HALIFAX — A public inquiry into the 2020 mass shooting in Nova Scotia heard Wednesday from a former assistant commissioner of the RCMP who said the police force has a long history of ignoring calls for change.
Cal Corley, who is now CEO of the Community Safety Knowledge Alliance, said the RCMP has long resisted outside advice because of its deep-rooted paramilitary culture, lack of diverse views and dearth of what he called “transformational leadership.”
“It’s been an organization that’s been historically very slow to adapt to its external environment,” Corley said during a roundtable discussion. “There’s an institutional culture that has been rather closed for many years.”
Corley was among eight academics and bureaucrats who talked about community policing, a concept that Corley says was initially embraced by the RCMP but failed to take root. “The institutional culture is more powerful than any single leader or any single group of leaders,” he said.
Corley said transformation of the RCMP into a modern police force has been stymied by leaders who lacked the competence to undertake such a task.
“This includes the ability to work with others to accomplish a shared vision, to assemble a change-capable team, develop a sense of urgency and ultimately to execute a strategy,” he said.
As for the lack of diversity within the RCMP, Corley acknowledged the organization has worked hard for the past 20 years to recruit more women, people of colour and Indigenous people.
“It hires for diversity, but then it trains that diversity out of them,” he said. “It becomes abundantly clear early in one’s career that to succeed, one should, above all else, conform with the existing cultural norms.”
As well, Corley said the RCMP’s military-style command-and-control structure remains incompatible with the softer skills needed for tackling social issues, which he said is what police spend most of their time doing.
The former senior Mountie, who also served as head of the Canadian Police College, cited a 2017 study that included a 41-page list of recommendations for change that he said were largely ignored by the RCMP.
The study, produced for the Ottawa-based Macdonald-Laurier Institute, said that independent reports submitted over two decades repeatedly found that change in the RCMP had been impeded by “a lack of accountability and a culture of fear.”
The study was written by Christian Leuprecht, a professor at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ont., who specializes in police and security issues.
“We keep coming up with the same recommendations, over and over,” Leuprecht said in an interview Wednesday. “It’s well established what the problems are. And I suspect the Mass Casualty Commission will come up with things we’ve known for 50 years.”
Leuprecht said part of the problem is that the RCMP has a mandate that is too broad.
“No other police force has a greater span of tasks, from writing traffic tickets to investigating outlaw bikers, criminal hackers, fentanyl smugglers, and money launderers,” his 2017 report says. “In terms of the number of units and range of responsibilities, the RCMP is without parallel … among democracies of comparable size.”
It’s important, however, to recognize the RCMP does not decide what its functions are, he said. That’s up to the federal government.
“Everyone knows the organization is broken, but they’re too afraid of making change for fear of breaking it completely,” Leuprecht said in the interview. “And the RCMP can’t fix its own mandate …. When you look for political leadership, the politicians just scatter.”
The public inquiry, which started hearings in February, is expected to conclude its investigation later this month, and a final report is slated for release by March 31 of next year.
Among other things, the inquiry is investigating why it took the RCMP 13 hours to stop a man from killing people in northern and central Nova Scotia in April 2020.
The inquiry has heard Gabriel Wortman, a denture-maker based in Dartmouth, N.S., assaulted his common-law wife on the night of April 18, 2020, and then fatally shot 13 people in Portapique, N.S., while disguised as a Mountie and driving a car that looked exactly like an RCMP cruiser.
The next day, he killed another nine people — including a Mountie and a pregnant woman — before two RCMP officers shot him to death at a gas station in Enfield, N.S.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Sept. 7, 2022.
Michael MacDonald, The Canadian Press
BC Wildfire Service warns season not yet over amid drought
VANCOUVER — Seemingly endless summer conditions in British Columbia have prompted a warning that this year’s “very unique fire season” in the province is not yet over.
Hot and dry conditions persist, something the superintendent of the BC Wildfire Service’s predictive services said is “quite problematic,” and creates conditions for potential ignitions across B.C.
