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New milestone toward universal blood type organs for transplant – UBC Faculty of Medicine

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A team of Canadian scientists have proven it’s possible to safely convert the blood type in donor organs intended for transplantation. The findings are an important step towards creating universal type O organs, which would significantly improve fairness in organ allocation and decrease mortality for patients on waitlists.

The proof-of-concept study was published in Science Translational Medicine by a team of researchers from UBC, the Latner Thoracic Research Laboratories and Toronto’s University Health Network (UHN).

“With the current matching system, wait times can be considerably longer for patients who need a transplant depending on their blood type,” explains Dr. Marcelo Cypel, surgical director of the UHN Ajmera Transplant Centre and the senior author of the study.

Dr. Jayachandran Kizhakkedathu

Donor organs are currently matched to potential recipients based on blood type, among other criteria. Blood type is determined by the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells and blood vessels in organs – type A blood has the A antigen, B has the B antigen, AB blood has both antigens and O has none. If the blood type of a donor organ doesn’t match the blood type of the recipient, it can trigger an immune response and the organ is likely to be rejected.

In 2018, UBC researchers including Dr. Jayachandran Kizhakkedathu, a professor in the department of pathology and laboratory medicine, discovered a group of enzymes capable of removing antigens from the surface of cells.

For this new study, the enzymes were delivered to the lungs using the Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) circuit, successfully removing the antigens.

“Enzymes are Mother Nature’s catalysts and they carry out particular reactions,” said UBC biochemist Dr. Stephen Withers. “This group of enzymes that we found in the human gut can cut sugars from the A and B antigens on red blood cells, converting them into universal type O cells.”

“In this experiment, this opened a gateway to create universal blood-type organs. This is a great partnership with UHN and I was amazed to learn about the ex vivo perfusion system and its impact for transplants. It is exciting to see our findings being translated to clinical research.”

Dr. Kizhakkedathu and Dr. Withers went on to found ABOzymes Biomedical, a UBC spin-off company that is working to commercialize the enzyme technology.

“There are upcoming perfusion technologies available for kidneys already, so this technology should be transferable to kidneys, and potentially to other organs,” says Dr. Kizhakkedathu, also a member of UBC’s Centre for Blood Research.

Addressing organ wait times

In 2019, 250 Canadians died waiting for an organ transplant. Patients who are type O wait on average twice as long to receive a lung transplant compared to patients who are type A, explains Dr. Aizhou Wang, scientific associate at the Latner Thoracic Research Laboratories and first author of the study.

“This translates into mortality. Patients who are type O and need a lung transplant have a 20 per cent higher risk of dying while waiting for a matched organ to become available,” says Dr. Wang.

This disparity is also present for other organs where a patient who is type O or B in need of a kidney transplant will be on the waitlist for an average of four to five years, compared to two to three years for types A or AB.

“If you convert all organs to universal type O, you can eliminate that barrier completely,” Dr. Wang says.

The experiment

This proof-of-concept study was done at Latner Thoracic Research Laboratories. The experiment used the EVLP system developed in Toronto as a platform for the treatment. The EVLP system pumps nourishing fluids through organs, enabling them to be warmed to body temperature, so that they can be repaired and improved before transplantation.

Human donor lungs not suitable for transplantation from type A donors were put in the EVLP circuit. One lung was treated with a group of enzymes to clear the antigens from the surface of the organ, while the other lung, from the same donor, remained untreated.

The team then tested each lung by adding type O blood to the circuit, which would be expected to trigger an immune response and organ rejection. While the untreated lung showed signs of rejection, the lung treated with the enzymes did not.

“Having universal organs means we could eliminate the blood-matching barrier and prioritize patients by medical urgency, saving more lives and wasting less organs,” adds Dr. Cypel, who is also a professor in the department of surgery at the University of Toronto and the Canada Research Chair in Lung Transplantation.

The study was an interdisciplinary effort across multiple organizations in Canada, including UHN, University of Toronto, University of British Columbia and University of Alberta.

“By exchanging ideas across disciplines and across the country, we became one collaborative effort to tackle an important problem in organ transplantation,” says Dr. Wang.

The team of researchers is working on a proposal for a clinical trial within the next 12 to 18 months.

This story is adapted from a media release on the UHN website.

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Bird flu continues to spread among domestic, wild animals throughout North America – Just The News

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Strains of H5N1 avian influenza continue to pop up in birds around the country, with authorities reporting infections in both domestic and wild animals, including some wild mammals.

Officials in Washington state late this week confirmed two more outbreaks among flocks of birds there, stating that the infections were found in non-commercial backyard flocks of poultry. 

Michigan’s Department of Natural Resources, meanwhile, said the infection had been detected in three wild baby red foxes which subsequently died from the illness. 

“At this point, it is unclear how the fox kits became infected, but it’s possible that they were exposed by consuming infected birds, such as waterfowl,” DNR Veterinarian Megan Moriarty told media.

Moriarty predicted additional infections in mammals in the state but said “they likely will be isolated cases.”

Another baby fox reportedly died in Minnesota after testing positive for avian flu, as did two in Ontario, Canada. 

Three wild red foxes in Wisconsin also reportedly tested positive for the virus, with officials stating that they likely ate infected birds in the wild. 

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Wildlife rescue on Vancouver Island to limit visitors as avian flu continues to spread in B.C. – CBC.ca

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A wildlife rescue in the Comox Valley, on Vancouver Island, is closing its visitor centre starting Monday due to the spread of avian flu in B.C.

