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Screened out by a computer? What job interviews are like without human beings – CBC.ca

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As the coronavirus pandemic continues, job-seekers expect to attend employment interviews online. But increasingly, the employers and recruiters looking to hire are sitting those same interviews out.

Instead of asking candidates questions face-to-face, many hiring managers are now relying on asynchronous video interview (AVI) platforms that have candidates record answers to questions under a countdown timer.

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AVIs, which are also called one-way or on-demand interviews, have been around for years but their use has surged during the pandemic. 

A spokesperson for the American company HireVue, one of the larger companies operating in the market, said the company has seen a 24 per cent increase for its on-demand video interviews during the past year.

VidCruiter’s platform can eliminate the need for logistics such as scheduling interviews, because candidates interview with the automated system at their home on their own timeline. (Submitted by Carlos DaPonte/VidCruiter)

In the same time period, Toronto-based Knockri quadrupled its customers, and Moncton-based VidCruiter doubled its staff.

A representative with VidCruiter told CBC Radio’s The Cost of Living it used to earn 99 per cent of its revenue from clients outside Canada, but that has changed in the past three years. The company said its clients include the CBC, Canadian universities, big corporations — such as Lowe’s — and the federal government. 

Candidates may find one-way interviews uncomfortable, and some experts pose questions over fairness, privacy, bias and the use of artificial intelligence. Despite these concerns, industrial-organizational psychologists predict the one-way job interview format is not going away.

Why hiring managers like the one-way interview

Using AVIs can eliminate having to navigate complicated and conflicting schedules, because candidates complete them on their own time. They can also cut travel costs if candidates are screened out before having to meet a potential employer in person.

One of the reasons why a lot of companies are turning to this technology is because of efficiency.– Edwin Torres, University of Central Florida

Timed questions also force candidates to be more succinct with their answers than they might be in traditional interviews. 

Edwin Torres, a professor in the Rosen College of Hospitality management at the University of Central Florida, has interviewed hiring managers from hospitality companies using AVIs.

“One of the reasons why a lot of companies are turning to this technology is because of efficiency,” he said.

In addition, video recordings mean employers can re-watch interviews and share them with colleagues.

Job-seekers are not as keen on them

Companies claim AVIs can level the playing field by standardizing job interviews, but some candidates have expressed mixed feelings about the format.

Beatriz Gascon, a student majoring in biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of British Columbia’s Okanagan Campus, struggled during an AVI interview for an internship at genetic sequencing company Illumina, based in the United Kingdom.

Beatriz Gascon was not a fan of her asynchronous interview for an internship. (Submitted by Beatriz Gascon)

Gascon said she appreciated being able to re-record answers on the HireVue platform, but she froze during her second attempt answering a difficult question.

The platform submitted her second attempt, but she did not get the internship.

Gascon said she prefers face-to-face interviews because talking to a person calms her nerves and the format is more forgiving.

“Usually you have time to make small talk or repeat the question back to yourself,” she said but was frustrated that during her timed, one-way interview there was no way to do that, and no time to waste at even going over a question a second time.

Experts find some won’t complete AVIs

According to researchers at the University of Calgary, some candidates are so against one-way interviews in this format, they refuse to complete them.

“There are a number of people who feel very passionately negative,” said Joshua Bourdage, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Calgary.

Companies using AVIs don’t need to bring candidates together like they might have pre-pandemic, as illustrated in this stock photo. (Shutterstock / fizkes)

Bourdage and PhD candidate Eden-Raye Lukacik are researching perceptions of AVIs, including searching and scraping websites for comments about the interview format and then analyzing the emotions conveyed.

Many commenters complained that the AVI process may be more efficient for companies, but the interviews signal an unwillingness to invest time in speaking with applicants.

According to Bourdage, many job-seekers are interpreting this as a signal of what it would be like to work at a company that uses an AVI process.

How are the videos and recordings judged?

Since companies’ algorithms are proprietary and not shared publicly, neither candidates nor academics can fully understand how the recorded videos are evaluated. 

Many companies use AVIs as a screening tool before scheduling face-to-face interviews with short-listed candidates, and some use artificial intelligence to rate what candidates say and how they say it.

Artificial intelligence, or AI, can scan for keywords as well as analyze body language and facial expressions.

AI’s advocates claim it can reduce unconscious bias if trained to ignore things like race and gender but this isn’t universally accepted.

