When a group of archeologists excavated reconstructed Iron Age roundhouses that had been used in historical reenactments in Wales for more than 30 years, they expected to learn about the decay processes of these structures.
What they didn’t expect was to discover so much plastic.
More than 2,300 individual pieces of plastic — candy wrappers, straws, a Motorola phone battery, etc. — were found in the ground by archeologists excavating the reconstruction sites.
The Plastic Age encroaching on the Iron Age.
A paper published in the journal Antiquity this week dives into the finds, as well as the implications for what future archeological digs could look like, given the ubiquity of plastic in our society today.
Castell Henllys Iron Age Village is both an archeological site, and a tourist attraction in Wales. The hill fort consists of reconstructed roundhouses that visitors can walk through while learning about the Iron Age, the main draw being that the roundhouses have been reconstructed on the very spot that the structures stood around 2,000 years ago.
As well as attracting tourists, the site is also frequently visited by schools in the area as part of their history teachings on the Iron Age Celts.
But in 2017 and 2018, two reconstructed roundhouses at Castell Henllys came to the end of their heritage life, after 35 and 30 years of use respectively.
The structures were demolished, and the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park — which runs the site — arranged for them to be excavated, “appreciating the value of an archeological perspective for the redesign and rebuilding, and the research significance, of these long-term experimental structures.”
The roundhouses themselves look like pointy hats resting on the ground, with conical thatched roofs. They were used year-round, and were well-maintained. One even served as the location of a short-lived reality TV show called ‘Surviving The Iron Age,’ in 2001, where participants attempted to live as their ancestors did in the Iron Age.
The first roundhouse, referred to by the site as the Cookhouse, was 9.5 metres in diameter, and was first erected in 1982. It was predominantly used to show what a domestic Iron Age house would’ve looked like, with a central hearth, beds and storage, as well as a portable loom for weaving demonstrations.
“Despite the Cookhouse being the most frequently visited roundhouse at the site, relatively little debris accumulated within it,” the paper stated, adding that this was due to the fact that people visited, walked around, and left, instead of partaking in any activities there that might generate trash.
The second roundhouse, called the Earthwatch roundhouse, was erected in 1984 and contained “curved benches around the hearth […] on which visitors—particularly school parties—could sit.
When the roundhouses were demolished ahead of excavation, the furniture was removed and the roof was taken down, but parts of the standing wall remained, as did debris in the middle of the structure.
The roundhouses had been toured by the public for 30 to 35 years, and all of those years showed in the different types of plastic debris found in the excavation.
In the Cookhouse, archeologists found plastic tags with the word “FERTO” on them — the name of a lake in Hungary. The tags had come with bundles of reeds from Hungary to help build the roundhouses with other, local materials.
A metal bowl with plastic tubs of face paint and a tin of beeswax represented materials that had been used by reconstruction actors in demonstrations over the years.
But much of the plastic in both roundhouses was thought to come from visitors.
The vast majority of the plastic found was in the Earthwatch roundhouse. Researchers suggest this was because it was less well-lit, and visitors spent longer in this space.
“Here, they were told stories about the Iron Age, and, in bad weather, would eat their packed lunches,” the paper stated.
Archeologists found plastic cutlery, and an assortment of food related wrappers, revealing the culinary habits of the schoolchildren and other visitors who came to the roundhouses over the past few decades.
According to the wrappers found, a few visitors had snacked on CheeStrings, Pepperamis and Lunchables pizza.
“A complete Golden Wonder noodles foil lid and two other foil-lid fragments were also found,” the paper stated. “A healthier eating choice is represented by 21 plasticized apple stickers, revealing a range of popular apple varieties, including Braeburn, Cox, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Pacific Beauty, Pink Lady and Royal Gala.”
Other finds included plastic clothing items, one pair of glasses, “an almost complete Godzilla-themed thermos wrapper,” bottle caps, sealing strips for bottles, and plastic straws. One of the most common types of plastic found was the plastic wrapping that affixes straws to drink cartons.
“There were 18 plastic straws and 210 fragments of straw packaging,” the paper said.
Candy wrappers made up the biggest single category, however, with around 1,100 fragments found between both roundhouses.
There was no obvious signs of the plastic having decayed at all, which made sense given the relatively short time period they had been in the ground.
In the Earthwatch roundhouse, some plastic was found trampled into the clay floor itself, packed in. Most debris accumulated around the edge of the structure and underneath furniture, in both roundhouses.
Many of the plastic items were in pieces, or torn in some way, meaning several could belong to the same original plastic bag or wrapper.
“The figures thus represent plastic fragments rather than original plastic or plasticized items,” the paper clarified.
OUR PLASTIC ARCHEOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
When archeologists in the future look back on our lives now, plastic may be the biggest takeaway and the largest indication of how we lived, this study suggests.
