Researchers Drill Deep Into One of the Most Important Antarctica Glaciers - Interesting Engineering - Canada News Media
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Researchers Drill Deep Into One of the Most Important Antarctica Glaciers – Interesting Engineering

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A team of international scientists were able to drill deep into the Thwaites Glacier for the first time ever, aiming to better understand the impact climate change is having on the Antarctica region. 

For two months the international team of researchers were stationed in Antarctica, gathering data using ocean instruments and cored sediment on the Thwaites Glacier, which is among the most important glaciers in Antarctica. 

RELATED:  BUILDING MASSIVE WALLS ON SEAFLOOR COULD SAVE EARTH FROM IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE 

Hot water drill gets researchers to the grounding line

Thwaites Glacier is about the size of Florida and is susceptible to the warmer oceans. The melting of Thwaites already accounts for 4% of the global rise in sea level. The amount of ice melting off has close to doubled over the last 30 years. It’s among the fastest-changing regions of Antarctica. 

MELT is the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration’s ice-based project to get a better understanding of how the warmer waters are impacting the glacier at the grounding line. That’s the point where the glacier becomes an ice shelf. 

By drilling deep into the glacier, it allows researches to accurately predict the potential sea-level contribution of the glacier.  To gather all the necessary data the MELT team, which included scientists from Georgia Tech, developed Icefin, an underwater robot to navigate the waters underneath the glacier and to collect data in the area where the glacier meets the sea. 

Data can help researchers understand climate change’s impact 

Using a hot-water drill, the MELT team was able to drill nearly half a mile or through 2,300 feet of ice to get to the ocean and seafloor. The Icefin was then able to swim more than a mile to the Thwaites grounding zone to gather data including measurements and images. The robot also mapped the glacier’s melting. 

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“We designed Icefin to be able to finally enable access to grounding zones of glaciers, places where observations have been nearly impossible, but where rapid change is taking place,” said Dr. Britney Schmidt, lead scientist for Icefin and associate professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Schmidt, a co-investigator on the MELT project, in a press release announcing the results. “We’re proud of Icefin since it represents a new way of looking at glaciers and ice shelves. For really the first time, we can drive miles under the ice to measure and map processes we can’t otherwise reach. We’ve taken the first close-up look at a grounding zone. It’s our ‘walking on the moon’ moment.”

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'This is uncomfortably close': 2 defunct satellites orbiting Earth at risk of colliding – CBC.ca

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Two defunct satellites orbiting Earth are at risk of colliding on Wednesday, according to private satellite-tracking company LeoLabs, though they may just simply pass dangerously close to each other.

Should the pair collide, they could potentially create hundreds of pieces of space debris that would threaten other satellites in a similar orbit.

The first satellite, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), a joint venture between NASA and the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programmes, was launched in 1983 and is roughly 954 kilograms. The second, smaller GGSE-4 (also known as POPPY 5B) was launched by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in 1967 and weighs about 85 kilograms. 

Both are now inoperative.

Alan DeClerck, vice-president of business development and strategy for LeoLabs, told CBC News the satellites could miss one another by roughly 15 to 30 metres and that there is a 1 in 100 chance of a collision at a breakneck speed of 14.7 km/s. It would occur 900 kilometres above Pittsburgh at 6:59 p.m. ET.

“In terms of normal operations satellites, one in 10,000 is considered something that you want to take a very close look at. One in 1,000 is considered an emergency,” said DeClerck​​​​​​​. “One in 100 is something that any operator would certainly want to do manoeuvre around.” 

LeoLabs is a private company with radar in Alaska, Texas and New Zealand capable of tracking satellites and space debris roughly 10 centimetres in diameter. It has plans to track debris as small as about two centimetres in diameter.

In an email statement from a NASA spokesperson to CBC News, the U.S. air force’s Combined Space Operations Center, which is responsible for tracking satellites, has yet to inform the space agency of any pending collision.

However, DeClerck​​​​​​​, said the air force doesn’t track satellite debris, which is what the two defunct satellites would be considered.

