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Mysterious Ice Age structure made from the bones of 60 mammoths discovered – CNN

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And no one knows why.
Researchers have excavated the site in an attempt to understand it, but they don’t know why the structure was built, according to a new study.
This isn’t the first “mammoth house” to be found in Russia, but it is the oldest and largest, measuring 41 feet across.
In the 1960s and ’70s, researchers found similar, smaller buildings at the site, which they dubbed Kostenki 11. It’s 310 miles south of Moscow and now home to a museum, the State Archaeological Museum-Reserve Kostenki.
In 2014, researchers found evidence of this structure at the site and began excavation in 2015, which took three years. A study detailing their findings published this week in the journal Antiquity.
This is an aerial shot of the site, which measures around 30 feet by 30 feet.
These mammoth bone structures, dating to the Ice Age, have been found across Eastern Europe. But until now, the oldest ones found were dated to 22,000 years ago.
Based on previous discoveries, researchers believe they were constructed by Palaeolithic people to serve as houses, providing refuge during harsh winters. Ice Age winters likely had lows reaching negative four degrees Fahrenheit.
And constructing something this massive out of hundreds of mammoth bones would have taken time. It’s surprising, considering that populations of hunter-gatherers never spent much time in one location.
Ancient traps containing remains of 14 mammoths discovered in Mexican cityAncient traps containing remains of 14 mammoths discovered in Mexican city
“Mammoth bones are very heavy, and building the circular structure represents a huge investment of time and energy by the humans that built this,” said Alexander Pryor, lead study author and Palaeolithic archaeologist at the University of Exeter.
The bones formed a continuous circle, with no obvious entrance, according to the study. So far, the researchers have identified 51 mammoth mandibles and 64 skulls, the researchers said.
The wealth of bones used to construct the site are visible during excavation.The wealth of bones used to construct the site are visible during excavation.
Inside the circle, the researchers also found the first evidence that wood was burned inside it. But overall, there are no signs of long-term habitation inside the structure.
The researchers believe that it didn’t act as a wintertime refuge, which has them rethinking the purpose of these massive, time-consuming structures.
“It clearly meant something to them, and there was very likely a ritual element to it, even if the structure ultimately had some sort of practical purpose too,” Pryor said.

Investigating a mammoth house

As the first “mammoth house” found in more than 40 years at Kostenki, the researchers took advantage of new techniques to investigate the site that weren’t available for the structures previously found nearby.
This included flotation, something fairly new when the other structures were excavated. Archaeologists use flotation to separate material from soil, using water and sieves. This allows for the discovery of tiny fragments, which can provide the minute details of a larger story.
Flotation helped the archaeologists find evidence of a possible food source for the hunter-gatherers at the site — besides the mammoths.
The mammoth bones once acted as walls. Now, they are spread across the interior of the site found in the Russian plains.The mammoth bones once acted as walls. Now, they are spread across the interior of the site found in the Russian plains.
“We found pieces of soft plant tissue typically found in edible roots or tubers, hinting at a plant food component in peoples’ diet,” Pryor said. “These finds are important because they illustrate how our human ancestors adapted to survive the harsh environments of the last Ice Age by making use of the resources they found around them.”
It was also flotation that revealed the tiny bits of charred wood, the first evidence that humans burned wood fires in the mammoth structure. And it suggests that wood was still a resource used by hunter-gatherers during the Ice Age.
Other areas in Northern Europe showed signs of abandonment at the time, and suggest that trees were a rare and precious resource. This may hint at why Kostenki was chosen.
Inbreeding among the last woolly mammoths may have led to extinctionInbreeding among the last woolly mammoths may have led to extinction
“This demonstrates that trees were still present in the landscape, despite the harsh climatic conditions of the time,” Pryor said.
The discovery also inspires more questions for the researchers because they believed hunter-gatherers built these structures out of mammoth bones because wood was unavailable. This makes the choice of mammoth bones deliberate. But why?
“It’s not yet clear whether the bones are from mammoths recently hunted and killed by humans or if they were scavenged from carcases of animals that died of natural causes,” Pryor said.
The researchers plan to investigate the site further, in hopes of determining the purpose of the structure.
“Kostenki 11 also seems too large to be a dwelling,” Pryor said. “It is difficult to imagine how an area this large could be roofed over using materials available in this environment.”
One suggestion by the researchers is that the site’s purpose was food storage, which helped them survive the Ice Age and its devastating winters.

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Researchers have developed an battery that can be charged in seconds – AirQualityNews

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Researchers at the University of Uppsala in Sweden have developed a more sustainable electric vehicle (EV) battery that can be charged in a matter of seconds. 

The battery uses quinones as the active material which are organic carbon compounds that are plentiful in nature and occur during photosynthesis. 

According to the researchers, this makes the battery more sustainable because it does not require the use of precious metals that are used in traditional lithium-ion batteries.