“The problem with that technology is that it has biases built into it,” said Sean Fahey, CEO of VidCruiter.

The company’s own research found speech patterns varied in different regions in the U.S. and Canada. For example, an AI system programmed by someone who lived in one of those regions would automatically have a bias according to Fahey.

VidCruiter decided not to use AI in its product until the technology has been proven not to discriminate.

Researchers agree that artificial intelligence can be biased based on who programs it.

“As long as we train those systems on human ratings, on what the human raters tell us about those interviews, it’s so easy to have biases in this data,” said Markus Langer, a postdoctoral researcher in industrial-organizational psychology at Saarland University in Germany.

Langer, who researches AI and asynchronous interviews, said identifying biases is easier with a large and diverse dataset — something that isn’t always available.

How can candidates prepare?

Though Canadians may be comfortable recording videos in a social context, many are unprepared for AVIs according to Kimberley Black, a researcher who hopes to change that.

“Preparation for asynchronous video interviews needs to be a mandatory part of the curriculum now,” said Black, whose recently-defended masters thesis for Ontario Tech University focused on preparing students for asynchronous and one-way interviews.

Ontario Tech University researcher Kimberley Black wants to see asynchronous interview preparation become a mandatory subject for students. (Submitted by Kimberley Black)

Black had college students complete AVIs and critique their peers’ interviews. According to her, the experience led many to realize how much they could improve.

She recommends candidates wear professional clothing, smile, record in front of a neutral background, use hand gestures, and remember to look straight into the camera lens while speaking.

If struggling with that last tip, Black suggests taping a sticky note with a smiley face by the len.

At the University of Calgary, researcher Eden-Raye Lukacik recommends practicing, either by using the interview platform itself where possible or through a practice tool offered by her lab.

Lukacik also said candidates should also present themselves honestly, and pick a time and space that works best for them as they have an edge.

“You kind of get home-court advantage because you’re in your own house.” 


Written and produced by Madeleine Cummings.
Click “listen” at the top of the page to hear this segment, or 
download the Cost of Living podcast.

The Cost of Living airs every week on CBC Radio One, Sundays at 12:00 p.m. (12:30 NT).

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Senators criticize Apple's refusal to testify in hearing on app store rules – Yahoo News Canada

