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Statement from local Medical Officers of Health regarding the return to school – Quinte News

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Hastings Prince Edward Public Health anticipates the upcoming school year to proceed with minimal disruptions but officials say the risk of COVID-19, along with other infectious illnesses, has not gone away.

In a joint statement with Kingston, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington Public Health, the health units say classroom learning continues to offer the best educational, social and emotional experiences for children and youth.

They are encouraging students to get involved and participate in extracurricular activities.

Officials say parents should continue to screen their children and themselves daily for COVID-19 and anyone with symptoms, even mild ones, should stay home.

Public Health also encourages keeping vaccinations, COVID or otherwise, up to date.

The return to school, especially this year, may be stressful and some students may require extra supports.

Parents can speak to their child’s school or check out the HPE Public Health website for additional supports.

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COVID-19 lockdown linked to HIV spike among some drug users, study says – Global News

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A new study says reduced access to HIV services during early COVID-19 lockdowns in British Columbia was associated with a “sharp increase” in HIV transmission among some drug users.

The study by University of British Columbia researchers says that while reduced social interaction during the March-May 2020 lockdown worked to reduce HIV transmission, that may not have “outweighed” the increase caused by reduced access to services.

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The study, published in Lancet Regional Health, found that fewer people started HIV antiretroviral therapy or undertook viral load testing under lockdown, while visits to overdose prevention services and safe consumption sites also decreased.

The overall number of new HIV diagnoses in B.C. continues a decades-long decline. But Dr. Jeffrey Joy, lead author of the report published on Friday, said he found a “surprising” spike in transmission among some drug users during lockdown.

Joy said transmission rates for such people had previously been fairly stable for about a decade.

“That’s because there’s been really good penetration of treatment and prevention services into those populations,” he said in an interview.

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B.C. was a global leader in epidemic monitoring, which means the results are likely applicable elsewhere, Joy said.

“We are uniquely positioned to find these things,” he said. “The reason that I thought it was important to do this study and get it out there is (because) it’s probably happening everywhere, but other places don’t monitor their HIV epidemic in the same way that we do.”

Rachel Miller, a co-author of the report, said health authorities need to consider innovative solutions so the measures “put in place to address one health crisis don’t inadvertently exacerbate another.”

“These services are the front-line defence in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Many of them faced disruptions, closures, capacity limits and other challenges,” Miller said in a news release.

“Maintaining access and engagement with HIV services is absolutely essential to preventing regression in epidemic control and unnecessary harm.”

The Health Ministry did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

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Long COVID-19 linked with autoimmune diseases, Canadian study shows

Researchers said the spike among “select groups” could be attributed to a combination of factors, including housing instability and diminished trust, increasing barriers for many people who normally receive HIV services.

British Columbia is set to become the first province in Canada to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of hard drugs in January, after receiving a temporary federal exemption in May.

Joy said this decision, alongside measures like safe supply and safe needle exchanges, will make a difference preventing similar issues in the future.

“The take-home message here is, in times of crisis and public health emergency or other crises, we need to support those really vulnerable populations more, not less,” he said.

“Minimally, we need to give them continuity and the access to their services that they depend on. Otherwise, it just leads to problems that can have long, long-term consequences.”

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Sept. 24, 2022.

© 2022 The Canadian Press

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'Similar strategy' needed for global CVD prevention in men, women: PURE – Healio

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September 23, 2022

2 min read

Disclosures:
One author reports receiving speaker and consultant fees from Bayer and Janssen for work unrelated to this study. Walli-Attaei and the other authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

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The magnitude of associations with major CVD for most risk factors are similar in women and men, despite sex differences in risk factor levels, according to an analysis of the PURE study.

In a comprehensive overview of the prevalence of metabolic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for CVD in women and men globally, researchers also found that diet was more strongly associated with CVD in women than in men. However, high concentrations of non-HDL and related lipids and symptoms of depression were more strongly associated with risk for CVD in men than in women. Patterns remained consistent across countries regardless of income level.

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“Existing studies, mostly from high-income countries, have reported that hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease in women than in men,” Marjan Walli-Attaei, PhD, a research fellow at the Population Health Research Institute of McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, and colleagues wrote in The Lancet. “Such findings would imply that women would benefit to a greater extent in reducing cardiovascular disease risk from control of these risk factors than would men. However, the burden of cardiovascular disease is greatest in low-income and middle-income countries, for which prospective data on the association of risk factors with cardiovascular disease are sparse, with a paucity of analysis by sex.”