Neal McLoughlin said the season was unusual because it started slowly and was damp, with a delayed snowmelt, then it transitioned into hot, dry conditions by July that continue to persist into October.
Temperatures are about five to eight degrees above normal for this time of year, and there’s been little to no rain in several parts of B.C. in weeks.
“We are starting to switch the status of a lot of our fires to ‘being held’ or ‘under control,’ but there still is fire activity on the landscape,” McLoughlin said in an interview. “I would suggest, while we are maintaining this hot, dry, precipitation-free period, fire season is by no means over yet.”
The service is citing a below-average season for area burned, and while lightning-caused fires reached about twice the average in August, low winds help crews to fight the fires, McLoughlin said.
“Strong winds are basically the accelerator on a fire in terms of its rate of spread and how far it can grow,” he explained.
He said between 10 and 20 millimetres of rain across B.C. over a one- or two-day period would likely be needed for the service to consider fire season over.
“Although we’re not seeing as many human-caused fire starts and lightnings are tapering off, it only takes one ignition under the right conditions, and we could see a large fire or an aggressive day in terms of fire behaviour.”
While the wildfire service downgraded the last so-called “wildfire of note” on Sept. 24, more than160 wildfirescontinued to burn across the province on Friday, two dozen of them had been sparked in the last week.
This comes as the Forests Ministry warns about drought conditions in parts of the province. Vancouver Island, the inner south coast and the northeast corner of the province reached the second-most severe level of drought on the five-point rating scale.
The ministry ranked those areas at Drought Level 4, meaning conditions are extremely dry and will likely have unfavourable effects on everything from jobs to ecosystems.
“While most forests can withstand occasional water shortages, repeated droughts cause stress to forests and trees. When trees are stressed, they are at higher risk of pests and disease,” the ministry said in an emailed statement.
It said forest health is a “key priority” for the province.
“Strategies are being developed to ensure future forests are healthy and resilient in the face of climate change and changing weather conditions. These include using adaptive management to mitigate risks through planting a wider diversity of native species that can better tolerate drought,” it said.
Robert Guy, a professor of forestry and tree physiology at the University of British Columbia, said he’s “not terribly concerned” about the dry start to fall. He said droughts are more problematic to forest health during the spring, when growth occurs.
“Overall, I don’t think having a drought at this time of year is going to be terribly consequential and in terms of forest growth,” Guy said. “Fires are, of course, a concern at any time of year when it’s this dry though.”
However, he said recurrent droughts do make trees more vulnerable to fires and insect attacks.
“One summer is not so bad, but two or three in a row, then you start to see problems, particularly with young trees. Trees where the root systems don’t go particularly deep are the most vulnerable to drought,” he said.
“If this were to extend into next fire season, and then maybe another season where we have two to three back-to-back years where we have very dry conditions, that typically will then be a lead into a very catastrophic fire year,” he said.
It is too early to predict whether the drought will affect next season, McLoughlin said.
“We do have higher drought conditions leading into the end of our fire season, which could carry over into next year if we don’t see good overwinter precipitation and recovery from a precipitation and moisture perspective,” he said. “So, there’s the possibility, but it’s not to say that there’s certainty that will play out.”
The BC Wildfire Service plans to release a comprehensive wildfire summary later this month.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Oct. 1, 2022.
Brieanna Charlebois, The Canadian Press
Canada ‘behind the ball’ with weak merger laws, says author of biting report
OTTAWA — Lax merger laws in Canada underestimate the harm to competition caused by mergers and overestimate their benefits, a new report says.
Gaps in Canada’s merger laws have failed to prevent the kind of acquisitions that allow big firms to “extinguish competitive threats and entrench their dominance,” according to the Centre for International Governance Innovation.
Canada has fallen “way behind” other jurisdictions such as the United States, said Keldon Bester, a fellow with the centre and the author of the report.
