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Moderate and vigorous physical activity every day linked to mid-life cognitive performance

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The amount of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity every day is linked to mid-life brain power, indicates research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

This intensity level seems to be the best for working memory and mental processes, such as planning and organization, and replacing it with just 6-7 minutes of light intensity activity or sedentary behavior every day is associated with poorer cognitive performance, the findings indicate.

Previously published studies link daily moderate and vigorous physical activity, or MVPA for short, to health, but few have included time spent asleep, which makes up the largest component of any 24 hour period, say the researchers.

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They therefore adopted a compositional approach to find out if MVPA relative to all other daily movement behaviors might be best for mid-life cognitive performance.

They drew on participants in the 1970 British Cohort Study, comprising people born across England, Scotland, and Wales in 1970 whose health was tracked throughout childhood and adulthood.

In 2016-18, 8581 participants had reached the ages of 46-47, at which point they were asked to fill in detailed health, background, and lifestyle questionnaires, and to wear an activity tracker for up to 7 days and for 10 at least consecutive hours a day.

They took various cognitive tests for verbal memory (immediate and delayed word recall tasks) and executive function (verbal fluency and processing speed/accuracy).

Scores for each test were summed to produce an overall global score for memory and executive function.

Among those who agreed to wear an activity tracker, 2959 participants were excluded due to device error, insufficient wear time, or failing to fully complete the questionnaires.

The final analysis included 4481 participants, just over half of whom (52%) were women. Two-thirds (66%) were married and 43% were educated up to the age of 18. Over two-thirds (68%) were occasional or non-risky drinkers and half had never smoked.

Analysis of the activity tracker data showed that participants clocked up an average of 51 minutes of MVPA, 5 hours 42 minutes of light intensity physical activity, 9 hours 16 minutes of sedentary behaviors, and 8 hours 11 minutes of sleep over a 24 hour period.

Time spent in MVPA relative to other types of behavior was positively associated with cognitive performance after adjusting for educational attainment and workplace physical activity. But additional adjustment for health issues weakened these associations.

Sedentary behavior relative to sleep and light physical intensity activity was also positively associated with cognitive performance: a trend which likely reflects greater engagement in cognitively stimulating activities such as reading or working rather than any apparent benefit from watching TV, note the researchers.

The associations were stronger for executive function than they were for memory.

Compared with the average across the sample, participants in the upper half of cognitive performance scores spent more time in MVPA and sedentary behaviors and less time sleeping, while the lowest 25% of scorers clocked up the most light-intensity physical activity.

To better understand the joint associations of movement with cognition, the researchers reallocated time from one component to another, minute by minute, to estimate what impact this might have on global cognitive performance scores.

This revealed increases in scores after MVPA theoretically displaced other activities.

Individuals’ cognition showed a 1.31% improvement in cognition ranking compared to the sample average improvement after as little as 9 minutes of sedentary activities with more vigorous activities – a positive trend which became far more substantive with much greater reductions in sedentary activities.

Similarly, there was a 1.27% improvement from replacing gentle activities or 1.2% from replacing 7 minutes of sleep. Such improvements showed further improvement with greater exchanges of time.

Sedentary behavior was also favorable for cognition score, but only after substituting it for 37 minutes of light-intensity physical activity or 56 minutes of sleep.

Participants began theoretically declining in their cognition ranking within the study sample by 1-2% after just 8 minutes of more vigorous activity was replaced by sedentary activities. Ranking continued to decline with greater declines in MVPA.

Similarly, replacing vigorous activities with 6 minutes of light intensity physical activity or 7 minutes of sleep, was linked with similar falls of 1-2% in cognition ranking, again worsening for greater losses of MVPA.

The activity trackers can only capture time spent in bed rather than sleep duration or quality, which might help to explain the association with sleep, say the researchers.

“MVPA is typically the smallest proportion of the day in real terms, and the most difficult intensity to acquire. Perhaps partly for this reason, loss of any MVPA time whatsoever appeared detrimental, even within this relatively active cohort,” they explain.

This is an observational study, and as such, can’t establish cause. And the researchers highlight various caveats: activity tracker measures can’t provide context for each component of movement. And despite a large sample size, people of colour were underrepresented, limiting the generalisability of the findings.

Nevertheless, they conclude: “This robust method corroborates a critical role for MVPA in supporting cognition, and efforts should be made to bolster this component of daily movement.”

<!– Source: BMJ Publishing Group Lt–>

Journal reference:

Mitchell, J.J., et al. (2023) Exploring the associations of daily movement behaviours and mid-life cognition: a compositional analysis of the 1970 British Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. doi.org/10.1136/jech-2022-219829.

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Governments seek buyer as Quebec COVID-19 vaccine manufacturer Medicago set to close

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MONTREAL — The Quebec government says it’s looking to find a buyer for Medicago Inc., the Quebec-based COVID-19 vaccine manufacturer that will be shut down by parent company Mitsubishi Chemical.

