A well-preserved female wolf pup found in the Canadian permafrost is thought to have lived about 57,000 years ago and could give scientists more clues about the life of the ancient wolf species.
The mummified wolf pup was discovered in melting permafrost in Canada’s Yukon in 2016 by a gold miner. The wolf specimen was sent to the study’s lead author, Des Moines University anatomy professor Julie Meachen, for carbon dating and DNA analysis.
According to a new study about the wolf published Monday in the journal Current Biology, Meachen and her team of scientists amassed a wealth of findings on the mummified pup’s life and death.
The freezing temperatures of the Yukon’s permafrost can preserve much of an animal’s organs and tissue, mummifying it in the process. Because the pup is so well preserved, scientists were able to determine a possible cause of death, as well as her age, lifestyle, diet and relationship to modern wolves.
“She’s the most complete wolf mummy that’s ever been found,” Meachen said in a statement Monday. “She’s basically 100% intact — all that’s missing are her eyes. The fact that she’s so complete allowed us to do so many lines of inquiry on her to basically reconstruct her life.”
The researchers determined that the wolf pup was female and weighed just under 700 grams (1.5 pounds). They also estimate that she was seven weeks old when she died, most likely from being buried in the wolf den when the entrance collapsed.
Wolves from this period typically ate sizable land animals, but when the researchers analyzed the mummified pup’s diet, they found it mostly consisted of fish, suggesting she or her pack may have hunted fish in nearby rivers.
“Normally when you think of wolves in the Ice Age, you think of them eating bison or musk oxen or other large animals,” Meachen said. “One thing that surprised us was that she was eating aquatic resources, particularly salmon.”
The scientists also believe the mummified wolf pup is related to both ancient gray wolves that once dwelled in Eurasia, as well as modern gray wolves (Canis lupus) from North America.
While the mummified wolf pup is an extraordinary find, scientists are bittersweet about its discovery, especially since climate change is making permafrost melt faster than ever before.
“One small upside of climate change is that we’re going to find more of these mummies as permafrost melts,” Meachen said. “That’s a good way for science to reconstruct that time better, but it also shows us how much our planet is actually warming. We really need to be careful.”
The Olduvai Gorge gives up two-million-year-old secrets – Varsity
Few archaeological sites can claim to be famous, but the Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania is chief among them. With the word ‘olduvai’ coming from a misspelling of the Maasai word, ‘oldupai,’ a name for a plant that grows in the area, the fossil-rich region is famous for offering up some of the first evidence of fossil remains and stone tools used by early hominins, ancestors of today’s humans.
In the 1930s, Louis and Mary Leakey were working in Olduvai when they uncovered stone tools from early humans. Since then, it has become a popular archaeological site. The gorge lent an even older name — the Oldoway Gorge — to the paleolithic culture discovered there before the Abbevillian culture and, subsequently, their tools. Oldowan tools are often either large hammering stones or smaller, sharper flake stones used for cutting. They were used by precursors to modern Homo sapiens, such as Homo habilis.
Now, an international research team comprised of scientists from around the world, including from U of T, have conducted a thorough search of the Olduvai Gorge and concluded that hominins were living and building tools in the site as early as two million years ago. Moreover, their continual occupation of the gorge, extending over a 235,000-year period, shows how early hominins could adapt to changing environments — a skill that might have aided in their expansion out of Eastern Africa.
A wide source of information
The researchers combed through a wide array of sources to reach their findings. They took samples from previously excavated fossils and tools and compared them against samples of pollen, plants, and charcoal from wildfires, which were all deposited into the soil millions of years ago. The result was a pattern of human activity in the same place across time.
The prehistoric Olduvai landscape contained a variety of environments, such as streams, floodplains, woody forest, dry steppe, and even patches of land covered by ash from volcanic activity. Early hominins were able to exploit all of these environments, partly by bringing materials they needed for tools with them. Some of the rocks used to make tools originated 12 kilometres from where they were found. Others were made using what was at hand.
However, it is not clear which hominin species made these tools, largely because no new fossils were found. One possible candidate is Homo habilis because their fossils have been excavated nearby.
Rethinking the past
Oldowan tools have been excavated in nearby Ethiopia dating back to 2.6 million years ago, so this study does not represent the earliest discovery of stone tools. But it does extend the timeline of the Olduvai Gorge specifically. Previously, the oldest use of tools in the region was dated to 1.85 million years ago, so these findings push that start point by about 150,000 years.