He compared Canada’s existing regime to a set of faulty brakes. “Our laws today are like brakes on a car going downhill. We know we’re going downhill, but we’d like to go there a little bit slower,” he said in an interview.
The “permissiveness” of merger laws is especially concerning in the context of a growing digital economy, which is fraught with unique challenges, his report adds.
Mergers, which are transactions that see two companies combined into one, can be subject to review by Canada’s competition watchdog to determine whether they would be harmful to competition.
However, since the introduction of the Competition Act in 1986, the Competition Bureau has only ever challenged 18 mergers. And what’s especially alarming, the report says, is that the bureau has never won a challenge on final judgement.
A recent poll suggests Canadians are concerned about the state of affairs.
According to an Ipsos survey conducted in January, 88 per cent of respondents agreed that more business competition is needed “because it’s too easy for big businesses to take advantage of Canadians.”
The same proportion agreed that more competition between businesses could lead to more choice and lower prices for consumers.
The survey of 1,001 Canadians aged 18 and older was conducted between Jan. 14 and 17. Ipsos says its online results are weighted and are comparable to a traditional poll with a margin of error of plus or minus 3.5 percentage points, 19 times out of 20.
One of the issues with the Competition Bureau is the threshold at which it must be notified of a transaction, the CIGI report says.
Under the Competition Act, parties to a proposed merger must notify the Competition Bureau if a transaction meets certain financial thresholds. But those thresholds do not include the value of the transaction itself, the report says.
That’s in contrast to the U.S., where the Federal Trade Commission is already notified of mergers that exceed a certain transaction value.
Early this year, the commission and the U.S. Justice Department announced a joint public inquiry to modernize merger guidelines so as to “better detect and prevent anti-competitive deals.”
By comparison, Canada is “way behind,” Bester said.
Another problem with the Competition Bureau is that “the bar to intervene in a merger is quite high,” added Bester, a researcher who studies competition and monopoly powers in Canada.
That’s because current laws take into consideration the increased efficiency that may come from a merger, he said. Harms from reduced competition are permitted if the proposed merger will lead to cost savings that are deemed to be greater.
There’s also a bias against blocking mergers outright, he said.
Instead, the laws favour negotiated agreements that include concessions or remedies that would address some of the competition concerns. These remedies don’t have to fully address the reduction in competition that would be caused by the merger, the report says.
The report suggests several changes to Canada’s merger laws.
The recommendations include expanding the range of transactions the Competition Bureau is notified of, extending the time window it has to block a harmful merger and changing the criteria used for assessing whether a transaction should be blocked.
The most high-profile proposed merger in Canada right now is arguably Rogers’s proposed takeover of Shaw, a prospective transaction valued at $26 billion.
Bester said that if Canada had stronger merger laws, the Rogers-Shaw deal would have automatically been “dead in the water” given the lack of competition in the telecommunications industry.
“If we had stronger merger laws, this merger wouldn’t be proposed in the first place.”
Nonetheless, Canada’s competition watchdog has been trying to block the deal, arguing that it will substantially lessen competition and lead to higher phone bills.
Rogers and Shaw are expected to appear before the Competition Tribunal in November, where they will argue in favour of the transaction.
Although the federal Liberals have made recent amendments to other parts of the Competition Act, Canada hasn’t touched merger laws — a problem that Bester blames on a “legal and financial apparatus” that benefits from their permissiveness.
Banks, law firms and private equity groups “are interested in very loose merger laws because that increases their bottom line,” said Bester.
“We really haven’t done anything today on the merger side, so Canada really is behind the ball.”
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Oct. 1, 2022.
Nojoud Al Mallees, The Canadian Press
Canada terror rules unchanged as Afghans face humanitarian crisis and winter looms – CTV News
Opposition parties and aid groups say the Trudeau government is dragging its feet in carving out exemptions to anti-terrorism laws to allow humanitarian groups to reach desperate people in Afghanistan.