For this specific example, the plastic found at the Earthwatch roundhouse “vividly reveals the consumption of packed lunches by schoolchildren.
“At Castell Henllys, these items comprise the dominant archaeological signature of contemporary heritage-visiting activity,” researchers wrote.
Researchers pointed out that while there has been a lot of research into how plastic winds up in oceans, lakes and rivers, there has been much less research into the plastic presence in terrestrial locations.
Some contemporary archeology studies have noted plastic in areas where it is expected to collect, such as urban areas and landfills, the researchers stated, but “this study concentrates on what might be considered a ‘benign’ environment.”
These roundhouses — which were built with Iron Age materials and were far away from modern life — were cleaned frequently due to the number of visitors and the year-round use. And yet plastic found its way in.
“The high prevalence of plastic at Castell Henllys is therefore particularly poignant,” the paper said, saying the “sheer quantity of the plastic recovered […] was unexpected.”
Several scholars have proposed before that the “Plastic Age” should be the term for contemporary society due to how the advent of plastic has changed society so much and become such a staple in every corner of our lives.
While this term has not overtaken others used for our current era, it’s clear that an abundance of plastic in the archeological record may help future archeologists date artifacts and sites.
“With many initiatives now pushing to switch from disposable plastic and plasticized items, this may be a narrow but archaeologically distinctive chronological horizon,” researchers wrote.
Scientists just found the oldest supermassive black hole yet – lintelligencer
Scientists have discovered about 750,000 quasars, which are among the brightest and most energetic objects in the universe. Despite its uninspiring designation, J0313-1806 is distinct from other quasars. This recently spotted object is the oldest known quasar in the universe, with a supermassive black hole more than 13 billion years old. In fact, it’s so old and huge that scientists don’t know exactly how it could have formed.
The first quasars were discovered in the mid-20th century, but it wasn’t until several decades later that we began to understand what these objects were. A quasar is an active galactic nucleus in which the supermassive black hole that anchors the galaxy pulls in matter to form a gaseous accretion disk. All this matter colliding as it spirals into the black hole releases a torrent of electromagnetic energy that serves as the hallmark of these objects. J0313-1806, for example, shines 1,000 times brighter than our entire galaxy.
J0313-1806 is far away — 13.03 billion light-years to be exact. That means we’re seeing this object as it was just 670 million years after the Big Bang, and it’s still huge. Astronomers estimate J0313-1806 to have about 1.6 billion solar masses as its observed age. That’s not out-of-line for a supermassive black hole elsewhere in the universe, but they’ve had longer to vacuum up matter and grow larger. J0313-1806 shouldn’t have had time in the early universe to grow so large.
The team used ground-based instruments like the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) to spot J0313-1806 last year. It unseated the previous record-holder for oldest quasar, which is about 20 million years younger. Current models of black hold formation assume a star collapses to form a singularity, but the “seed mass” for J0313-1806 would have had to be at least 10,000 solar masses to reach 1.6 billion so quickly.
The study puts forward a hypothesis to explain the existence of this bizarre quasar, known as the direct collapse scenario. In this model, it wasn’t a star collapsing that formed the supermassive black hole. Instead, an enormous cloud of cold hydrogen gas collapsed inward to form a much larger black hole than any stellar source could produce. This could explain why astronomers see so many gigantic black holes in the early universe.
Unfortunately, J0313-1806 is so distant that we can’t gather much more detail with current technology. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope could, however, be sufficiently precise to image objects like J0313-1806. After many years of delays, NASA plans to launch the Webb telescope in late 2021.
NASA will test-fire its 1st SLS megarocket for moon missions today. Here's how to watch. – Space.com
NASA will attempt to fire the engines on its Space Launch System (SLS) megarocket for the first time today and you can watch the fiery action live online.
As part of a critical test before the rocket behemoth lifts off for the first time, the agency plans to ignite the four main engines on its heavy-lift core booster this afternoon (Jan. 16). The test, which is designed to simulate the core stage’s performance during launch, will take place at the agency’s Stennis Space Center, in Mississippi.
Today’s engine test is the final step in the agency’s “Green Run” series of tests designed to ensure the SLS rocket is ready for its first launch — called Artemis 1 — that will send an uncrewed Orion spacecraft around the moon. That first flight is scheduled to blast off later this year.
The SLS is NASA’s next-generation heavy-lift rocket that will ferry astronauts to the moon as part of the agency’s Artemis lunar program. Launching by the end of this year, Artemis 1 will be the first in a series of missions that will culminate in NASA’s first crewed lunar landing since the Apollo era. That mission, called Artemis 3, could happen as soon as 2024 if all goes as planned.