Quebec Economy Minister Pierre Fitzgibbon said Friday the province has had preliminary talks with potential buyers in the pharmaceutical sector to keep Medicago’s expertise and skilled workforce in Quebec. He said both the Quebec and federal governments would be willing to put in money to secure a deal.

“We can’t operate it ourselves; the government will not be the main shareholder,” Fitzgibbon said. “But if there is a pharmaceutical company that considers it’s worth continuing, we’re ready to help.”

Mitsubishi Chemical said Thursday it would stop marketing the Medicago-produced Covifenz vaccine, which is plant-based and was approved by Health Canada one year ago for adults aged 18 to 64.

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The Japanese chemical company said it had been preparing to commercially produce the Covifenz vaccine but decided against doing so because of the “significant changes” in the COVID-19 vaccine environment. The company said it would dissolve Medicago because it is no longer “viable” to continue marketing its products.

“In light of significant changes to the COVID-19 vaccine landscape since the approval of Covifenz, and after a comprehensive review of the current global demand and market environment for COVID-19 vaccines and Medicago’s challenges in transitioning to commercial-scale production, the (company) has determined that it will not pursue the commercialization of Covifenz,” Mitsubishi Chemical said in a statement.

Following the announcement, Medicago issued a statement thanking its employees. “The Medicago team has pushed scientific boundaries and we know that they will continue to make incredible contributions to innovation and biopharmaceutical’s sector.”

Canada invested $173 million in Medicago in 2020 to support development of the Covifenz vaccine and help Medicago expand its production facility in Quebec City.

On Thursday, Innovation, Science and Industry Minister François-Philippe Champagne told reporters the federal government is in “solution mode.”

“Our first order of business is really to try to find a partner who can help us preserve the jobs, preserve the technology and the intellectual property,” Champagne said.

The minister acknowledged that mRNA vaccine technology for COVID-19 became dominant as it “seemed to be most effective.”

But Medicago’s plant-based vaccine was still “promising,” Champagne said.

“Everyone agreed that the plant-based vaccine could very well help in a future pandemic,” Champagne said.

Speaking to reporters on Montreal’s South Shore Friday, Fitzgibbon said the company informed the province at the end of December it intended to pull the plug on Medicago.

In May 2015, Quebec and Ottawa announced loans of $60 million and $8 million, respectively, for the construction of a complex in the Quebec City region to house Medicago’s activities.

“The challenge is not (getting the loan repaid), it’s how we can save the jobs, save this company,” Fitzgibbon said.

While Canada authorized Medicago’s vaccine in February 2022, it was rejected for emergency use by the World Health Organization in March because tobacco company Philip Morris was a minority shareholder in the company, contravening a policy adopted in 2005 by the United Nations agency.

Quebec City Mayor Bruno Marchand said on Twitter he was saddened by the closure of the company.

“My thoughts are with the families who learned some very sad news,” Marchand said Thursday evening. “We have to roll up our sleeves to keep all this expertise in the field of health innovation in Quebec City.”

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Feb. 3, 2023.

 

Sidhartha Banerjee, The Canadian Press

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Bird flu keeps spreading beyond birds. Scientists worry it signals a growing threat to humans, too

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As a deadly form of avian influenza continues ravaging bird populations around much of the world, scientists are tracking infections among other animals — including various types of mammals more closely related to humans.

Throughout the last year, Canadian and U.S. officials detected highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu in a range of species, from bears to foxes. In January, France’s national reference laboratory announced that a cat suffered severe neurological symptoms from an infection in late 2022, with the virus showing genetic characteristics of adaptation to mammals.

Most concerning, multiple researchers said, was a large, recent outbreak on a Spanish mink farm.

Last October, farm workers began noticing a spike in deaths among the animals, with sick minks experiencing an array of dire symptoms like loss of appetite, excessive saliva, bloody snouts, tremors, and a lack of muscle control.

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The culprit wound up being H5N1, marking the first known instance of this kind of avian influenza infection among farmed minks in Europe, notes a study published in Eurosurveillance this month.

“Our findings also indicate that an onward transmission of the virus to other minks may have taken place in the affected farm,” the researchers wrote.

Eventually, the entire population of minks was either killed or culled — more than 50,000 animals in total.

That’s a major shift, after only sporadic cases among humans and other mammals over the last decade, according to Michelle Wille, a researcher at the University of Sydney who focuses on the dynamics of wild bird viruses.

“This outbreak signals the very real potential for the emergence of mammal-to-mammal transmission,” she said in email correspondence with CBC News.

It’s only one farm, and notably, none of the workers — who all wore face shields, masks, and disposable overalls — got infected.

But the concern now, said Toronto-based infectious disease specialist Dr. Isaac Bogoch, is if this virus mutates in a way that allows it to become increasingly transmissible between mammals, including humans, “it could have deadly consequences.”

“This is an infection that has epidemic and pandemic potential,” he said. “I don’t know if people recognize how big a deal this is.”

 

‘Explosive’ avian flu surge hits global bird populations

Global bird populations are being ravaged by a deadly strain of avian flu, wiping out flocks of domestic poultry and killing wild birds. Some researchers warn the virus could eventually evolve to better infect humans and potentially start a future pandemic.