“There is nothing but political will interfering with us solving this problem,” said NDP foreign affairs critic Heather McPherson.
In June, a multi-party committee called on the government to modify the Criminal Code so that major humanitarian groups can help Afghans without being charged with assisting the Taliban.
Representatives from 10 humanitarian groups told MPs in March that Global Affairs Canada informed them they would not be able to pay a driver to deliver food or buy supplies within Afghanistan because that would incur taxes sent to the Taliban.
That would mean supporting the terrorist group, which has been listed as such under Canadian law since 2013.
Liberal MP Salma Zahid, who sat on the special parliamentary committee, said Canada must find a workaround like its allies did to ensure much-needed aid is delivered.
“I think the minister of Public Safety and as well as the minister of Justice are looking into it,” she said in an interview Thursday.
“They have to find some solutions.”
The issue was well-known last December when the UN Security Council issued an exemption to anti-terrorism sanctions on the Taliban that allowed humanitarian aid to reach Afghanistan.
By June, Australia invoked that resolution to get help to Afghanistan, while the U.S. and European Union modified their rules to ensure humanitarian groups could respond.
That same month, public servants warned Foreign Affairs Minister Melanie Joly of challenges Canadian organizations were facing in Afghanistan before she met with former female Afghan parliamentarians.
“There is no ability to provide exemptions under current Canadian law,” reads a briefing note obtained through an access-to-information request.
“The need for mitigation measures imposes serious constraints on humanitarian and development activities that the government is able to support and the organizations with which Canada is able to partner.”
International Development Minister Harjit Sajjan said the Liberals plan to modify the law, but couldn’t explain why departments that handle the Criminal Code haven’t moved.
“They’re working on options right now with the ministers of Public Safety and Justice,” Sajjan said in a Thursday interview.
The office of Public Safety Minister Marco Mendicino had no explanation for the holdup nor a timeline, and did not confirm that Ottawa actually intends to amend the current laws.
“We continue to explore new ways to support Afghans, while following Canada’s Criminal Code,” wrote spokeswoman Audrey Champoux.
The Department of Justice did not respond to a request for comment by deadline.
“I, as minister of International Development, have to work within the current laws that we have,” Sajjan said.
He stressed that the government has found ways to deliver $144 million in aid to Afghans through organizations that can comply with Canada’s rules. Much of that is going to Afghans who have fled their country; the rest is largely procured by the UN thanks to the Security Council exemption.
“I just want to stress, it’s not preventing us from actually providing the funding to the Afghan people themselves,” Sajjan said.
Humanitarian groups say otherwise, arguing their hands are tied as desperation mounts.
This month a coalition of 18 groups, including as the Canadian Red Cross and Islamic Relief, decried the Liberals’ “disheartening lack of urgency in acting to remove the barriers.”
In late August, UN humanitarian chief Martin Griffiths said more than half the Afghan population — some 24 million people — need assistance, and close to 19 million are facing acute levels of food insecurity.
On Tuesday, the UN warned that drought, economic tumult and high oil prices will only make this worse as winter sets in.
Conservative Sen. Salma Ataullahjan said the government must implement a solution this fall to help the millions of people who are struggling.
“Especially, I think of the women, I know how hard it is in that society to function if you don’t have a man,” she said.
The party’s foreign affairs critic noted that aid groups were raising the Criminal Code issue months before their testimony this spring.
“They’ve had a lot of time to fix the problem,” said Michael Chong, who argued the Liberals should have had legislation ready to table when the House resumed sitting this month.
“This inability to execute on something that everyone agrees upon is part of a broader pattern in this government of being unable to implement policy,” he said.
“This government struggles to put words into action.”
Instead of incompetence, McPherson chalked it up to indifference.
“There is no way that it should be taking this long for them to sort this out,” she said.
“I’ve spoken to Liberal members of Parliament who are appalled at their own government for not doing anything on this.”
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Sept. 30, 2022.
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