The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)’s authoritative Business Cycle Dating Committee itself uses a two-part classification – “expansion” and “contraction”.
In reality, the business cycle is a continuum ranging from boom, rapid recovery and strong growth at one extreme through soft patches and mild recessions to severe recessions and depressions at the other.
Explaining its interest rate decisions, the U.S. Federal Reserve has characterized economic activity with phrases including “rapid,” “vigorous,” “robust,” “solid,” “moderate,” “slowed considerably” and “severe disruption.”
Growth in business activity tends to accelerate and decelerate; outright declines in the level of activity are relatively rare.
The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Committee formally declared only six recessions between 1980 and the end of 2020.
The U.S. economy was in recession for just 58 out of 492 months (less than 12% of the time), on the NBER definition.
But there have been twice as many distinct cyclical troughs in the purchasing managers’ manufacturing index published by the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) over the same 41-year period.
These additional cyclical troughs centered on 1985, 1989, 1996, 1998, 2012 and 2016 were never formally declared as recessions by the NBER.
In the Fed’s discussions, these periods were characterized as periods of “moderate growth” or a “soft patch”.
They were periods of little or no growth in an otherwise uninterrupted business cycle expansion and tend to be forgotten.
Dissatisfaction with sluggish wage growth resulting from mid-cycle slowdowns in 2012 and especially 2016 likely contributed to the election of President Donald Trump in 2016.
Mid-cycle slowdowns also reset the economy by easing capacity constraints and relieving upward pressure on prices and wages.
The unusually long business cycle expansions of the 1980s (92 months), 1990s (120 months) and 2010s (128 months) were each punctuated by two mid-cycle slowdowns.
Mid-cycle slowdowns almost certainly helped prolong the formally declared expansions by freeing up spare capacity and taking some of the heat out of prices and wages.
Similarly, if it hadn’t been for mid-cycle slowdowns in 2012 and 2016, resetting capacity utilization and sapping inflation and wage growth, it seems likely the most recent expansion would have ended before 2020.
From an analytical viewpoint, the distinction between mid-cycle slowdowns that prolong an expansion and cycle-ending recessions is somewhat arbitrary, a difference of degree rather than nature.
For that reason, it is more useful to focus on whether the growth in business activity is accelerating or decelerating rather than whether the economy is in recession or not.
U.S. manufacturers reported activity was broadly flat in October as the merchandise and freight sector of the economy continued to lose momentum in the face of rapid inflation and excess inventories.
The ISM purchasing managers’ index slipped to 50.2 in October (30th percentile for all months since 1980) from 50.9 in September (36th percentile) and 60.8 a year ago (99th percentile).
The composite index has declined in nine of the last 12 months and is now at the lowest level since May 2020, when the economy was still in the grip of the first wave of the coronavirus epidemic.
The new orders component was below the 50-point threshold dividing expanding activity from a contraction for the fourth time in five months (“ISM manufacturing report on business”, Nov. 1).
Slower growth in manufacturing and freight is translating into slower growth in the consumption of diesel and other middle distillates.
The volume of distillate fuel oil supplied to the U.S. domestic market (a proxy for consumption) was up by less than 1% in the three months from June to August compared with the same period in 2021.
Distillate use is closely correlated with the ISM index so the continued decline in the index in September and October signals consumption growth likely slowed further.
Chartbook: Global manufacturing cycle
Between 1980 and the end of 2020, the ISM manufacturing cycle reached a distinct trough on average every 41 months or roughly every 3-4 years.
The manufacturing and freight cycle, rather than formal recessions alone, is what matters for the consumption of distillate fuel oil and other cyclical energy products.
The current downturn in the manufacturing cycle will dampen the rate of growth in distillate consumption and possibly even reduce fuel use outright.
In the United Kingdom, the European Union and China the cycle appears even more advanced, with purchasing managers’ surveys indicating activity is already falling in each case.
The Eurozone manufacturing purchasing managers’ index slipped to 46.4 in October (12th percentile for all months since 2006) and has been below 50 for four months running.
The slowdown will ripple out from the major economies at the core of the global economy (the United States, China and Europe) to the lower-value manufacturers and commodity producers on the periphery.
The cyclical slowdown will reset industrial capacity utilization, labor markets, inflation and wage growth – whether or not it results in a formal recession being declared.
– Recession will be necessary to rebalance the oil market (Reuters, Sept. 22)
– Oil and interest rate futures point to cyclical downturn before end of 2022 (Reuters, July 22)
– Global business cycle starts to turn down (Reuters, June 30)
– Diesel is the U.S. economy’s inflation canary (Reuters, Feb. 9)
John Kemp is a Reuters market analyst. The views expressed are his own (Editing by Tomasz Janowski)
Securing good jobs, clean air, and a strong economy – Prime Minister of Canada
Autoworkers have been a keystone of the Canadian economy for generations. By investing in the future of the auto industry, we are not only securing good middle-class jobs, we are fighting climate change, and building an economy that works for generations to come.