H5N1 has high mortality rate

Among birds, the mortality rate of this strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza can be close to 100 per cent, causing devastation to both wild bird populations and poultry farms.

It’s also often deadly for other mammals, humans included.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has documented 240 cases of H5N1 avian influenza within four Western Pacific countries — including China, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam — over the last two decades. More than half of the infected individuals died.

Global WHO figures show more than 870 human cases were reported from 2003 to 2022, along with at least 450 deaths — a fatality rate of more than 50 per cent.

Bogoch said the reported death toll may be an overestimate, since not all infections may be detected, though it’s clear people can “get very, very sick from these infections.”

Most human infections also appeared to involve people having direct contact with infected birds. Real-world mink-to-mink transmission now firmly suggests H5N1 is now “poised to emerge in mammals,” Wille said — and while the outbreak in Spain may be the first reported instance of mammalian spread, it may not be the last.

“A virus which has evolved on a mink farm and subsequently infects farm workers exposed to infected animals is a highly plausible route for the emergence of a virus capable of human-to-human transmission to emerge,” she warned.

Louise Moncla, an assistant professor of pathobiology at the University of Pennsylvania school of veterinary medicine, explained that having an “intermediary host” is a common mechanism through which viruses adapt to new host species.

“And so what’s concerning about this is that this is exactly the kind of scenario you would expect to see that could lead to this type of adaptation, that could allow these viruses to replicate better in other mammals — like us.”

Government workers wear protective gear to collect poultry for slaughter during an outbreak of avian influenza on the Ivory Coast. More than 70 countries have reported cases this year, according to the World Organisation for Animal Health.
Government workers wear protective gear to collect poultry for slaughter during an outbreak of avian influenza on the Ivory Coast. More than 70 countries reported cases in 2022, according to the World Organisation for Animal Health. (Legnan Koula/EPA-EFE)

Surveillance, vaccines both needed

What’s more reassuring is the ongoing development of influenza vaccines, giving humanity a head start on the well-known threat posed by bird flu.

Wille noted the earlier spread of H7N9, another avian influenza strain which caused hundreds of human cases in the early 2010s, prompted similar concern that the virus would acquire the mutations needed for ongoing human-to-human transmission.

“However, a very aggressive and successful poultry vaccination campaign ultimately stopped all human cases,” she added.

But while several H5N1 avian influenza vaccines have been produced, including one manufactured in Canada, there’s no option approved for public use in this country.

To ward off the potential threat this strain poses to human health, Bogoch said ongoing surveillance and vaccine production needs to remain top-of-mind for both policy makers and vaccine manufacturers.

Dr. Jan Hajek, an infectious diseases physician at Vancouver General Hospital, also questioned whether it’s time to wind down global mink farming, given the spread of various viruses, from avian influenza to SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind COVID-19.

“We’re closely related to minks and ferrets, in terms of influenza risks … if it’s propagating to minks, and killing minks, it’s worrisome to us,” he said.

In 2021, B.C. officials announced an end to mink farming across the province, saying the farms can be reservoirs for viruses and represent an ongoing danger to public health. All mink farm operations must be shut down, with all of the pelts sold, by April 2025.

However, other provinces — and plenty of countries — do intend to keep their mink farms operating.

“Is it responsible to have these kinds of farming conditions where these types of events can occur?” questioned Moncla. “If we’re going to keep having these types of farms, what can we do to make this safer?”

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6,654 students facing suspension due to out-of-date immunization records

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The Windsor-Essex County Health Unit (WECHU) has issued about 6,654 suspension orders to students who do not meet immunization requirements.

WECHU completed a review of all elementary student immunization records in December and more than 12,000 students received a notice.

These students were either overdue for one or more vaccines required to attend school, or their immunization records were not updated with the health unit.

“While many of these vaccines are normally administered by primary health care providers, parents and guardians of children who received their vaccines from their health care provider still need to report this information to the health unit,” said a WECHU news release.

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The Immunization of School Pupils Act (ISPA) (1990), Section 11, Subsections (1) and (2) requires public health units to maintain and review vaccine records for every student attending school and to enforce a school suspension for incomplete immunization information. As the next step of the ISPA enforcement process, orders were mailed out to students that do not meet this requirement.

WECHU said this is the final notice.

The suspension order notifies parents and guardians that immunization records must be updated to the WECHU by Thursday, March 16, at 6 p.m. or their child will be suspended for up to 20 days from school, starting Monday, March 20, 2023. Once parents and guardians provide the missing immunization information to the WECHU, the student is removed from the suspension list and can attend school again.

Under the ISPA , children can be exempted from immunization for medical reasons or due to conscience or religious belief.

Families can book immunization appointments with their health care provider and are reminded to update their child’s immunization records online at immune.wechu.org.

Catch-up immunization clinics are also being offered at the WECHU Windsor and Leamington offices and will continue until the end of March. Families can book an appointment at a WECHU clinic by visiting wechu.org/getimmunized or by calling the WECHU at 519-960-0231.

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