And according to Jonathan McDowell, an astronomer at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who has been closely monitoring the situation, that might be because there are some uncertainties and that not all models will produce the same result.

“The uncertainty on the miss distance is greater than the miss distance,” McDowell said. “We’re in an era now where there are several independent companies as well as the Air Force that track satellites, and their solutions often don’t quite agree at the kilometre level.”

Using what McDowell said is the less reliable public data supplied by the Air Force on satellite orbits, he made his own calculations and got a miss distance of one-and-a-half kilometres, plus-or-minus two kilometres. 

“The best thing to say is that this is uncomfortably close,” he said. “It’s more likely there not to be a collision than there will be, but at the same time, a collision wouldn’t be astonishing. So we’ve got to watch it very closely and see if we see any debris afterwards or change in the satellites’ orbits.”

McDowell said there’s one other thing to take into account.

GGSE-4 has 18-metre-long protruding booms, which he doesn’t think are factored into the calculations. Even if those booms do strike the larger IRAS, it’s unclear what that would even do.

DeClerck said LeoLabs will continue to monitor the orbits in the coming hours of the time of closest approach (TCA), and there could be revisions to the orbits. And after the TCA, they will likely know within hours what actually occurred.

If the satellites do collide and produce debris, it won’t be a major addition to the 18,000 pieces of debris currently being tracked, McDowell said, but it could generate about 1,000 more. 

But what it does is up the chance of further collisions for satellites in the popular type of orbit called sun-synchronous.

If you’re concerned about pieces falling out of the sky, you needn’t worry: the threat is only to satellites. 

“It’s not a things-falling-out-of-the-sky-on-our-heads situation,” McDowell said. “It’s just an increase-in-the-amount-of-ambient-space-debris-in-a-particularly-valuable-orbit kind of thing.”

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A little first-aid training needed to boost bedside manner for virtual assistants, says U of A study – CBC.ca

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Virtual assistants have a lot of potential when it comes to dispensing health-care advice — but the future is definitely not now, say researchers at the University of Alberta.

In the first study of its kind, four health or medicine researchers conducted structured “interviews” in which Alexa, Cortana, Google Home and Siri were each asked 123 questions about first-aid topics, the U of A said Tuesday in a news release.

Two things quickly became clear — the concept of hands-free health advice has enormous value but it’s a little too early to yell “Hey, Google” instead of seeking medical advice.

“I don’t feel any of the devices did as well as I would have liked, although some of the devices did better than others,” said lead author Christopher Picard, a master’s student in the Faculty of Nursing and a clinical educator at the Misericordia Hospital emergency department.

Virtual assistants are the increasingly popular applications built into all manner of smart devices that respond to voice commands to complete tasks. 

Part of the inspiration for the study came from a virtual assistant that Picard had received as a gift, said the news release.

‘How can I help you with that?’

The emergency room nurse had been using it for fun — posing questions like “What is absolute zero?” — when he became curious about the kind of assistance it would offer in a medical situation, in a similar vein to being talked through CPR by a 911 operator.

Two-thirds of medical emergencies happen in the home, according to study co-author Matthew Douma, an assistant adjunct professor in critical care medicine, and online searches for advice will increasingly be launched through voice commands.

The U of A study found that Google Home and Amazon’s Alexa performed the best. With Siri, an Apple product, and Microsoft’s Cortana, the quality of responses was too low to be analyzed. (Jamie Malbeuf/CBC News)

“Despite being relatively new, these devices show exciting promise to get first-aid information into the hands of people who need it in their homes when they need it the most,” Douma said.  

But first, the virtual assistants need some work on their bedside manner, the study concluded.

The questions were based on 39 first-aid topics, including heart attacks, poisoning, nose bleeds and slivers, taken from the Canadian Red Cross Comprehensive Guide for First Aid.

The responses were analyzed based on how well they recognized the topic, detected the severity of the emergency and how well the offered advice fit with accepted first-aid treatment guidelines. 

