By NASA // September 8, 2020
The invisible light of the expanded plasma extends from the galaxy to 1.3 million light years
(NASA) – In a landmark study, scientists using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope mapped an enormous gas envelope called the halo that surrounds our nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy.
Scientists are amazed that this delicate, almost invisible stream of expanded plasma extends from the galaxy to 1.3 million light-years — up to half our Milky Way — and in some directions to 2 million light-years.
This means that the halo of Andromeda is already bursting into the halo of our own galaxy.
They found that the hollow had a layered structure, with two main clusters and distinct gas shells. This is the most comprehensive study of a halo around a galaxy.
Samantha Berek, a fellow researcher at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, explained. “It is important to understand the massive gases that surround galaxies.
“This gas reservoir will provide fuel for future galaxy formations in the galaxy, as well as coming out of events such as supernovae.
“We found the inner shell to be very complex and dynamic, stretching back half a million light years,” explained Nicholas Lehner, study leader at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana.
“The outer shell is soft and warm. This difference affects the internal flow more directly due to the effect of supernova activity on the galactic disk. ”
The signature of this activity is the discovery of large amounts of massive elements in the airflow of Andromeda. Massive elements are cooked inside the stars and then emitted into space — sometimes violently when the star dies. Halo is then contaminated with this material from stellar explosions.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as M31, is probably the majestic spiral of 1 trillion stars and comparable to our Milky Way.
At a distance of 2.5 million light-years, the galaxy appears to be high in cigar-shaped light in the autumn sky.
If its airflow could be seen with the naked eye, it would be three times the width of the Big Dipper. This is the biggest feature of the night sky.
Through a program called Project AMIGA (Absorption Map of Ionized Gas in Andromeda), the study examined light from 43 quasars — the most distant, spectacular cores of active galaxies driven by black holes — beyond Andromeda.
Quasars are scattered behind the halo, allowing scientists to explore multiple areas. Looking through the halo at the quasars light, the team observed how this light is perceived by the Andromeda halo and how that absorption changes in different areas.
The enormous Andromeda Hollow is made up of highly verified and ionized gas that does not emit easily detectable radiation. Therefore, absorbing light coming from a background source is a good way to investigate this material.
The Lehner team examined Andromeda’s halo beforehand. In 2015, they discovered that the Andromeda Hollow was large and massive. But there is little hint of its complexity; Now, it has been mapped in more detail, leading to a more accurate determination of its size and mass.
“Previously, the galaxy had very little information in just 1 million light-years — only six quasars.
“It is important to examine the gas in this radius, because it represents the sphere of gravity to Andromeda.”
Because we live inside the Milky Way, scientists cannot easily understand the signature of the halo of our own galaxy. However, they believe that the haloes of Andromeda and the Milky Way are very similar because these two galaxies are so similar.
The two galaxies are in a collision course and form a large elliptical galaxy beginning 4 billion years from now.
Scientists have studied the air currents of galaxies farther away, but those galaxies are so small in the sky that the number of background quasars bright enough to observe their flow is usually only one per galaxy.
Therefore spatial information is inevitably lost. Due to its proximity to Earth, Andromeda’s airflow is large in the sky, allowing for a much wider pattern.
“It’s really a unique experiment, because with Andromeda we have not only one or two scenes but more than 40 information on its flow,” Lehner explained. “It’s amazing to capture the complexity of the galaxy halo beyond our own Milky Way.”
In fact, Andromeda is the only galaxy in the universe, this experiment can be done now, and only with Hubble.
Only with the ultraviolet-sensitive future space telescope can scientists routinely carry out this type of experiment beyond the approximately 30 galaxies that make up the native cluster.
“So Project AMIGA gave us a glimpse into the future,” Lehner said.
The team’s results appear in the August 27 issue of The Astrophysical Journal.
The new set of'mini moons' to be captured on Earth could be space junk. – haveeruonline
There’s a huge moon coming over your head, and you can think of it as “this is enough moon.” However, sometimes the Earth becomes greedy and begins to attract small asteroids to stay in orbit longer. Short visits to this “mini moon” are very rare and only 2 have been confirmed so far. The most recent release is the Little Rock CD3 on February 15th, 2020.From the Catalina Sky Survey sponsored by NASA As early as 2015, it trapped Earth’s gravity, stayed with us until May 2020, and then jumped back into space.
However, in the unprecedented year of 2020, astronomers announced they had discovered another potential mini-moon, 2020 SO.
Except it doesn’t act like a small asteroid at all. Our mini moon is not the moon. It moves too slowly to become a rock emitted from the body of the universe. So, astronomers think it’s probably just space junk left behind at the beginning of the space race.
Current theory says that the 2020 SO is the rocket body of the Atlas Centaur-D rocket, originally launched in 1966. The rocket was launched on September 20th, carrying the Surveyor 2 lunar lander to the moon. Size and orbit SO in 2020, Published by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, It seems to be neatly aligned with the Centaur body.
This object will be caught by Earth’s gravity in October and will reach its closest approach on December 1st, reaching within about 31,000 miles. Astronomers need to be able to see objects in detail by evaluating the shape of the object and the kind of light it emits.
