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Radiation on moon's surface measured for the first time – msnNOW

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When the next astronaut to reach the moon walks on the lunar surface in 2024, she’ll face radiation levels 200 times higher than on Earth.






© CHINA NATIONAL SPACE ADMINISTRAT/AFP/AFP/Getty Images
This picture taken on January 3, 2019, and received on January 4 from the China National Space Administration via CNS shows a robotic lunar rover on the dark side of the moon.

While Apollo mission astronauts carried dosimeters to the moon to measure radiation, the data was never reported.

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The first systematically documented measurements of radiation on the moon were undertaken in January 2019 when China’s Chang’e 4 robotic spacecraft mission landed on the far side of the Moon, according to a new study in the journal Science Advances.

Astronauts on moon missions would experience an average daily radiation dose equivalent to 1,369 microsieverts per day — about 2.6 times higher than the International Space Station crew’s daily dose, the study said.

Radiation is energy that is emitted in electromagnetic waves or particles. This includes visible light and heat (infrared radiation) that we can feel and others we can’t, like X-rays and radio waves. However, astronauts face a number of potentially harmful radiation sources in space from which the Earth’s atmosphere largely protects us.

These include galactic cosmic rays, sporadic solar particle events (when particles emitted by the sun become accelerated) and neutrons and gamma rays from interactions between space radiation and the lunar soil.

“The radiation levels we measured on the Moon are about 200 times higher than on the surface of the Earth and 5 to 10 times higher than on a flight from New York to Frankfurt,” said Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, a professor of physics at the University of Kiel in Germany and the corresponding author of the study that published Friday, in a statement.

“Because astronauts would be exposed to these radiation levels longer than passengers or pilots on transatlantic flights, this is a considerable exposure.”

A risk of space travel

Radiation exposure is one of the major risks for astronauts’ health as the chronic exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) may induce cataracts, cancer or degenerative diseases of the central nervous system or other organ systems, the study said.

“Moreover, exposure to large solar particle events in a situation with insufficient shielding may cause severe acute effects,” the study added.

Scientists at NASA describe radiation as one of five hazards of human space flight and the “most menacing.”

On the Artemis moon mission, when the first woman will walk on the moon in 2024, the astronauts are expected to stay on the lunar surface for a week and conduct a minimum of two moonwalks.

While astronauts have stayed on the International Space Station for a year, the ISS sits just within Earth’s protective magnetic field. This means that while astronauts are exposed to radiation levels 10 times higher than on Earth, it’s a smaller dose than what deep space has in store.

A Mars mission would likely take two to three years and a much higher dose of radiation.

Deep space vehicles, NASA said, will sport protective shielding, dosimetry and alerts. Research is also being conducted into pharmaceuticals that could help defend against radiation, it added.

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NASA spacecraft leaking asteroid samples into space is 'victim of own success' – Euronews

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A NASA spacecraft has been so successful in grabbing rubble from an asteroid hurtling through space millions of miles from Earth, that it collected too much and is now spilling its precious cargo back into the void.

In the space agency’s first attempt at taking samples from an asteroid, the spacecraft Osiris-Rex briefly touched asteroid Bennu earlier this week.

But scientists now know it collected far more material than was expected, and its sample container is jammed open.

“We’re almost a victim of our own success here,” said the mission’s lead scientist, Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona.

Lauretta said there is nothing flight controllers can do to clear the obstructions and prevent more bits of Bennu from escaping, other than to get the samples into their return capsule as soon as possible.

The flight team was scrambling to put the sample container into the capsule as early as Tuesday – much sooner than originally planned – for the long trip home.

Scientists were shocked on Thursday when they saw the pictures coming from Osiris-Rex following its contact with Bennu two days earlier.

A cloud of asteroid particles could be seen swirling around the spacecraft as it backed away from the asteroid.

The situation appeared to stabilise, according to Lauretta, once the robot arm was locked into place but it was impossible to know exactly how much material had already been lost.

The requirement for the mission was to bring back a minimum of 2 ounces (60 grams).

Because of the sudden turn of events, scientists won’t know how much the sample capsule is holding until it’s back on Earth.

The samples won’t make it back until 2023 – seven years after the spacecraft took off.

The complicated €675 million mission, which started with a launch back in 2016, is expected to provide information about the building blocks of the solar system.

They initially planned to spin the spacecraft to measure the contents, but that manoeuvre was cancelled since it could spill even more debris.

Japan, meanwhile, is awaiting its second batch of samples taken from a different asteroid, due back in December.

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NASA probe leaking asteroid samples due to jammed door – Al Jazeera English

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Images beamed back to ground control revealed it caught more material than scientists anticipated and was spewing excess of flaky asteroid rocks into space.