Moreover, these new findings demonstrate that early hominins had a robust ability to adapt to new environments. Julio Mercader Florin, lead author and professor at the University of Calgary, wrote in The Conversation that “This is a clear sign that 2 million years ago humans were not constrained technologically and already had the capacity to expand geographic range.”
The researchers discovered that the tools used remained the same regardless of what environment they were found in. It might have been human adaptability, then, that enabled our ancestors to thrive in the Olduvai Gorge and beyond.
Test fire of NASA's SLS moon rocket ends prematurely – CTV News
NASA’s Space Launch System rocket ignited its four main engines Saturday on a test stand in Mississippi, but the engines shut down earlier than the agency planned.
The hot fire test was the last of eight tests that make up what NASA calls a “green run,” a series of ground tests aimed at ensuring the vehicle doesn’t have any major structural or engineering issues before it is put on a launch pad. The rocket is the most powerful launch vehicle the space agency has ever constructed.
The SLS was supposed to light its engines for about eight minutes, the length of time the engines will have to fire to propel the rocket on its orbital missions.
It’s not yet clear why the engines powered down after little more than a minute at NASA’s Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The test was still useful for gathering data and “teams are assessing the data on early engine shutdown,” the space agency tweeted.
During a Saturday night news conference, John Honeycutt, the SLS program manager, said NASA officials will go over the data gathered in the test to identify the issue.
“What we learned was — is that we didn’t have the pressurization valve modeled appropriately,” Honeycutt said.
Officials had hoped to run the test for at least 250 seconds, he said.
During the hot fire test, engineers “power up all the core stage systems, load more than 700,000 gallons of cryogenic, or supercold, propellant into the tanks and fire all four engines at the same time,” according to NASA.
It is unclear if another test will be needed before the rocket is shipped to Florida, the launch site where the rocket is expected to make its first journey into outer space.
Rick Gilbrech, director of the Stennis Space Center, said his site would need at least four to five days to prepare the fuel for another test if the rocket is ready. He and his team aren’t discouraged by Saturday’s test and are proud of what they’ve accomplished this year, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic, he said.
NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine said the test was “not a failure.”
“This is not a failure. This is a test, and we tested today in a way that is meaningful where we’re going to learn … we’re going to make adjustments, and we’re going to fly to the moon,” he said.
“This was a successful day. We didn’t get everything we wanted and yes we’re going to learn, we’re going to have to make adjustments,” he said. “But again, this is a test. And this is why we test.”
Yet another delay
SLS has been haunted by critiques of long delays and cost overruns, and with the premature end of the critical hot fire test, its launch may be delayed once again.
“We got lots of data that we’re going to go through and be able to sort through and get to a point where we can make determinations as to whether or not, you know, launching in 2021 is a possibility or not,” Bridenstine said.
The rocket is a key part of NASA’s Artemis lunar exploration program, which aims to send the first woman and next man to the moon by 2024. NASA officials also hope the SLS will be used to reach Mars and other “deep space destinations.”
SLS has been under development for a decade. Under the Obama administration, NASA was already planning to use SLS to take astronauts back to the moon by 2028, and that remained the plan until Vice President Mike Pence directed the space agency to drastically accelerate its timeline in 2019.
Boeing was contracted in 2012 to build SLS’s main components, and the rocket was originally expected to start flying in December 2017. But Boeing has been blasted in several government oversight reports for “poor performance,” costly schedule slips and ballooning expenses. That made SLS a touchy political talking point, and many in the space industry remain suspicious that a 2024 moon landing is possible.
At one point, Bridenstine reportedly considered skipping the green run test to expedite SLS’s development. But more recently he has asserted that the tests are essential to ensuring the rocket is safe enough to carry humans into space and to work out any potential engineering problems before attempting an orbital launching.
Bridenstine is expected to step down when President-elect Joe Biden is inaugurated next week. It’s not clear if NASA will stick with the 2024 timeline under the new administration, though the official Democratic platform calls for “continuity” in NASA’s space programs between presidential administrations.
The SLS rocket stands taller than the Statue of Liberty and has about 15% more thrust at liftoff than the Saturn V rockets that powered the Apollo missions about 50 years ago.
NASA’s Artemis I mission is expected to launch by the end of 2021 with two test flights around the moon without astronauts.