Since January alone, Canada has secured several historic manufacturing deals for electric vehicles (EVs), hybrids, and batteries – deals that will create and secure thousands of good, middle-class jobs and provide the world with clean vehicles. Today, we are seeing the results of one of those deals start to roll off the line.
The Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, was joined today by Premier of Ontario, Doug Ford, to open Canada’s first full-scale EV manufacturing plant, General Motors of Canada Company’s (GM) CAMI assembly plant in Ingersoll, Ontario. Starting today and going forward, the plant will build fully electric delivery vans – the BrightDrop Zevo 600 – which will help cut pollution and keep our communities healthy for our children and grandchildren.
Thanks in part to a $259 million investment from the Government of Canada, GM’s CAMI assembly plant was able to retool its operations to build these electric vans. By 2025, the plant plans to manufacture 50,000 EVs per year. This investment has helped secure thousands of well-paying, high-quality jobs across GM facilities, and is helping advance the electrification of Canada’s automotive sector.
The Government of Canada will continue to work to attract investment from companies around the world as we build our EV supply chain – from mining critical minerals to manufacturing batteries, and vehicles. By taking action today, we are positioning Canada as a global leader in EVs, fighting climate change, securing good jobs, and building an economy that works for all Canadians – now and into the future.
“When we invested in GM’s project to build Canada’s first full-scale electric vehicle manufacturing plant in Ingersoll, we knew it would deliver results. Today, as the first BrightDrop van rolls off the line, that’s exactly what we’re seeing. This plant has secured good jobs for workers, it is positioning Canada as a leader on EVs, and will help cut pollution. Good jobs, clean air, and a strong economy – together, that’s the future we can build.”
“Today is proof that our historic investments in EV manufacturing are paying off. With the first BrightDrop vans coming off the assembly line, we’re seeing the skill of Canadian workers making a huge difference as the world moves to EVs. Our government, in partnership with GM, is cementing Canada’s leadership in the EV supply chain.”
“This milestone represents GM at our best – fast, flexible and first in the industry. The BrightDrop Zevo is a prime example of GM’s flexible Ultium EV architecture, which is allowing us to quickly launch a full range of electric vehicles for our customers. And, as of today, I am proud to call the CAMI EV Assembly team the first full-scale all-electric manufacturing team in Canada.”
“This is a very exciting moment – a revolution in the way we transport people and goods. Today marks a huge day for BrightDrop, as we expand our footprint and begin producing the Zevo electric vans at scale, and a huge milestone for Canada on the road to a brighter future. Opening the CAMI plant is a major step in providing EVs at scale and delivering real results to the world’s biggest brands, like DHL Express, who will be our first Canadian customer.”
- The Government of Canada’s $259 million investment supports GM’s more than $2 billion project to reignite production at its Oshawa assembly plant, after operations stopped in 2019, and transform its CAMI assembly plant in Ingersoll.
- The investment is being made through both the Strategic Innovation Fund and its Net Zero Accelerator Initiative.
- The Government of Ontario made a matching contribution of up to $259 million toward the project.
- Founded in 1918, General Motors of Canada Company (GM) is one of the largest automotive manufacturers worldwide. It is headquartered in Oshawa, Ontario, and is one of Canada’s largest automotive manufacturers.
- GM is planning to introduce 30 new electric vehicles by 2025, eliminate tailpipe emissions from new light-duty vehicles by 2035, and become carbon neutral in its global products and operations by 2040.
- The automotive sector contributes $16 billion to Canada’s gross domestic product and is one of the country’s largest export industries.
- The automotive sector supports the employment of nearly 500,000 Canadians.
- The 2030 Emissions Reductions Plan, released in March, puts Canada on track to achieving our goal of cutting emissions by 40 to 45 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030 while continuing to build a strong economy.
- To make zero-emission vehicles more affordable and accessible, the Government of Canada offers incentives of up to $5,000 off the purchase or lease of a light-duty zero-emission vehicle through the Incentives for Zero-Emission Vehicles (iZEV) Program. Since May 2019, close to 176,000 Canadians have taken advantage of this program.
- Since 2015, the Government of Canada has invested $400 million in building approximately 35,000 zero-emission vehicle charging stations across the country.
UK's Economy To Dip Into Recession This Winter – OilPrice.com
The UK’s recession will officially begin this winter and is likely to last for most of next year, a closely watched survey out today suggests.
S&P Global and the Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply’s (CIPS) final purchasing managers’ index (PMI) measuring private sector activity in November was unchanged at 48.2, the lowest number since January 2021 when the UK was in the constrained by tough pandemic lockdowns.
The reading was below analysts’ expectations but held steady from an earlier estimate. The services PMI was unchanged at 48.8. Services firms generate about two thirds of UK GDP.