An acidic aqueous solution is used as an electrolyte to transport ions inside the battery. As well as being environmentally friendly, this also provides a safe battery free from the hazard of explosion or fire.

The battery also lasts longer than a traditional battery, it can be charged and discharged over 500 times without any significant loss to capacity. 

Charging can also be accomplished without the aid of the advanced electronics that lithium-ion batteries require. 

Christian Strietzel of Uppsala University’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, said: ‘I’m sure that many people are aware that the performance of standard batteries declines at low temperatures.

‘We have demonstrated that this organic proton battery retains properties such as capacity down to as low as -24°C.

‘The point of departure for our research has therefore been to develop a battery built from elements commonly found in nature and that can be used to create organic battery materials.

‘There remains a great deal of further development to be done on the battery before it becomes a household item; however, the proton battery we have developed is a large stride towards being able to manufacture sustainable organic batteries in future.’

In related news, battery solutions company Aceleron has also developed a new recyclable and reusable electric vehicle (EV) battery which is half the weight and four times as powerful as a typical battery. 

Photo Credit – Pixabay

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How NASA experts say a pandemic prepares humans for life on Mars – CTV News

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As people around the world rethink many aspects of their lives to combat the coronavirus pandemic, NASA experts say that knowledge and understanding of how to stay safe and healthy will help us prepare for landing on another planet.

After all, NASA’s robotic explorers are already on Mars paving the way for future astronaut-led missions to the Red Planet — and those expeditions will require a level of safety planning that would put a germophobe to shame.

Astronauts don’t want to carry Earth bacteria to the surface of Mars because it could contaminate the environment, or even show up as a false positive of life on the planet. And they also have to be careful to quarantine any samples returned.

It requires a level of care and caution we haven’t had to exercise in our daily lives — until now.

During the Apollo program, astronauts were quarantined before and after moon landings for weeks in case they encountered pathogens on the lunar surface. Samples returned from the moon were treated with the same level of care as biohazards.

Now we know that the astronauts didn’t pick up any diseases during their moon walks, and there’s no life that we know of on the moon. The surface is hit by micrometeorites and radiation, with no atmosphere to protect it.

But it was a smart move because humans were exploring the unknown and they wanted to protect the astronauts.

It’s also part of the reason why COSPAR, the global Committee on Space Research, exists. It was formed in 1958 to further research, exploration and the peaceful use of outer space through international cooperation, according to the COSPAR mission statement.

COSPAR has a planetary protection policy (PDF) ensuring that the world’s space agencies protect the safety of our planet as well as any that we explore.

“The Planetary Protection Requirements are an international NATO treaty, ratified by COSPAR,” said Moogega Cooper, Planetary Protection Lead Engineer for NASA’s Perseverance rover mission. “It’s an international policy that we have to abide by. Agencies around the world have to make sure their hardware and their spacecraft is clean enough.”

This governs the level of sterilization that spacecraft and robotic explorers endure before launch. The rovers and landers were assembled in NASA’s “cleanrooms,” where the only people allowed to enter are covered head-to-toe in white coveralls called “bunny suits,” complete with face shields.

And even more precautions will be taken when humans are sent to explore Mars.

Here’s how NASA prepares for safe exploration.

RETURNING SAMPLES FROM MARS

NASA’s next generation of Martian rover, named Perseverance, will land on Mars in Jezero Crater next year. The site is where a lake once existed 3.5 billion years ago. Perseverance will collect samples and seal them up to preserve them until they can be returned to Earth, hopefully sometime in the 2020s.

Cooper’s job is to “make sure that we don’t contaminate Mars with Earth germs when we go and explore that planet.”

In his lab, the team take samples that they collect from the spacecraft and grow them in Petri dishes to see how clean the spacecraft really is before launch. They look for evidence of spores that can attach to the spacecraft.

“We look for these seeds that certain microbes can produce, and those are the things that would survive the journey in deep space, the harsh environments — that’s why we look for those on our Petri dishes every single day when we swab the spacecraft,” Cooper said.

They also look for viable organisms, like E. coli, that can live on skin. Although something like this can’t survive without a host, if it was found on the Martian surface it could be confused with fossilized life, Cooper said.

The room where the rover is constructed is “cleaner than an operating room, cleaner than a lot of the things we interact with,” he said.

Parts of the spacecraft that will actually touch the Martian surface are sterilized, fired at 662 degrees Fahrenheit. “It’s just the cleanest thing you’re ever going to see,” Cooper said. This includes collection tubes for samples on Mars.

Perseverance will collect rock, mineral and soil samples — and those soil samples could even include microfossils from ancient organisms that may have once lived in the lake. The data it collects may be able to help scientists know if they’ve found a biosignature on Mars.

“On the science side, we’re really thinking about new discoveries we can make on the surface and how [that] will inform what we learn when we get the samples back,” said Katie Stack Morgan, deputy project scientist for the rover at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “Our job is to find the best samples, collect and store them, and place them on the surface.”