Marjan Walli-Attaei

Walli-Attaei and colleagues analyzed data from 155,724 adults aged 35 to 70 years at baseline without a history of CVD enrolled in the PURE study, which included participants from 21 high-, middle- and low-income countries, and followed them for approximately 10 years (58% women; mean baseline age, 50 years). Researchers recorded information on participants’ metabolic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors; all participants had at least one follow-up visit. The primary outcome was a composite of major CV events, defined as CV death, MI, stroke and HF. Researchers reported the prevalence of each risk factor in women and men, HRs and population-attributable fractions associated with major CVD.

As of the data cutoff of Sept. 13, 2021, researchers observed 4,280 major CVD events in women (age-standardized incidence rate, 5 events per 1,000 person-years) and 4,911 in men (age-standardized incidence rate, 8.2 per 1,000 person-years).

Compared with men, women presented with a more favorable CV risk profile, especially at younger ages. HRs for metabolic risk factors were similar in women and men, except for non-HDL, for which high non-HDL was associated with an HR for major CVD of 1.11 in women (95% CI, 1.01-1.21) and 1.28 in men (95% CI, 1.19-1.39; P for interaction = .0037), with a consistent pattern for higher risk among men than women with other lipid markers.

Researchers also observed that maintaining a diet with a PURE score of 4 or lower (score range, 0-8) was more strongly associated with major CVD in women than in men, with HRs of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.08-1.26) and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99-1.15; P for interaction = .0065), respectively.

In contrast, symptoms of depression were more strongly associated with CVD in men than in women, with the HRs for symptoms of depression being higher in men than in women (P for interaction = .0002). “The HRs of other behavioral and psychosocial risk factors, as well as grip strength and household air pollution, were similar among women and men,” the researchers wrote.

The total population-attributable fractions associated with behavioral and psychosocial risk factors were greater in men than in women (15.7% vs. 8.4%) mostly due to the larger contribution of smoking to population-attributable fractions in men (10.7%) vs. women (1.3%).

“Our results emphasize the importance of a similar strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in both sexes,” the researchers wrote. “However, the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men might be substantially attenuated with better reductions in tobacco use and lipid concentrations.”

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Blood Clot Risk Remains Higher Almost a Year After COVID – The Suburban Newspaper

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FRIDAY, Sept. 23, 2022 (HealthDay News) — An increased risk of blood clots persists for close to a year after a COVID-19 infection, a large study shows.

The health records of 48 million unvaccinated adults in the United Kingdom suggest that the pandemic’s first wave in 2020 may have led to an additional 10,500 cases of heart attack, stroke and other blood clot complications such as deep vein thrombosis, in England and Wales alone.

The risk of blood clots continues for at least 49 weeks after infection, the study found.

“We have shown that even people who were not hospitalized faced a higher risk of blood clots in the first wave,” said study co-leader Angela Wood, associate director of the British Heart Foundation Data Science Centre.

“While the risk to individuals remains small, the effect on the public’s health could be substantial and strategies to prevent vascular events will be important as we continue through the pandemic,” Wood said in a news release from Health Data Research UK, which sponsors the center.

Researchers found that the risks did lessen over time.

Patients were 21 times more likely to have a heart attack or stroke in the week after their COVID diagnosis. After four weeks, the risk was 3.9 times greater than usual.

Heart attacks and strokes are mainly caused by blood clots blocking arteries.

The risk of clots in veins was 33 times greater in the week after COVID diagnosis, dropping to eight times greater after four weeks. Conditions caused by these clots include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, which can be fatal.

By 26 to 49 weeks after a COVID diagnosis, the risk dropped to 1.3 times more likely for clots in arteries and 1.8 times more likely for clots in veins, the study showed.

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While people who were not hospitalized had a lower risk, it was not zero, the study found.

Overall, individual risk remains low, the authors said. Men over 80 years of age are at highest risk.

“We are reassured that the risk drops quite quickly — particularly for heart attacks and strokes — but the finding that it remains elevated for some time highlights the longer-term effects of COVID-19 that we are only beginning to understand,” said study co-leader Jonathan Sterne, director of the NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Center and of Health Data Research UK South West.

The authors said steps such as giving high-risk patients blood pressure-lowering medication could help reduce cases of serious clots.

Researchers are now studying newer data to understand how vaccination and the impact of new COVID variants may affect blood clotting risks.

The findings were recently published in the journal Circulation.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on blood clots.

SOURCE: Health Data Research UK, news release, Sept. 20, 2022

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