The Mountainaire Avian Rescue Society (MARS) Wildlife Rescue Centre, in Merville, B.C., announced it would be limiting visitors due to the risk that the disease poses to its captive birds, which include owls, eagles, and albino crows.

The decision comes after a small poultry flock in the Comox Valley tested positive for the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus last week, the first such case on Vancouver Island.

It is part of a rapidly-spreading outbreak of the flu throughout North America, with eight cases recorded in B.C. since April 13.

The concern is that a visitor could inadvertently bring the virus to the MARS centre on their vehicle, shoes or clothing.

“All of the species that we have in permanent captivity here … they are especially susceptible to the avian flu,” said Gylaine Andersen, manager of wildlife rehabilitation at MARS. “They are more likely to get severe symptoms, and actually die from the flu, than other types of animals.”

“It was a really difficult decision to close the visitor centre because we need the visitor centre to support the wildlife rehab program. But we just had to do it for the safety of our resident birds.”

The centre hosts two bald eagles and multiple owls that were previously rescued, as well as a red-tailed hawk. MARS also has two albino crows in residence named Nimpkish and Kokish.

Nimpkish and Kokish, two albino crows, are seen here at the MARS Wildlife Rescue. They are particularly susceptible to avian flu, according to Gylaine Andersen. (MARS Wildlife Rescue)

Andersen said the temporary closure comes at the busiest time of year for the centre. It might struggle to weather the loss of income without public donations, she said.

“At this time of year, we’re getting lots of little baby birds and baby mammals at the hospital,” she told CBC News. “Over at the visitor centre, this is when we would have the most visitation from the public.”

The MARS wildlife hospital remains open, according to the rescue’s website, but Andersen said it would be “an expensive time of year” without funds for PPE and other medical equipment.

Andersen asked poultry owners to be extra vigilant as avian flu continues to spread in the province, and also reiterated a call to take down bird feeders to stop the spread among wild birds.

Avian flu cases have been confirmed in several other provinces, but no infections have been detected in humans.

Officials say the illness is not considered a significant concern for healthy people who are not in regular contact with infected birds.

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Mental Health Issues Demand Resolution

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Should those who hold public office show that they are of sound mind and body before taking office and during the years they serve? Are those bureaucrats who truly run our government ever tested or investigated for various mental health issues that could surely affect their performance as public employees?

Imagine what the mental state of public servants is like these days? Besides the Pandemics’ influence upon us all, these men and women are responsible for public service to their communities and nation. Man public employees are under vigorous scrutiny for their honesty and performance as employees, but what about their mental health challenges? Various municipal, State and Federal authorities make attempts to pinpoint an employee in need, someone needing assistance and direction in their professional and personal lives, but it is difficult to do. Privacy and union issues often stand in between the person in need and those who would assist them. Furthermore, many employees refuse to seek assistance, for reasons of professional survival. Say an employee has an important job where many decisions are made influencing the community at large(ie Police). That person needs assistance for some mental health issues but fears either losing their jobs or being declared problematic employees, slowing promotions or professional advancement. They clam up, interiorizing their pain, fear or distress.

Most public institutions will honestly admit they do not invest enough into mental health services for their fellow employees.

Our elected officials have much to hide away from their future or present-day electors. What if they have a skeleton in their closet? A colourful personal history, a criminal record, possible mental health or physical health issue. Issues that are allowed to be hidden from the transparency portfolio. If asked, tell the truth(as they see it), otherwise hide what can be hidden. Politicians performing their service to the community, are placed under a microscope by the electorate and media alike. This must be stressful to them and their families too. Are elected officials ever evaluated for mental health status ever, before being elected and during their service?

Do you think anyone with a criminal record or under investigation should be removed or barred from holding office or in a position of public trust? Is the trust of the electorate easily given? A public official or employee could mishandle a portfolio, or commit a crime while in public service. How often have you seen such an individual stand before the media’s camera, proclaiming their innocence or sorrow of their actions?

We have heard many public officials call for hugely needed investments in the treatment of mental health issues, yet these investments are either moving at a snail’s pace or not at all. Our military and police have been calling for assistance regarding their need for mental health programs for two decades with little happening. The government’s response is usually words, words, and more words with little accountable assistance given. Our government has enough revenue to invest in weapons for the police and military, building structures and community centers, highways and new computers, but when asked to invest in people, their employees and the electorate, it’s either too costly or they have not the funds.

The Police and Military: Have an immediate need for trained mental health professionals, therapists and therapy-recoup centers. If the government can send them into harm’s way, they are responsible to maintain their mental health.

Government Agencies: Due to privacy issues, the government should make allotments to their employees available to find and go to therapy. A healthy employee is a trusted effective one. The government should source mental health professionals for those who serve them. Furthermore, Governments and their agencies are responsible to encourage, initiate and plan for the training of these professionals. A well-paid professional will make their placement a long-term investment. If our public employees can rely upon their employer to care for them, we can rely upon our public sector.

An established long-term mental health program needs to be established. This can be all-inclusive to the entire community. For example, gun owners, and drivers of vehicles should be required to invest their time in an interview and possible retraining every five years. Should a mental health issue be recognized, it can be dealt with appropriately and calmly. Bad habits, addictions, attitudes and illnesses developed over time can be recognized and something is done about them promptly and privately.

We have forgotten that much that we receive from and within our society is a privilege, something that should be earnt, and not awarded. Our mental health changes over time, and so too our responsibility to our communities, family and society. Is the public sector becoming our parents, our caregivers? In many ways, it is, and so our overall health, and that of our minds may be calling for community maintenance.

Steven Kaszab
Bradford, Ontario
skaszab@yahoo.ca

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