Researchers with the Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases at the Cumming School of Medicine (CSM) have discovered which gut bacteria help our immune system battle cancerous tumors and how they do it. The discovery may provide a new understanding of why immunotherapy, a treatment for cancer that helps amplify the body’s immune response, works in some cases, but not others. The findings, published in Science, show combining immunotherapy with specific microbial therapy boosts the ability of the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells in some melanoma, bladder and colorectal cancers.
Dr. Kathy McCoy, Ph.D., is a leading expert on the body’s relationship with the microbiome. She and her team are focused on harnessing the power of the microbiome to improve health and treat diseases. McCoy says to harness and direct that power scientists need to better understand the role bacteria play in regulating the immune system.
“Recent studies have provided strong evidence that gut microbiota can positively affect anti-tumor immunity and improve the effectiveness of immunotherapy in treating certain cancers, yet, how the bacteria were able to do this remained elusive, ” says McCoy, director of the International Microbiome Centre at the University of Calgary and principal investigator on the study. “We’ve been able to build on that work by showing how certain bacteria enhance the ability of T-cells, the body’s immunity soldiers that attack and destroy cancerous cells.”
First, the researchers identified bacterial species that were associated with colorectal cancer tumors when treated with immunotherapy. Working with germ-free mice, they then introduced these specific bacteria along with immune checkpoint blockade, a type of cancer immunotherapy. Research revealed that specific bacteria were essential to the immunotherapy working. The tumors shrank, drastically. For those subjects that did not receive the beneficial bacteria, the immunotherapy had no effect.
“We found that these bacteria produce a small molecule, called inosine,” says Dr. Lukas Mager, MD, Ph.D., senior postdoctoral researcher in the McCoy lab and first author on the study. “Inosine interacts directly with T-cells and together with immunotherapy, it improves the effectiveness of that treatment, in some cases destroying all the colorectal cancer cells.”
The researchers then validated the findings in both bladder cancer and melanoma. The next step in this work will be to study the finding in humans. The three beneficial bacteria associated with the tumors in mice have also been found in cancers in humans.
“Identifying how microbes improve immunotherapy is crucial to designing therapies with anti-cancer properties, which may include microbials,” says McCoy. “The microbiome is an amazing collection of billions of bacteria that live within and around us everyday. We are in the early stage of fully understanding how we can use this new knowledge to improve efficacy and safety of anti-cancer therapy and improve cancer patient survival and well-being.”
“Microbiome-derived inosine modulates response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy” Science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ … 1126/science.abc3421
University of Calgary
Researchers discover the microbiome’s role in attacking cancerous tumours (2020, August 13)
retrieved 14 August 2020
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Deals: Woot Discounts Refurbished Apple Watch Series 3, iPhone 11, and MacBook Models – MacRumors
Apple’s upcoming iPhone-centric event could perhaps be held on Tuesday, October 13, according to information shared with MacRumors by an employee at a UK cellular carrier.
There’s no way for us to confirm the dates at this point in time nor are we sure on the credibility of the source, but even without a rumor, Tuesday, October 13 is a good guess based on Apple’s historic launch timelines, …
SHA warns of possible COVID-19 exposure at Yorkton and Regina businesses – Regina Leader-Post
The Saskatchewan Health Authority (SHA) is warning the public that a person visited two Yorkton businesses and two Regina businesses while they were likely infectious with COVID-19.
The individual visited a Yorkton Walmart four times over the course of eight days and a Giant Tiger once. They also visited a Regina Walmart and Safeway. The dates and times of the visits are listed below.
Walmart, 240 Hamilton Rd.
• Sept. 14, 2020, from 9:10 to 10:30 a.m.
• Sept .16, 2020, from 9:10 to 9:40 a.m.
• Sept. 18, 2020, from 9:10 to 9:50 a.m.
• Sept. 22, 2020, from 9:15 to 10:30 a.m.
Giant Tiger, #30 – 146 Broadway St. E.
• Sept. 17, 2020, from 9:15 to 9:45 a.m.
Walmart, 2150 Prince of Wales Drive
• Sept. 19, 2020, from 2 to 2:30 p.m.
Safeway, 2931 13th Ave.
• Sept 24, 2020, from 10:30 to 11 a.m.