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The Canadian Press

A look at COVID-19 vaccinations in Canada on Thursday, April 8, 2021

The latest numbers on COVID-19 vaccinations in Canada as of 10:30 p.m. ET on Thursday, April 8, 2021. In Canada, the provinces are reporting 259,623 new vaccinations administered for a total of 7,251,427 doses given. Nationwide, 762,766 people or 2.0 per cent of the population has been fully vaccinated. The provinces have administered doses at a rate of 19,133.418 per 100,000. There were 120,390 new vaccines delivered to the provinces and territories for a total of 10,257,040 doses delivered so far. The provinces and territories have used 70.7 per cent of their available vaccine supply. Please note that Newfoundland and Labrador, P.E.I., Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the territories typically do not report on a daily basis. Newfoundland and Labrador is reporting 23,284 new vaccinations administered over the past seven days for a total of 92,235 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 176.145 per 1,000. In the province, 1.85 per cent (9,699) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Newfoundland and Labrador for a total of 129,060 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 25 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 71.47 per cent of its available vaccine supply. P.E.I. is reporting 9,225 new vaccinations administered over the past seven days for a total of 30,937 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 195.027 per 1,000. In the province, 5.20 per cent (8,241) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to P.E.I. for a total of 39,585 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 25 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 78.15 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Nova Scotia is reporting 23,186 new vaccinations administered over the past seven days for a total of 129,809 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 133.015 per 1,000. In the province, 3.12 per cent (30,400) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were 3,600 new vaccines delivered to Nova Scotia for a total of 200,250 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 21 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 64.82 per cent of its available vaccine supply. New Brunswick is reporting 35,004 new vaccinations administered over the past seven days for a total of 135,802 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 174.096 per 1,000. In the province, 1.84 per cent (14,334) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to New Brunswick for a total of 190,485 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 24 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 71.29 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Quebec is reporting 48,736 new vaccinations administered for a total of 1,685,046 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 196.928 per 1,000. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Quebec for a total of 2,358,095 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 28 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 71.46 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Ontario is reporting 108,563 new vaccinations administered for a total of 2,834,784 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 192.986 per 1,000. In the province, 2.22 per cent (326,360) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Ontario for a total of 4,022,875 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 27 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 70.47 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Manitoba is reporting 12,379 new vaccinations administered for a total of 234,509 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 170.304 per 1,000. In the province, 4.79 per cent (66,012) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were 2,340 new vaccines delivered to Manitoba for a total of 409,470 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 30 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 57.27 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Saskatchewan is reporting 10,437 new vaccinations administered for a total of 244,646 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 207.476 per 1,000. In the province, 3.34 per cent (39,430) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Saskatchewan for a total of 284,995 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 24 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 85.84 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Alberta is reporting 23,986 new vaccinations administered for a total of 779,817 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 177.149 per 1,000. In the province, 3.26 per cent (143,625) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Alberta for a total of 1,078,215 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 24 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 72.32 per cent of its available vaccine supply. British Columbia is reporting 38,905 new vaccinations administered for a total of 985,001 doses given. The province has administered doses at a rate of 191.949 per 1,000. In the province, 1.71 per cent (87,564) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were 114,450 new vaccines delivered to British Columbia for a total of 1,403,510 doses delivered so far. The province has received enough of the vaccine to give 27 per cent of its population a single dose. The province has used 70.18 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Yukon is reporting zero new vaccinations administered for a total of 37,969 doses given. The territory has administered doses at a rate of 909.851 per 1,000. In the territory, 33.10 per cent (13,812) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Yukon for a total of 51,400 doses delivered so far. The territory has received enough of the vaccine to give 120 per cent of its population a single dose. The territory has used 73.87 per cent of its available vaccine supply. The Northwest Territories are reporting zero new vaccinations administered for a total of 38,574 doses given. The territory has administered doses at a rate of 854.939 per 1,000. In the territory, 32.07 per cent (14,471) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to the Northwest Territories for a total of 51,600 doses delivered so far. The territory has received enough of the vaccine to give 110 per cent of its population a single dose. The territory has used 74.76 per cent of its available vaccine supply. Nunavut is reporting zero new vaccinations administered for a total of 22,298 doses given. The territory has administered doses at a rate of 575.789 per 1,000. In the territory, 22.77 per cent (8,818) of the population has been fully vaccinated. There were zero new vaccines delivered to Nunavut for a total of 37,500 doses delivered so far. The territory has received enough of the vaccine to give 97 per cent of its population a single dose. The territory has used 59.46 per cent of its available vaccine supply. *Notes on data: The figures are compiled by the COVID-19 Open Data Working Group based on the latest publicly available data and are subject to change. Note that some provinces report weekly, while others report same-day or figures from the previous day. Vaccine doses administered is not equivalent to the number of people inoculated as the approved vaccines require two doses per person. The vaccines are currently not being administered to children under 18 and those with certain health conditions. In some cases the number of doses administered may appear to exceed the number of doses distributed as some provinces have been drawing extra doses per vial. This report was automatically generated by The Canadian Press Digital Data Desk and was first published April 8, 2021. The Canadian Press

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Samsung’s cheapest 5G Galaxy phones yet are launching this month

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Samsung

If you buy through our links, we may earn money from affiliate partners. Learn more.

  • Samsung is launching five new phones in its Galaxy A series this month.
  • Three of them will support 5G connectivity, and the most expensive phone is just $500.
  • The cheapest phone of the five still has three cameras but lacks 5G and other features.
  • See more buying advice on the Insider Reviews homepage.

Samsung may be best known for its high-end Galaxy S phones that rival the iPhone. But the tech giant is proving that it can appeal to cost-conscious customers with the launch of five new smartphones in the United States, the priciest of which only costs $500.

Samsung’s new lineup of budget phones, which debuted in other markets before coming to the US, are all launching this month. Some of them will be released as soon as this week, while the least expensive model will debut on April 29. The launch comes as competitors like Apple and Google have also been focusing on cheaper smartphones to boost sales.

Three of these new Samsung devices also support 5G, another sign that shoppers no longer have to pay a premium to get access to next-generation wireless networks. All five of the new phones also have the traditional headphone jack for wired listening and run on an octa-core processor.

Here’s a look at the new Samsung Galaxy A series phones that will be launching soon.

