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SpaceX launches Turkey’s new Turksat 5A satellite – Hurriyet Daily News

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SpaceX launches Turkey’s new Turksat 5A satellite

SpaceX launched a Turkish communications satellite into orbit late on Jan. 7. 

The technology company’s Falcon 9 rocket launched from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in the U.S. state of Florida, carrying the Turksat 5A satellite.

The satellite will settle into orbit in four months and start service in the second half of 2021, according to Turkey’s Transport and Infrastructure Ministry, which said the nation’s frequency and orbit rights are guaranteed for the next 30 years.

The mission marks the first launch in 2021 for SpaceX.

Speaking ahead of the launch, Turkish Deputy Minister of Transport and Infrastructure Ömer Fatih Sayan called Turksat 5A “one of the newest generation satellites that give us the opportunity to improve our capability in space.”

“With Turksat 5A, we would be firstly protecting our orbital rights and we would be providing commercial services by means of broadcasting and communications, especially internet services with the Ku-band to the rural areas,” he told reporters in front of SpaceX’s mission control center in Cape Canaveral.

Sayan said it will take about 140 days for Turksat 5A to enter into its orbit. Then the satellite will be tested for a month. It will be controlled at the Turksat facility in the capital Ankara.

“Built by Airbus Defense and Space with significant Turkish contributions, the Turkish 5A satellite will provide Ku-band television broadcast services over Turkey, the Middle East, Europe and Africa,” according to SpaceX’s website.

The satellite will carry 42 transponders and will be located in an unused Turkish orbital slot at 31 degrees East.

Turkey’s Transport and Infrastructure Minister Adil Karaismailoğlu said last year that new communication satellites, including the Turksat 5A, 5B and 6A, will make the country more powerful in space.

Liftoff was previously planned, but the launch was postponed several times.

Space X,

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Why a faster spinning Earth is expected to make 2021 the shortest year on record – CTV News

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TORONTO —
Scientists say 2021 is expected to be a shorter year than normal with the Earth spinning at a faster rate than it has in the last 50 years.

York University astronomy and physics professor Paul Delaney explained to CTV’s Your Morning that as the Earth’s rotation speeds up, the shift means that time is slowing on the planet’s surface, making each day a “fraction of a second” shorter than 24 hours.

He said in an interview on Tuesday that this phenomenon is likely being caused by climate change.

“There is such [sic] a lot of ice that is becoming liquid and is flowing into the oceans, as a consequence of that you’re changing the way the mass on the surface of the Earth is situated. Instead of a really heavy mass around the pole, you’re melting it and [spreading] it all around the planet, and that is changing the way we are rotating on our axis,” Delaney said.

“When you bring the amount of material, the amount of mass, closer to our rotation axis that actually spins up our rotation rate a little bit faster.”

Delaney compared this shift in the Earth’s mass to that of figure skaters pulling their arms in closer to their body in order to spin faster.

However, he says this change does not mean the timing of one’s day-to-day activities will change.

“We’re talking about a fraction of a second here. People shouldn’t think they’re about to get an hour’s extra sleep as a result of this, but it really is associated with the melting of the polar ice caps,” he said.

While the planet’s rotational speed often drifts around slightly, Delaney said the melting of the ice caps with climate change can alter the global time frame as well as the marking of days.

Due to this increase in rotation speed, scientists report that the average day in 2021 is expected to be 0.05 milliseconds shorter than the 86,400 seconds that normally make up the 24-hour period.

Delaney says adding an extra second to clocks in what is called a leap second can help with this.

“The fraction of a second per day is not going to make much of a difference to you and me, but things like leap seconds have been introduced over the last sort of 40 to 50 years to compensate for this change in the Earth’s rotation rate compared to what we call our fixed frame,” Delaney said.

Delaney explained that leap seconds are irregular, with one second added to the last minute of a given calendar year. Since 1972, scientists have added leap seconds about every year-and-a-half, on average, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

But with the Earth rotating faster over recent years, the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) says no leap seconds have been necessary since 2016.

IERS announced in July that no leap second would be added to the world’s official timekeeping in December 2020. However, a second may actually have to be subtracted in the future in what is known as a negative leap second, which would be a first for the IERS.

While the change in time may not affect every day activities, Delaney says atomic clocks used in GPS satellites do not consider the planet’s evolving motion, which can cause potentially confusing implications for smartphones, computers, and communications systems that synchronize with Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers.

“Most computer systems are expecting 60 seconds in a minute and when you get 61 seconds in a minute, then you can cause computer crashes, so it’s a little bit like having Y2K thrown around in a way that you just don’t expect,” Delaney said.