A US probe that collected a sample from an asteroid earlier this week retrieved so much material that a rock is wedged in the container door, allowing rocks to spill back out into space.

On Tuesday, the robotic arm of the probe, OSIRIS-REx, kicked up a debris cloud of rocks on Bennu, a skyscraper-sized asteroid some 320 million kilometres (200 million miles) from Earth and trapped the material in a collection device for the return to Earth.

But images of the spacecraft’s collection head beamed back to ground control revealed it had caught more material than scientists anticipated and was spewing an excess of flaky asteroid rocks into space.

The leakage had the OSIRIS-REx mission team scrambling to stow the collection device to prevent additional spillage.

“Time is of the essence,” Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s associate administrator for science, told reporters on Friday.

Zurbuchen said mission teams will skip their chance to measure how much material they collected as originally planned and proceed to the stow phase, a fragile process of tucking the sample collection container in a safe position within the spacecraft without jostling out more valuable material.

NASA will not know how much material it collected until the sample capsule returns in 2023.

The troubleshooting also led mission leaders to forgo any more chances of redoing a collection attempt and instead commit to begin next March the spacecraft’s return to Earth.

“Quite honestly, we could not have performed a better collection experiment,” OSIRIS-REx’s principal investigator Dante Lauretta said.

But with the door lodged open by a rock and the “concerning” images of sample spillage, “we’re almost the victim of our own success here”, he added.

The roughly $800m, minivan-sized OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, built by Lockheed Martin, launched in 2016 to grab and return the first US sample of pristine asteroid materials.

Asteroids are among the leftover debris from the solar system’s formation some 4.5 billion years ago.

A sample could hold clues to the origins of life on Earth, scientists say.

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Asteroid samples escaping from jammed NASA spacecraft – Phys.org

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In this image taken from video released by NASA, the Osiris-Rex spacecraft touches the surface of asteroid Bennu on Tuesday, Oct. 20, 2020. (NASA via AP)

A NASA spacecraft is stuffed with so much asteroid rubble from this week’s grab that it’s jammed open and precious particles are drifting away in space, scientists said Friday.

Scientists announced the news three days after the named Osiris-Rex briefly touched asteroid Bennu, NASA’s first attempt at such a mission.

The mission’s lead scientist, Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, said Tuesday’s operation 200 million miles away collected far more material than expected for return to Earth—in the hundreds of grams. The sample container on the end of the robot arm penetrated so deeply into the asteroid and with such force, however, that rocks got sucked in and became wedged around the rim of the lid.

Scientists estimate the sampler pressed as much as 19 inches (48 centimeters) into the rough, crumbly, black terrain.

“We’re almost a victim of our own success here,” Lauretta said at a hastily arranged news conference.

Lauretta said there is nothing can do to clear the obstructions and prevent more bits of Bennu from escaping, other than to get the samples into their as soon as possible.

So, the flight team was scrambling to put the sample container into the capsule as early as Tuesday—much sooner than originally planned—for the long trip home.

“Time is of the essence,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, chief of NASA’s science missions.

This is NASA’s first asteroid sample-return mission. Bennu was chosen because its carbon-rich material is believed to hold the preserved building blocks of our solar system. Getting pieces from this cosmic time capsule could help scientists better understand how the planets formed billions of years ago and how life originated on Earth.

Scientists were stunned—and then dismayed—on Thursday when they saw the pictures coming from Osiris-Rex following its wildly successful touch-and-go at Bennu two days earlier.

A cloud of asteroid particles could be seen swirling around the spacecraft as it backed away from Bennu. The situation appeared to stabilize, according to Lauretta, once the robot arm was locked into place. But it was impossible to know exactly how much had already been lost.

The requirement for the $800 million-plus mission was to bring back a minimum 2 ounces (60 grams).

Regardless of what’s on board, Osiris-Rex will still leave the vicinity of the asteroid in March—that’s the earliest possible departure given the relative locations of Earth and Bennu. The samples won’t make it back until 2023, seven years after the spacecraft rocketed away from Cape Canaveral.

Osiris-Rex will keep drifting away from Bennu and will not orbit it again, as it waits for its scheduled departure.

Because of the sudden turn of events, scientists won’t know how much the sample capsule holds until it’s back on Earth. They initially planned to spin the spacecraft to measure the contents, but that maneuver was canceled since it could spill even more debris.

“I think we’re going to have to wait until we get home to know precisely how much we have,” Lauretta told reporters. “As you can imagine, that’s hard. … But the good news is we see a lot of material.”

Japan, meanwhile, is awaiting its second batch of samples taken from a different asteroid, due back in December.


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NASA spacecraft sent asteroid rubble flying in sample grab


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