Samsung Galaxy A52 5G

Galaxy A52 5G_Awesome Black_Front_Back



Samsung

  • Release date: April 9
  • Price: $499.99

The Galaxy A52 5G is the most expensive smartphone of the bunch. It comes with a 6.5-inch FHD+ screen and a quad-camera system that includes some of the same features as Samsung’s more expensive Galaxy S phones. These include Single Take, which creates several different photos or video clips with different effects with a single press of the shutter button.

Its screen can also boost its refresh rate up to 120Hz for smoother scrolling and performance, a feature that has become common on pricier flagship phones but is rare on cheaper models. It’s also the only phone in this A-series lineup to include Samsung’s notch-free screen design.

Samsung Galaxy A42 5G

Galaxy A42 5G_Prism Dot Black_Front_Back



Samsung

  • Release date: April 8
  • Price: $399.99

The less expensive Galaxy A42 5G has a slightly larger screen than the A52 5G, but scales back on certain features when it comes to the camera and screen refresh rate.

Still, it has a triple-lens camera with high-resolution sensors, and like its pricier sibling it also supports Single Take.

Samsung Galaxy A32 5G

GalaxyA32 5G_Awesome Black_Front



Samsung

Release date: April 9

Price: $279.99

The Galaxy A32 5G is Samsung’s cheapest 5G smartphone to date. It has a large 6.5-inch screen, but it’s made from an LCD panel instead of Super AMOLED. That means it will likely lack some of the contrast and boldness of Samsung’s other devices. But Samsung hasn’t skimped on the camera considering this model has a quad-lens main camera, which is rare if not unheard of at that price.

Samsung Galaxy A12

Galaxy A12_Black_Back



Samsung

Release date: April 9

Price: $179.99

Samsung’s Galaxy A12 doesn’t come with 5G support, but it still gives you a lot for the price. For less than $200, you’re getting a quad-lens camera and a large 6.5-inch LCD screen. But remember this phone only has 32GB of storage, so it’s best suited for those who don’t store a lot of photos and videos on their device.

Samsung Galaxy A02s

Galaxy A02s_Black_Front



Samsung

  • Release date: April 29
  • Price: $109.99

The Galaxy A02s is Samsung’s cheapest phone, offering a 6.5-inch LCD screen and three main cameras. It doesn’t have 5G support or as much computing power or camera prowess as Samsung’s other A-series phones, but that’s to be expected for a device at this price. This phone is truly for those who just need the basics and little else.

Sign up for Insider Reviews’ weekly newsletter for more buying advice and great deals.

You can purchase syndication rights to this story here.

Disclosure: This post is brought to you by the Insider Reviews team. We highlight products and services you might find interesting. If you buy them, we get a small share of the revenue from the sale from our commerce partners. We frequently receive products free of charge from manufacturers to test. This does not drive our decision as to whether or not a product is featured or recommended. We operate independently from our advertising sales team. We welcome your feedback. Email us at reviews@businessinsider.com.

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Starving for more chips in a tech hungry world – Electronic Products & Technology

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As the U.S. economy rebounds from its pandemic slump, a vital cog is in short supply: the computer chips that power a wide range of products that connect, transport and entertain us in a world increasingly dependent on technology.

The shortage has already been rippling through various markets since last summer. It has made it difficult for schools to buy enough laptops for students forced to learn from home, delayed the release of popular products such as the iPhone 12 and created mad scrambles to find the latest video game consoles such as the PlayStation 5.

Source: Adobe Stock

But things have been getting even worse in recent weeks, particularly in the auto industry, where factories are shutting down because there aren’t enough chips to finish building vehicles that are starting to look like computers on wheels. The problem was recently compounded by a grounded container ship that blocked the Suez Canal for nearly a week, choking off chips headed from Asia to Europe.

These snags are likely to frustrate consumers who can’t find the vehicle they want and sometimes find themselves settling for a lower-end models without as many fancy electronic features. And it threatens to leave a big dent in the auto industry, which by some estimates stands to lose $60 billion in sales during the first half of his year.

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“We have been hit by the perfect storm, and it’s not going away any time soon,” said Baird technology analyst Ted Mortonson, who said he has never seen such a serious shortage in nearly 30 years tracking the chip industry.

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Is the pandemic to blame?

Sort of. The pandemic prompted chip factories to start shutting down early last year, particularly overseas, where the majority of the processors are made. By the time they started to reopen, they had a backlog of orders to fill.