Because leap seconds are irregular, he says there may be only a “few weeks or a few months notice” that time will be added or subtracted. This can lead to computer glitches and crashes, which Delaney said is a “big problem in our very computerized society.”

Delaney added that this can also be a problem for stock markets. For example, he noted that the New York Stock Exchange went down for over an hour on June 30, 2015 because of a leap second.

“If you’re the person who is on the selling floor trying to transact millions if not billions of dollars, and the stock market disappears on you, you’re not going to be a very happy camper. So there is financial issues that are driving this whole question of leap seconds, and that brings into sharper focus the changing of the day,” Delaney said.

So, what can be done to help adjust the Earth’s rotation? Delaney said there isn’t much people can do.

“The Earth is doing what it wants to do. As we move around the sun, as we rotate on our axis, the rate at which we are rotating is completely independent of what you and I are wanting to do,” he said.

With ice caps melting as a result of climate change, Delaney said the “easy answer” would be to stop the global warming of the planet.

“Let’s keep the ice where it should be so that the rate of rotation is retained in the way that we’re expecting it to be,” he said.

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Satellite breakthroughs will change internet delivery – Troy Media

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Elon Musk’s Starlink low Earth orbit (LEO) network has been awarded US$885 million over 10 years to build out rural internet access in the U.S.

This was the fourth largest amount awarded under the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (RDOF). Testing of preliminary Starlink service recently began. This is a billion-dollar (almost) vote of confidence in a service that is at the preliminary consumer testing stage.

For rural and remote Canadians, does this mean that competitively-priced high-speed broadband access will finally be available anywhere?

For others, new technologies will compete against today’s cable Telco, and independent internet service providers.

But the new LEO services are still a year, two years or more away from full-scale commercial operation, depending on who you ask in the satellite industry.

When Musk first announced his plan several years ago, he said he was targeting 30 per cent of the global broadband access market by 2030s. How? And what makes LEO satellites different from the GEO (geostationary) satellites that have been in service since the 1960s? What makes them different from existing LEO networks like Iridium and Globalstar?

With thousands of satellites, the unit cost is projected to drop because they’re produced by normal industrial processes, whereas geostationary satellites are built one by one, making them comparatively expensive. The LEO satellites only have to be launched a few hundred kilometres above the earth so launch costs are much lower than for a GEO satellite that has to travel 35,000 km to geostationary orbit.

LEO satellites have much lower latency than GEOs because they’re so much closer to Earth. Latency refers to how much time it takes for a signal to travel to its destination. LEO satellites are projected to have latency as low as terrestrial fibre networks and even lower in some situations. GEOs take over 600 milliseconds to make the trip from Earth to the satellite and back.

The new LEO networks are broadband, providing much more capacity (higher speeds) than the earlier-generation Iridium narrow band capability that has delivered satellite phone service and short data messages since the 1990s.

Amazon’s Kuiper program and Starlink are getting most of the press but they’re not the only entrants in the broadband LEO market. O3B (meaning the other three billion people who didn’t have good internet access) has been operating for several years in mid-Earth orbit (MEO), a little higher up than LEO. It turns out that it has been successful in higher-priced niche applications like communications to super yachts than its name implied was its original target. Nevertheless, O3B is operating successfully.

The new entrants have added satellite-to-satellite communications, which should greatly reduce costs by reducing the need for ground stations and double hops. An email going from Canada to China can go up to one satellite and then transfer to other satellites in orbit to arrive at its destination.

OneWeb has also been launching LEO satellites and building ground stations. Recently it went into bankruptcy, and was reorganized and refinanced with the help of the United Kingdom government, as well as private sector participants. Now, OneWeb is building and launching satellites again.

Telesat Canada, founded with federal government participation in 1969, was long described as Canada’s domestic satellite communications carrier. By combining operations with Loral in 2006, it became one of the big four global GEO satellite companies. Telesat also has a major LEO system on the drawing boards and has launched several demonstration satellites. Canada’s federal government has invested heavily in this venture with cash and commitments to purchase service in the future.

There are four or five entrants (if you want to include O3B) chasing the same market with highly capital-intensive technology. Are there too many players for the size of the market? Has the glamour and romance of space attracted too many players? Will there be more big bankruptcies like those in the narrow-band LEO sector in the early 1990s?

To remain viable, Iridium had to be reorganized with virtually the whole of the original investment written off and still required a major commitment from the U.S. Department of Defense for future service. OneWeb’s reorganization is an indication of the risk even though it emerged successfully.

Mergers aren’t really a practical solution if it turns out that there are too many participants. They can’t merge the networks because the technology of each company is incompatible with the others.

With the exception of O3B, we have yet to see pricing for commercial enterprise and residential services.

