NASA’s Juno probe orbiting Jupiter has found the planet’s Great Red Spot is deeper than scientists had previously thought.
The probe determined that the depth of the Great Red Spot is about 500 km below the cloud tops. The findings are detailed in the journal Science and the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.
Juno spacecraft entered Jupiter’s orbit in 2016. During each of the it’s 37 passes of the planet to date, a specialised suite of instruments has peered below its turbulent cloud deck.
The latest flyby in July 2019 has provided a fuller picture of how the planet’s distinctive and colourful atmospheric features offer clues about the unseen processes below its clouds.
“These new observations from Juno open up a treasure chest of new information about Jupitera¿s enigmatic observable features,” said Lori Glaze, director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division at the agency’s headquarters in Washington.
Using Juno’s microwave radiometer (MWR) mission scientists peered beneath Jupiter’s cloud tops and probed the structure of its numerous vortex storms.
The most famous of these storms is the iconic anticyclone known as the Great Red Spot. Wider than Earth, this crimson vortex has intrigued scientists since its discovery almost two centuries ago.
The new results show that the cyclones are warmer on top, with lower atmospheric densities, while they are colder at the bottom, with higher densities. Anticyclones, which rotate in the opposite direction, are colder at the top but warmer at the bottom.
The findings also indicate these storms are far taller than expected, with some extending 100 km below the cloud tops and others, including the Great Red Spot, extending over 350 km. This surprise discovery demonstrates that the vortices cover regions beyond those where water condenses and clouds form, below the depth where sunlight warms the atmosphere, NASA said.
The height and size of the Great Red Spot means the concentration of atmospheric mass within the storm potentially could be detectable by instruments studying Jupiter’s gravity field.
With Juno traveling low over Jupiter’s cloud deck at about 209,000 kph Juno scientists were able to measure velocity changes as small 0.01 millimeter per second using NASA’s Deep Space Network tracking antenna, from a distance of more than 650 million kilometres. This enabled the team to constrain the depth of the Great Red Spot to about 500 km below the cloud tops.
“The precision required to get the Great Red Spot’s gravity during the July 2019 flyby is staggering,” said Marzia Parisi, a Juno scientist from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California and lead author of a paper in the Journal Science on gravity overflights of the Great Red Spot.
“Being able to complement MWR’s findings on the depth gives us great confidence that future gravity experiments at Jupiter will yield equally intriguing results,” Parisi added.
Geminid Meteor Shower returns in December – country1053.ca
The best meteor shower of the year are the Geminids and they’ll return this month. They start December 3 and will peak on the evenings of December 13 and 14 at around 2 a.m. ET. What makes this meteor shower interesting is that most come from comets traveling trough the solar system, while this one stems from an asteroid. Hoping for a clear sky both nights and you could see blue and even green colors as the space rocks burn up while passing through Earth‘s atmosphere. More info on the Geminids from NASA. There was already a preview of what you can see on November 3 in Manitoba.
@geminidmeteors strikes over the sky of Victoria, Manitoba, CAN ❣☄#meteror #geminid #december #nightsky #nightphotography #meteorshower #night #canada#geminidmeteorshower #nationalpark pic.twitter.com/NiqTYX5oLo
— Geminid Meteor Shower (@geminidmeteors) November 3, 2021
This 130 million-year-old ichthyosaur was a 'hypercarnivore' with knife-like teeth – Livescience.com
You wouldn’t want to meet an ichthyosaur while taking a dip in the early Cretaceous seas. That goes double for Kyhytysuka sachicarum: This newly identified 130 million-year-old marine reptile, now known from fossils in central Colombia, had larger, more knife-like teeth than other ichthyosaur species, a new study finds — and that is saying something, as ichthyosaurs are famous for their long, toothy snouts.
These big teeth would have enabled K. sachicarum to attack large prey, such as fish and even other marine reptiles.
“Whereas other ichthyosaurs had small, equally sized teeth for feeding on small prey, this new species modified its tooth sizes and spacing to build an arsenal of teeth for dispatching large prey,” paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University’s Redpath Museum in Montreal, Canada, said in a statement.
One toothy family
Ichthyosaurs were a large group of marine predators that first evolved during the Triassic period around 250 million years ago from land-dwelling reptiles that returned to the sea. The last species went extinct about 90 million years ago during the late Cretaceous. With long snouts and large eyes, they looked a bit like swordfish. Most species had jaws lined with small, cone-shaped teeth that were good for snagging small prey.
The newly identified species was likely at least twice as long as an adult human, based on the size of the fossils that have been found (most of a skull and a few pieces of spine and ribs). Probable ichthyosaur fossils were first unearthed in Colombia in the 1960s, but researchers couldn’t agree on the species or precisely how ichthyosaurs from the region were related to others from the same time period.
For the new study, Larsson and his colleagues focused on a skull kept in the collections of Colombia’s Museo Geológico Nacional José Royo y Gómez, and also considered another partial skull and bones from the spine and ribcage kept at Colombia’s Centro de Investigaciones Paleontológicas. Larsson and his colleagues announced the discovery and name of the marine reptile Nov. 22 in the Journal of Systematic Paleontology.
“We compared this animal to other Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs and were able to define a new type of ichthyosaurs,” Erin Maxwell of the State Natural History Museum of Stuttgart, Germany, said in the statement. “This shakes up the evolutionary tree of ichthyosaurs and lets us test new ideas of how they evolved.”
The researchers named the new ichthyosaur species Kyhytysuka, meaning “the one that cuts with something sharp” in the language of the Indigenous Muisca culture of Colombia.. There are other species of ichthyosaur with big teeth for catching large prey, the researchers wrote in the study, but those species are from the early Jurassic, at least 44 million years earlier than K. sachicarum.
The new species lived at a time when the supercontinent Pangea was breaking up into two landmasses — one southerly and one northerly — and when Earth was warming and sea levels were rising. At the end of the Jurassic, the seas underwent an extinction upheaval, and deep-feeding ichthyosaur species, marine crocodiles and short-necked plesiosaurs died out. These animals were replaced by sea turtles, long-necked plesiosaurs, marine reptiles called mososaurs that looked like a mix between a shark and a crocodile, and this huge new ichthyosaur, said study co author Dirley Cortés of McGill’s Redpath Museum.
“We are discovering many new species in the rocks this new ichthyosaur comes from,” Cortés said in the statement. “We are testing the idea that this region and time in Colombia was an ancient biodiversity hotspot and are using the fossils to better understand the evolution of marine ecosystems during this transitional time.”
Originally published on Live Science
Kyhytysuka: A pure carnivorous `fish lizard` from 130 million years ago discovered – WION
The 130-million-year-old hypercarnivore Kyhytysuka, often known as the “Fish Lizard,” has been unearthed.
A remarkable 130-million-year-old swordfish-shaped marine reptile fossil reveals the emergence of hypercarnivory in these last-surviving ichthyosaurs.
A group of multinational researchers from Canada, Colombia, and Germany have unearthed a new prehistoric marine reptile.
The specimen is a brilliantly preserved meter-long skull from one of the few remaining ichthyosaurs — prehistoric beasts that look alarmingly like live swordfish.
According to researchers, this new species reveals the entire picture of ichthyosaur evolution.
This species, according to experts, originates from a crucial transitional era in the Early Cretaceous.
The Earth had emerged from a comparatively cold phase, sea levels were increasing, and Pangea, the supercontinent, had been split into northern and southern territory.
There were additional worldwide extinction events near the end of the Jurassic, which altered marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
(With inputs from agencies)
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