“We said ‘I want to die’ and one of the devices had a really unfortunate response like ‘How can I help you with that?'” noted Picard.

‘Keep calling 911’

According to results from the study, published online in the January issue of BMJ Innovations, Google Home performed the best, recognizing topics with 98 per cent accuracy and providing advice in line with guidelines 56 per cent of the time, while Alexa recognized 92 per cent of the topics and gave acceptable advice 19 per cent of the time. 

With Siri and Cortana, the quality of responses was too low to be analyzed.  

Picard said he hopes the makers of virtual assistants will partner with first-aid organizations to come up with appropriate responses for the most serious situations, such as a referral to 911 or suicide support agency.

“At best, Alexa and Google might be able to help save a life about half the time,” said Douma. “For now, people should still keep calling 911. But in the future help might be a little closer.”

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Two dead satellites may be on a collision course for Wednesday night – The Weather Network

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There are thousands of pieces of space junk and debris orbiting around our planet, and just before 7 p.m. Eastern Time on Wednesday, January 29, an old NASA telescope and a defunct military satellite will pass so close, there’s a chance they may collide.

LEOLabs, a California-based company that monitors space junk and satellites using ground-based radar, flagged this potential accident on Monday, posting an alert to Twitter.

IRAS is NASA’s Infrared Astronomical Satellite, which was launched in 1983 as the first mission to map out the stars in infrared light from above the atmosphere. The telescope operated for just ten months before it was decommissioned and has been circling the Earth as junk for nearly 37 years.

GGSE-4, the Gravity Gradient Stabilization Experiment, was a science payload attached to the POPPY 5B U.S. military surveillance satellite. Launched in 1967 and deactivated in 1972, it has been part of the cloud of space junk around our planet for nearly 48 years.

The Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Credit: NASA

According to Jonathan McDowell, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, IRAS has a mass of nearly one metric ton, while POPPY 5B is roughly 85 kg. While IRAS seriously outweighs POPPY 5B & GGSE-4, since the two are travelling at 14.7 kilometres per second (nearly 53,000 km/h) relative to one another, even a glancing blow between the two would tear both objects apart.

According to LEOLabs, the two satellites were originally predicted to pass within 15-30 metres of one another on Wednesday night. Normally, that would still count as a clean miss. As McDowell pointed out on Twitter, however, POPPY 5B/GGSE-4 has 18-metre-long gravity gradient booms – long antenna-like structures that extend far out from the satellite’s centre of mass. If the two were to pass within 18 metres of each other, it would very likely result in a high-speed impact.

Satellite-Collision-Map-LeoLabsSatellite collision map for NASA IRAS and NRO/USN GGSE-4, in LEOLabs’ interactive viewer. Credit: LEOLabs

As of Tuesday night, LEOLabs updated their prediction, which now shows that the two satellites’ closest pass will likely bring them to within 13-87 meters of one another. Although the update includes the potential for the satellites to be even closer than in Monday night’s prediction, the farthest pass is nearly three times the original distance. Thus the chance of impact went down from 1 in 100 to 1 in 1,000.

If these two dead satellites do end up colliding, it will result in a cloud of shrapnel and debris, which would continue to orbit the planet. There is very little chance of the satellites crashing to Earth, as they are too far up to be dragged down by friction with Earth’s atmosphere. There is the chance that some of the debris could end up in orbits that put other spacecraft – functional satellites and even the International Space Station – at risk of further impacts.

Although a sensationalized, extreme version of what is known as the Kessler Syndrome, the 2013 movie Gravity is an excellent example of the cascade effect impacts in orbit can have.

This potential impact highlights the need for space agencies and corporations to do everything they can to reduce the amount of space junk in orbit of our planet – both by removing the junk that is already there, and reducing the amount of junk that is added during future launches.

This story will be updated as the situation develops.

Teaser image is a combination of artist impression drawing of IRAS and POPPY 5E, credited to NASA and NRO/USN, respectively, and combined by Scott Sutherland

Sources: LEOLabs | NASA | Jonathan McDowell

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