Although there are still some unanswered questions, these are exciting times in the satellite industry. The emerging LEO systems will be disruptive, shaking up both the traditional satellite industry and challenging terrestrial fibre-optic communications. It could put an end to the digital divide.

Roland Renner is a senior fellow with the Frontier Centre for Public Policy. A former employee of Bell and Telesat, he assists companies competing with Telco, cable, and satellite incumbents, including Hunter Communications, owner of a GEO satellite beam with high-power northern Canadian service capability.

Roland is a Troy Media Thought Leader. Why aren’t you?

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by columnists and contributors are the author’s alone. They do not inherently or expressly reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of our publication.

Roland Renner

Roland Renner

A former employee of Bell and Telesat, Roland Renner assists companies competing with Telco, cable, and satellite incumbents, including Hunter Communications, owner of a GEO satellite beam with high-power northern Canadian service capability.

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2021 will be the shortest year in decades. Here's why – CTV News

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TORONTO —
Scientists say 2021 is expected to be a shorter year than normal with the Earth spinning at a faster rate than it has in the last 50 years.

York University astronomy and physics professor Paul Delaney explained to CTV’s Your Morning that as the Earth’s rotation speeds up, the shift means that time is slowing on the planet’s surface, making each day a “fraction of a second” shorter than 24 hours.

He said in an interview on Tuesday that this phenomenon is likely being caused by climate change.

“There is such [sic] a lot of ice that is becoming liquid and is flowing into the oceans, as a consequence of that you’re changing the way the mass on the surface of the Earth is situated. Instead of a really heavy mass around the pole, you’re melting it and [spreading] it all around the planet, and that is changing the way we are rotating on our axis,” Delaney said.

“When you bring the amount of material, the amount of mass, closer to our rotation axis that actually spins up our rotation rate a little bit faster.”

Delaney compared this shift in the Earth’s mass to that of figure skaters pulling their arms in closer to their body in order to spin faster.

However, he says this change does not mean the timing of one’s day-to-day activities will change.

“We’re talking about a fraction of a second here. People shouldn’t think they’re about to get an hour’s extra sleep as a result of this, but it really is associated with the melting of the polar ice caps,” he said.

While the planet’s rotational speed often drifts around slightly, Delaney said the melting of the ice caps with climate change can alter the global time frame as well as the marking of days.

Due to this increase in rotation speed, scientists report that the average day in 2021 is expected to be 0.05 milliseconds shorter than the 86,400 seconds that normally make up the 24-hour period.

Delaney says adding an extra second to clocks in what is called a leap second can help with this.

“The fraction of a second per day is not going to make much of a difference to you and me, but things like leap seconds have been introduced over the last sort of 40 to 50 years to compensate for this change in the Earth’s rotation rate compared to what we call our fixed frame,” Delaney said.

Delaney explained that leap seconds are irregular, with one second added to the last minute of a given calendar year. Since 1972, scientists have added leap seconds about every year-and-a-half, on average, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

But with the Earth rotating faster over recent years, the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) says no leap seconds have been necessary since 2016.

IERS announced in July that no leap second would be added to the world’s official timekeeping in December 2020. However, a second may actually have to be subtracted in the future in what is known as a negative leap second, which would be a first for the IERS.

While the change in time may not affect every day activities, Delaney says atomic clocks used in GPS satellites do not consider the planet’s evolving motion, which can cause potentially confusing implications for smartphones, computers, and communications systems that synchronize with Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers.

“Most computer systems are expecting 60 seconds in a minute and when you get 61 seconds in a minute, then you can cause computer crashes, so it’s a little bit like having Y2K thrown around in a way that you just don’t expect,” Delaney said.

Because leap seconds are irregular, he says there may be only a “few weeks or a few months notice” that time will be added or subtracted. This can lead to computer glitches and crashes, which Delaney said is a “big problem in our very computerized society.”

Delaney added that this can also be a problem for stock markets. For example, he noted that the New York Stock Exchange went down for over an hour on June 30, 2015 because of a leap second.

“If you’re the person who is on the selling floor trying to transact millions if not billions of dollars, and the stock market disappears on you, you’re not going to be a very happy camper. So there is financial issues that are driving this whole question of leap seconds, and that brings into sharper focus the changing of the day,” Delaney said.

So, what can be done to help adjust the Earth’s rotation? Delaney said there isn’t much people can do.

“The Earth is doing what it wants to do. As we move around the sun, as we rotate on our axis, the rate at which we are rotating is completely independent of what you and I are wanting to do,” he said.

With ice caps melting as a result of climate change, Delaney said the “easy answer” would be to stop the global warming of the planet.

“Let’s keep the ice where it should be so that the rate of rotation is retained in the way that we’re expecting it to be,” he said.

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