Public Health officials are advising individuals who were at these locations on the specified dates during the specified times to self-monitor for 14 days, and if they have had or develop symptoms of COVID-19, immediately self-isolate and call HealthLine 811 to arrange for testing. The SHA notes that individuals may develop symptoms from two to 14 days following exposure to the virus that causes COVID-19.
Epic Games continues fight against Apple, urges iPhone-maker to restore Fortnite on App Store – Economic Times
SAN FRANCISCO: Epic Games will strive anew Monday to convince a judge that its hit title Fortnite should be restored to Apple’s App Store, despite sidestepping the tech titan’s standard commission on transactions.
Apple does not allow users of its popular devices to download apps from anywhere but its App Store, and Epic is challenging its practice of taking a 30 percent cut of money spent on the apps by users.
The clash comes as Apple puts priority on selling digital content and subscription services to the one billion-plus people around the world using devices powered by its iOS mobile operating software.
The commission dispute has also become a rallying cry for app makers who believe Apple’s App Store policies are monopolistic.
Major app developers including Epic and streaming music giant Spotify recently formed a coalition to press for new terms with the major online marketplaces operated by Apple and Google.
Google runs a Play Store for apps tailored for devices powered by its Android software and also takes a commission, but people are free to get apps from other online venues.
The new Coalition for App Fairness advocacy group said it will seek legal and regulatory changes for the app stores which serve as gatekeepers for much of the mobile software distributed to smartphone users.
The move comes amid rising criticism of the fees and terms imposed by the app stores, and legal challenges by both Epic and Spotify to Apple’s commission for online subscriptions.
A hearing slated for Monday before a federal judge in California will focus on whether Apple should be compelled to put Fortnite back in the App Store while an overarching lawsuit plays out.
Apple pulled Fortnite from its online mobile apps marketplace on August 13 after Epic released an update that dodges revenue sharing with the iPhone maker.
The judge in the case previously rejected an emergency injunction request by Epic, saying Fortnite’s eviction by Apple was a “self-inflicted wound.”
But Epic did not back down from its fight against Apple, accusing the tech giant of being “a monopolist.”
Due to the legal row, Fortnite fans using iPhones or other Apple devices no longer have access to the latest game updates, including the new season released at the end of August.
Stay Fit! Apple Watch Series 6 Wins Over Health Freaks With Oxygen Monitor, ECG & Fitness T…
All Health Metrics At One Place
At its much-awaited September event, Apple unveiled the Apple Watch Series 6, sequel to Watch Series 5, which keeps a track of all your fitness parameters at one place. It comes with various features such as ECG, fitness tracker and can also monitor the blood oxygen levels of the users.
What’s more? Given the Covid outbreak, the company has also partnered with various health organisations to see how blood oxygen level and heart rate can help users stay healthy.
The ability of the Apple Watch to monitor blood oxygen seeks to beat a similar feature already available on watches from rival Fitbit Inc, which Alphabet Inc’s Google is buying for $2.1 billion.
With all the health metrics available at one place, here’s why Apple Watch Series 6 can give a tough competition to Fitbit and emerge as the go-to gadget for all fitness enthusiasts.
Deals: Woot Discounts Refurbished Apple Watch Series 3, iPhone 11, and MacBook Models – MacRumors
Ontario sets new single-day high with 700 cases of COVID-19 – CP24 Toronto's Breaking News
One new case of COVID-19 reported Sunday in Newfoundland and Labrador – Squamish Chief
Silver investment demand jumped 12% in 2019
Iran anticipates renewed protests amid social media shutdown
Richmond BBQ spot speaks out about coronavirus rumours Vancouver Is Awesome
- Health24 hours ago
New COVID-19 cases in Ontario surge to highest level in nearly five months – CTV Toronto
- Tech20 hours ago
Minecraft's next Mob will either be Glow Squid, Iceologer, Moobloom – GoNintendo
- Economy24 hours ago
Trump says the economy is booming. He's right — but you don't feel it – CNN
- Business19 hours ago
Coronavirus Vaccine Could Result in Half a Million Shark Deaths – TMZ
- Tech18 hours ago
New Minecraft Mob To Be Added Based On The Player’s Vote During Upcoming Minecraft Live Event – Happy Gamer
- Health20 hours ago
Three employees of Regulars Bar on King Street West test positive for COVID-19 – Toronto Star
- Health12 hours ago
Montreal and Quebec City will enter red zone soon: Dubé – Montreal Gazette
- News18 hours ago
COVID-19 cases continue to surge in Ontario and Quebec – CBC.ca