers in 2021, these will be best observed after midnight, with the exception of the Draconids, which can be observed right after dark.
1. Perseid meteor shower 2021
When: Thursday/Friday, August 12/13, 2021
Moon phase: 23%-lit crescent Moon
2. Draconid meteor shower 2021
When: Friday/Saturday, October 8/9, 2021
Moon phase: 10%-lit crescent Moon
3. South Taurid meteor shower 2021
When: Thursday/Friday, November 4/5, 2021
Moon phase: 0.1%-lit crescent Moon
Wishing you clear skies and wide eyes.
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