That wouldn’t have been as daunting if chipmakers weren’t then swamped by unforeseen demand. For instance, no one entered 2020 expecting to see a spike in personal computer sales after nearly a decade of steady decline. But that’s what happened after government lockdowns forced millions of office workers to do their jobs from homes while students mostly attended their classes remotely.

___

Are other factors at work?

Yes. Both Sony and Microsoft were preparing to release highly anticipated next-generation video game consoles for their PlayStation and Xbox brands, respectively, that required more sophisticated chips than ever. To add to the demand, wireless network providers are clamouring for chips to power ultrafast “5G” services being built around the world.

President Donald Trump’s trade war with China probably didn’t help either. Some analysts believe the Trump administration’s blacklisting of Huawei Technologies prompted that major maker of smartphones to build a huge stockpile of chips as it braced for the crackdown.

___

Why is the Auto industry being hit so hard?

Stay-at-home orders drove a surge in consumer electronics sales, squeezing auto parts suppliers who use chips for computers that control gas pedals, transmissions and touch screens. Chip makers compounded the pressure by rejiggering factory lines to better serve the consumer-electronics market, which generates far more revenue for them than autos.

After eight weeks of pandemic-induced shutdown in the spring, automakers started reopening factories earlier than they had envisioned. But then they were hit with unexpected news: chip makers weren’t able to flip a switch quickly and make the types of processors needed for cars.

___

How are automakers dealing with the shortage?

They’ve cancelled shifts and temporarily closed factories. Ford, General Motors, Fiat Chrysler (now Stellantis), Volkswagen and Honda seem to have been hit the hardest. Others, most notably Toyota, aren’t being affected as dramatically. That is probably because Toyota was better prepared after learning how sudden, unexpected shocks can disrupt supply chains from the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, said Bank of America Securities analyst Vivek Arya.

The harder hit automakers have diverted chips from slower-selling models to those in high demand, such as pickup trucks and large SUVs. Ford, GM and Stellantis have started building vehicles without some computers, putting them in storage with plans to retrofit them later.

GM expects the chip shortage to cost it up to $2 billion in pretax profits this year from lost production and sales. Ford is bracing for a similar blow. Chip makers probably won’t fully catch up with auto-industry demand until July at the earliest.

___

How will this affect people who want to buy a new car?

Expect to pay more. Supplies of many models were tight even before the chip shortage because automakers were having trouble making up for production lost to the pandemic.

IHS Markit estimates that from January through March, the chip shortage reduced North American auto production by about 100,000 vehicles. In January of last year, before the pandemic, the U.S. auto industry had enough vehicles to supply 77 days of demand. By February of 2021 it was down almost 30% to 55 days.

___

Will other popular products be affected this year?

Samsung Electronics, one of the world’s biggest chipmakers, recently warned that its vast line-up of consumer electronics could be affected by the shortage. Without specifying which products might be affected, Samsung co-CEO Koh Dong-jin told shareholders that a “serious imbalance” between the supply and demand for chips could hurt sales from April through June.

___

What’s going to prevent this from happening again?

There are no quick fixes, but chipmakers appear to be be gearing up to meet future challenges.

Intel, which for decades has dominated the market for PC chips, recently made waves by announcing plans to invest $20 billion in two new factories in Arizona. Even more significant, Intel revealed said it is starting a new division that will enter into contracts to make chips tailored for other firms in addition to its own processors. That’s a major departure for Intel, aligning it more closely with a model popularized by TaiwanSemiconductorManufacturing Co., or TSMC, which already had been building a plant in Arizona, too.

Compelled by the current shortage, TSMC also has committed to spending $100 billion during the next three years to expand its worldwide chip manufacturing capacity. About $28 billion of that investment will come this year to boost production at factories that have been unable to keep up with the surge in demand since the pandemic began, according to TSMC Chief Executive Officer C.C. Wei.

And President Joe Biden’s $2 trillion plan to improve U.S. infrastructure includes an estimated $50 billion to help make the the country less reliant on chips made overseas. The U.S. share of the worldwide chip manufacturing market has declined from 37% in 1990 to 12% today, according toSemiconductorIndustry Association, a trade group.

But chips won’t start coming out of any new factories built as part of the spending splurge for two to three years. And even as existing factories ramp up and expand to meet current demand, some analysts wonder if there might be a glut of processors a year from now.

___

Krisher reported from Detroit.

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