If it’s the Centaur stage-if it’s trash-it’s still interesting trash. It has been wandering the solar system for over 50 years. We will be able to learn a little about the effects of the universe on old rocket bodies. And while that will not cause any problems for Earthlings, as far as we can tell, it plays a timely role..
Since the first launch of rockets and satellites into orbit, we have been polluting the space around the Earth. Not everything that goes up comes down immediately. Thousands of space debris, disappeared satellites, and tiny chunks of garbage are circling the Earth at high speed. Collisions with debris can be fatal and can puncture a rocket or satellite. More launches means more junk, and more junk poses a much greater risk to our appetite for space flight, satellites and space occupancy.
You don’t even have to look back for more than 24 hours to see potential problems with space junk. On Tuesday,Prevents unknown pieces of space junk from approaching you.
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Tom Cruise gets a flight date for his space movie – Yahoo Canada Sports
Tom Cruise will be heading to the heavens to make the first action movie to be shot in space in October, 2021.
An under-the-radar tweet from the Space Shuttle Almanac, which emerged last weekend, appears to confirm that Cruise will be travelling with director Doug Liman on Elon Musk’s SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule.
They will head to the International Space Station with the veteran NASA pilot Michael Lopez-Alegria at the helm.
According to the tweet, which lists the passenger manifest on the flight, there is still a spare seat on the mission.
<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="NASA confirmed in May this year that Cruise would be heading to space to make a movie with Bourne Identity filmmaker Liman.” data-reactid=”38″>NASA confirmed in May this year that Cruise would be heading to space to make a movie with Bourne Identity filmmaker Liman.
“We need popular media to inspire a new generation of engineers and scientists to make @NASA’s ambitious plans a reality,” said NASA administrator Jim Bridestine.
Little is known about the nature of the movie as yet, though the scale of it likely to be pretty limited in terms of crew.
<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="However, it is thought that Liman, who has worked with Cruise on movies including Edge of Tomorrow and American Made, has penned a draft screenplay for the project.” data-reactid=”43″>However, it is thought that Liman, who has worked with Cruise on movies including Edge of Tomorrow and American Made, has penned a draft screenplay for the project.
The Crew Dragon made history on 30 May this year, blasting into space in a partnership between NASA and Musk’s SpaceX, ferrying astronauts to the ISS.
<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="Cruise, meanwhile, is currently back to filming the latest in the Mission: Impossible movie series with Christopher McQuarrie, after the production was curtailed by the coronavirus lockdown back in March.” data-reactid=”65″>Cruise, meanwhile, is currently back to filming the latest in the Mission: Impossible movie series with Christopher McQuarrie, after the production was curtailed by the coronavirus lockdown back in March.
Returning to the action sequel’s set, he filmed a death-defying motorbike stunt in Norway earlier this month, launching from a ramp from the top of a mountain into a valley before parachuting to safety.
New 'mini-moon' set to be captured by Earth might just be space junk – CNET
We’ve got one huge moon looming overhead and you might think “that’s enough moons.” But sometimes, Earth gets greedy and starts pulling in small asteroids for extended stays in orbit. The brief visitations by these “mini-moons” are fairly rare, with only two confirmed so far. The most recent came on Feb. 15, when tiny rock 2020 CD3 wasat the NASA-funded Catalina Sky Survey. had been ensnared by the Earth’s gravity as early as 2015 and stayed with us until May 2020 before dashing off into the cosmos again.
But in the unprecedented year of 2020, astronomers have announced the detection of another potential mini-moon: 2020 SO.
Except this one isn’t acting at all like a small asteroid would. Our mini-moon is no moon at all. It’s moving far too slowly for it to be rock ejected from a cosmic body. Therefore, astronomers reason, it’s probably just space junk left over from the early days of the Space Race.
The current theory holds that 2020 SO is the rocket body from an Atlas Centaur-D rocket originally launched in 1966. The rocket lifted off Sept. 20 carrying the Surveyor 2 lunar lander to the moon. The dimensions and the orbit of 2020 SO, published by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, seem to align neatly with the Centaur body.
The object will be grabbed by Earth’s gravitational pull in October and will have its closest approach on Dec. 1, getting to within around 31,000 miles. Astronomers should be able to get a closer look at the object, assessing its shape and the kind of light its emitting.
If it is the Centaur stage — if it is junk — it’s still interesting junk. It’s been out, wandering the solar system for over five decades. We might be able to learn a little about the effects of space on our old rocket bodies. And while it’s not going to cause any problems for Earthlings, as far as we can tell, it does serve as a timely.
Since we first began launching rockets and satellites into orbit, we’ve been polluting space around our planet. Not everything that goes up immediately comes down. There are thousands of pieces of space junk, defunct satellites and tiny chunks of garbage, circling the Earth at great speeds. A collision with a piece of junk could be devastating, blowing a hole right through a rocket or satellite. More launches mean more junk and more junk poses a much bigger risk to spaceflight, satellites and our desire to occupy space.
You don’t even have to look back more than 24 hours to see how the potential issues space debris poses. On Tuesday,to avoid an unknown piece of cosmic trash hurtling toward it.
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