A crewed test mission, Artemis II, is set to launch in 2023 in preparation to have the Artemis III mission return astronauts to the surface of the moon in 2024 for the first time since the 1970s.
Artemis is named after the Greek goddess of the moon and is the twin sister of Apollo, which was name NASA used for the missions and spacecraft that first took Americans to the moon in 1969.
US: NASA cuts short ground test of its giant moon rocket – Al Jazeera English
US space agency NASA ignited all four engines of its giant Space Launch System (SLS) for the first time on Saturday, but the “hot fire” test ended much earlier than expected.
Mounted in a test facility at NASA’s Stennis Space Center in the state of Mississippi, the SLS’s 65-metre-tall (212-foot) core stage roared to life at 4:27pm local time (22:27 GMT) and burned for more than a minute before the exercise was aborted.
The test was supposed to last for eight minutes to simulate the rocket’s climb to orbit.
NASA said in a statement that its teams were “assessing the data to determine what caused the early shutdown”.
Watch all four @NASA_SLS core stage engines roar to life and shake the ground in Mississippi.
Teams are assessing the data on early engine shutdown. pic.twitter.com/U5bNqqbdZd
— NASA (@NASA) January 16, 2021
Completely concur. Very valuable. Now the discussions will begin as to whether there was enough data collected or if the test needs to be rerun – either way that engine will likely be changed out. Of course the experts will probably tell us at the post test conference shortly https://t.co/523kXgoVl5
— Wayne Hale (@waynehale) January 16, 2021
The fiery show on Saturday is a vital step for the space agency and its top SLS contractor, Boeing, before the SLS’s planned debut launch later this year.
The success of that unmanned mission, called “Artemis I”, will set the stage for the first landing on the Moon by humans since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. US President Donald Trump has pushed for that trip – which will also see the first woman on the Moon – to take place by 2024.
It was unclear whether Boeing and NASA would have to repeat Saturday’s test, a prospect that could push the SLS’s debut launch into 2022.
Speaking to reporters following the test, SLS Program Manager John Honeycut said it was hard to detect what exactly went wrong. He said they had seen a flash in a thermal protection blanket on one of the engines and were analysing the data.
And despite the test being cut short, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said the firing of the RS-25 engines had provided valuable information for the planned missions.
“I know not everybody is feeling as happy as we otherwise could because we wanted to get eight minutes of a hot fire and we got over a minute, but I just want to remind people where we’ve been and where we’re going and what an important milestone this is,” he told reporters.
“Now we’ve got to go figure out what made it make that decision, make some adjustments, and fix it.”
For more information about the Green Run test series, visit: https://t.co/EDohQQY4I1
— NASA (@NASA) January 17, 2021
He added: “We got lots of data that we’re going to be able to sort through,” to determine if a do-over is needed and whether a November 2021 debut launch date is still possible.
In addition to Artemis I, two other missions are planned. The first mission will test the SLS and an unmanned Orion spacecraft, while Artemis II will take astronauts around the Moon in 2023 but it will not land. Astronauts will only be sent to the Moon during the third mission in 2024.
The SLS, in its configuration for Artemis I, will stand 98 metres (322 feet), taller than the Statue of Liberty, and is more powerful than the Saturn V rockets used in the Apollo missions.
The rocket is now three years behind schedule and nearly $3bn over budget.
Critics have long argued for NASA to retire the rocket’s shuttle-era core technologies, which have launch costs of $1bn or more per mission, in favour of newer commercial alternatives that promise lower costs.
By comparison, it costs as little as $90m to fly the massive, but less powerful, Falcon Heavy rocket designed and manufactured by Elon Musk’s SpaceX, and some $350m per launch for United Launch Alliance’s legacy Delta IV Heavy.
While newer, more reusable rockets from both companies – SpaceX’s Starship and United Launch Alliance’s Vulcan – promise heavier lift capacity than the Falcon Heavy or Delta IV Heavy, potentially at a lower cost, SLS backers have argued it would take two or more launches on those rockets to launch what the SLS could carry in a single mission.
NASA’s eventual goal is to establish an Artemis Base Camp on the Moon before the end of the decade, an ambitious plan that would require tens of billions of dollars in funding and a green light from President-elect Joe Biden and Congress.
A manned return to the Moon is the first part of the Artemis programme to set up a long-term colony and test technologies for a crewed mission to Mars in the 2030s
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