The rover will pick up the samples, put them inside its body and seal them in tight metal tubes that were designed to withstand the Martian environment — at least, that’s the hope of NASA engineers. The samples will be dropped at specific collection sites so they can be retrieved later.

“Combining an understanding of the composition of the rocks, but also the very fine detail that we see in the rocks and the textures, can make a powerful case for ancient signs of life,” Stack Morgan said.

“We know that ancient Mars was habitable. But we haven’t yet been able to show that we have signs, real signs, of ancient life yet. And with our instrument suite, we think we can make real advances towards that on the surface.”

Returning the samples is a challenge down the road, and NASA is already planning for it. The earliest mission that could go back to Mars to retrieve the samples is set for the 2026-2027 timeframe, Stack Morgan said.

“This is a huge endeavor for the human species, and it’ll take cooperation from more than just our own space program,” Stack Morgan said. “Once the resources are there, we can develop the technology. It’s getting the buy-in from international partners and from our own space administration and government to really make this happen.”

The new rover will also be on a mission to lay the groundwork for future human exploration.

“We’re very much thinking about how Mars could be inhabited, how humans could come to Mars and make use of the resources that we have there in the Martian environment today,” said Stack Morgan. “We send our robotic scouts first to learn about these other places, hopefully for us to prepare the way for us to go ourselves.”

Returning samples could also inform how, when and where we land humans on Mars.

When Martian samples are returned to Earth and searched for evidence of life, they will be sent to biosafety level 4 laboratories, which are used to research pathogens that cause fatal diseases like coronavirus, said Jim Green, NASA’s Chief Scientist.

If life, ancient or existing, is found on Mars through studying these samples, the discovery will cause COSPAR members to change the COSPAR guidelines so we can “come up with a way to explore Mars,” Green said.

And frankly, it would change everything.

“It would mean that the possibilities now are endless for other potential civilizations or even microbial populations out there,” Cooper said. “It doesn’t have to be intelligent and complex. Microbes are actually quite intelligent and complex and should be admired. So if we found signs of life, it will shift our idea of being alone, or where we stand, in this universe.”

HUMANS ON MARS

In a conversation this week hosted by non-profit organization Explore Mars, Inc., Green and Penelope Boston, Director of NASA’s Astrobiology Institute, considered how humans can safely explore Mars.

Green’s idea of a Mars mission includes landing in one spot and separately living in another and setting up an “exploration zone.” It allows the astronauts to work in a confined area on Mars and perform scientific experiments. He suggests that future missions land and live in the same spots created by that first mission.

“It gives us a wonderful opportunity over several decades of going there, building and developing things at that site,” said Green. “We can gain a deep understanding of what Mars is all about.”

So far, robotic exploration has revealed that the similarities between soil on Earth and Mars is strong. But human exploration and experiments could reveal even more.

If life is found on Mars, Boston’s research has led her to believe that it will be deep beneath the surface. Recent studies have shown that life can exist in rock cracks below Earth’s ocean floor, and it could be the same in the Martian subsurface.

But care will need to be taken that any potential subsurface groundwater sources on Mars aren’t contaminated by human exploration.

“I’d love to see boots on Mars, but I’m very aware of the deep ecology aspects of another biosphere,” Boston said. “How do we study and cohabit with it without doing damage? Luckily the surface environment is harsh. It’s not entirely self-sterilizing, but it will do a lot to reduce contaminants.”

Cooper’s job will evolve if humans land on Mars, as he’ll need to develop stringent safety rules — not unlike the ones we’re implementing today.

“We have to make sure if there are people living there, for example, that their crops stay intact,” he said. “A lot of the things they bring along need to not be contaminated by weird bugs.”

He compared it to flying from one country to another with certain restricted food items.

“We have to make sure there aren’t any weird fruits, bacteria, fungus — something that may contaminate the livelihood, the life supply that they have on Mars,” he said. “We want to make sure we do the best job at preserving whatever is native.”

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Covid-19 lockdowns have caused the Earth's crust to stop shaking – EsquireMe

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Covid-19 lockdowns around the world has brought close to 4 billion people, more than half of the world’s entire population, to a complete and utter standstill. This is having a surprising effect on nature, from more visible wildlife interactions in cities to the earth’s upper crust shaking less than usual. 

Scientists have noted that machinery and car movement across the globe that cause imperceptible shakes to the Earth’s crust have effectively stopped. Seismologists around the globe have reported a drop in seismic noise, according to an article in the scientific journal Nature.

Usually this kind of drop in seismic activity occurs around Christmas day and experts say that they can now find smaller earthquakes and monitor volcanic activity a lot better.

In Belgium, vibrations caused by human activity have decreased by approximately one-third since Covid-19 isolation measures were introduced by the government. The reduction in noise is 100% related to the closure of offices and schools as well as a ban of all non-essential travel on March 18.

But it’s not just in Belgium. Seimic activity has decreased in these places as well:

While we’re all stuck at home, atleast we know most of us are listening to offical advice and staying home. 

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