The figure prompted experts to predict the forewarned recession will start during the final weeks of this year.
A recession is typically defined as two consecutive quarters of contraction. The UK economy shrank 0.2 percent over the summer.
PMI has slid this year
Source: S&P Global
Britain’s PMI has now been below the 50 point threshold that separates growth and contraction for four months now, indicating consumers and businesses started cutting spending during the summer when the cost of living crisis gathered pace.
Chris Williamson, chief business economist at S&P Global Market Intelligence, said Britain is now in the teeth of the worst economic slowdown outside the Covid-19 pandemic since the financial crisis in 2008.
The economy is being spiked by the worst inflation crunch in 41 years, with prices rising 11.1 percent over the year to October.
Pay is failing to keep pace with inflation, putting households on track for the biggest living standards shock on record. The Office for Budget Responsibility reckons real incomes will fall 7.1 percent over the next two years.
That living standards squeeze is expected to drive a spending slowdown, keeping the UK in recession for at least a year. However, experts think the amount of GDP lost during the slump will be small compared to past recessions.
Businesses are being squeezed by soaring energy costs, forcing them to scale back unprofitable activity.
Gabriella Dickens, senior UK economist at consultancy Pantheon Macroeconomics, thinks businesses will have to shed workers to offset weaker spending.
“Firms will move decisively to reduce employment next year, as they are forced to consolidate costs in the face of higher financing costs and weaker demand,” she said.
The pound slumped 0.34 percent against the US dollar on the news. The FTSE 100 climbed 0.24 percent.
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B.C.’s economy forecast to remain steady, despite slower near-term economic growth | BC Gov News – BC Gov News
Like other jurisdictions, B.C. is expected to see slower economic growth through 2023 because of global inflation and higher interest rates, before steady growth resumes in the medium term, according to projections from private-sector forecasters.
Each year, B.C.’s finance minister meets with the Economic Forecast Council (EFC), a 13-member council of private-sector forecasters from throughout Canada, in preparation for the next year’s budget. This is the second year that an additional set of discussions was added, providing an opportunity to consult with an Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Advisory Council to explore how the provincial government can continue to build a more inclusive, sustainable economy and support well-being in British Columbia.
The EFC anticipates the province’s economy will grow by 2.9% in 2022 and 0.4% in 2023; slower than their January 2022 forecasts of 4.2% and 2.7%, respectively. The updated figures are similar to what was presented in the Province’s Second Quarterly Report. Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth is then expected to pick up, with an increase of 1.6% in 2024, followed by gains of 2.3%, 2.3% and 2.1% in 2025, 2026 and 2027, respectively. The reduction in the near-term outlook is consistent with other jurisdictions and reflects persistent global inflation and interest rates rising higher and more rapidly than expected throughout Canada.
“We’re entering this period of slower growth and challenging global economic times in a strong position to continue supporting people, because B.C.’s economy grew more than most last year,” said Selina Robinson, Minister of Finance. “We’ll use the resources we have to address the issues that matter most to people, including housing, health care and building a sustainable economy that works for everyone – but no matter what is on the horizon and no matter what the numbers show, this government will continue to be here to support people.”
Discussions with the EFC and the ESG Advisory Council focused on current events, issues affecting B.C.’s economy and the environmental, social and governance opportunities and challenges facing the province. Topics at the meetings included:
- global inflation and monetary policy impacts;
- government policies to stimulate investment and ensure shared prosperity;
- socioeconomic factors in B.C., such as inequality, Indigenous partnerships, and well-being;
- environment, climate change and the transition to a lower carbon economy;
- housing affordability and supply;
- labour market dynamics and immigration; and
- opportunities for businesses to build on B.C.’s strong ESG profile.
“We are committed to building an inclusive economy, where environmental and social sustainability is the basis for future growth,” said Robinson. “A strong social, cultural and economic foundation is key to successful and resilient communities. We know this, and we know generations will benefit from the decisions we make right now.”
Forecasts and feedback from the two councils will be used to inform the next provincial budget, which will be released on Feb. 28, 2023. EFC members will also have an opportunity to submit revised forecasts in early January.
- In the Province’s Second Quarterly Report, B.C. projected a revised operating surplus of $5.7 billion in the 2022-23 fiscal year.
- Since the summer, B.C. has rolled out approximately $2 billion in affordability measures.
- Environmental, Social and Governance are three main categories often discussed when evaluating sustainability performance, risk-mitigation planning and societal well-being.
To read B.C.’s Second Quarterly Report, visit: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/finances/reports/quarterly-reports
For information about new and existing support measures for B.C. residents, visit: https://strongerbc.gov.bc.ca/cost-of-living/
For more about the StrongerBC Economic Plan, visit: https://strongerbc.gov.bc.ca/plan/
To learn about the ways B.C. is committed to environmental, social and governance principles, read the ESG summary report here: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/government-finances/debt-management/bc-esg-report.pdf
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