To that end, NASA is putting the massive SLS rocket’s four RS-25 engines through their paces prior to launch. The agency has been systematically testing each engine and conducting launch-day procedures such as fueling to ensure all systems are working as expected.
The upcoming hot-fire engine test, is the final step in the testing process. On Saturday, engineers will load the SLS core booster with over 700,000 gallons of superchilled propellant before igniting all four of its RS-25 engines at once. This will mark the first time that four RS-25 engines will fire at the same time. (The same engines powered the space shuttle but it took only three to make the orbiter fly.)
Burning for approximately 8 minutes — the duration they’ll burn during a launch to the moon — the RS-25 quartet will generate a whopping 1.6 million pounds of thrust during the test.
“When we ignite the engines, the stage actually will think it is flying,” Ryan McKibben, NASA’s Green Run test conductor at Stennis Space Center, said during a pre-test media conference on Jan. 12. “That’s what it’s built to do. But of course, it won’t go anywhere because the stage is fastened at the same locations where the solid rocket boosters anchored would be anchored.”
As part of the agency’s “Green Run” testing schedule, the megarocket underwent two wet dress rehearsals, during which fuel was loaded, and subsequently drained. Officials said that the tests went well; however, they were not without issue. One of the fueling ops ended early, one was delayed due to temperature issues, and the campaign was also affected by multiple tropical storms as well as the global pandemic. As a result, the agency chose to delay the hot fire test.
Agency officials explained that the delays proved fruitful as the team was able to revise procedures and update the terminal countdown sequence based on pre-flight testing.
The test is scheduled to take place late Saturday afternoon, and that morning, the day will start with a go/no-go meeting where the team will decide to begin fueling procedures. Once that’s underway, a final poll will be conducted at T-10 minutes to determine if it’s safe to proceed with the hot fire test.
The engines will burn for 485 seconds, or roughly 8 minutes. Once the test is complete, a data review will begin, and is expected to take several days, according to NASA’s Julie Basser, program manager for SLS at Marshall Space Flight Center.
“This is the first time we fired up this core stage and this is a huge milestone for us,” she said. We are doing everything we can to ensure that we get the most out of this hot fire test and we are ready for launch. Testing provides an opportunity to learn and make sure that the rocket is ready to fly astronauts to the moon.”
If all goes as expected the core stage will be refurbished and then shipped to Kennedy Space Center to prepare for launch. Its expected arrival is slated for sometime in February, where it will be integrated with the rest of the vehicle already on site.
Currently, the massive rocket’s solid rocket booster segments are being stacked one by one in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Along with the four RS-25 engines, the SLS will be powered by two solid rocket boosters that consist of five segments fitted together. (Each booster is made from recovered segments that were used on NASA’s space shuttle program.)
Once fully assembled, each of the two solid rocket boosters will stand 177-feet-tall (54-meters) and produce more than 3.6 million pounds of thrust at liftoff — the bulk of the power during the first two minutes of launch and flight.
This first SLS rocket will be used for the Artemis 1 mission, which is an uncrewed flight that will send NASA’s Orion space capsule on a trip around the moon, helping pave the way for an eventual planned lunar landing near the moon’s south polar region.
Orion is the third vehicle NASA currently has in development that will eventually fly NASA astronauts to low-Earth orbit and beyond. The first, SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule entered service in 2020 as it ferried astronauts to the space station in May and November.
Boeing’s Starliner crew capsule is expected to launch astronauts later this year, following a successful second orbital flight test. Starliner first launched in 2019, on an uncrewed flight to the space station but failed to reach the orbital outpost following a series of software anomalies. It’s next test flight is scheduled for no earlier than March and if all goes well, then it will carry a crew of three astronauts to the space station later this year.
Having three different astronaut-toting capsules will provide NASA with the flexibility to routinely send astronauts to low-Earth orbit while also exploring the moon and eventually Mars.
Follow Amy Thompson on Twitter @astrogingersnap. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook.
From extension cords to a homemade barge, two Edmonton buddies try everything to extract a petrified stump – CBC.ca
Inside the Paleontology Museum at the University of Alberta, past the giant fish skull at the entrance, you’ll find a relic from the time of the dinosaurs.
The 65 to 75 million-year-old petrified tree stump is the latest addition to the museum, and is a point of pride in this small room in the basement of the university’s Earth Sciences building.
But what impresses museum curator Lisa Budney most is the discoverers of the stump, Mike Lees and Jeff Penney, who went on a costly, arduous, month-long adventure to retrieve it.
“Their willingness to go the extra mile is exceptional,” said Budney. “But also their willingness and acceptance of going through the proper channels in order to make sure they’re collecting things properly.”
“That makes them great citizen scientists.”
The two friends stumbled on the rare find in the middle of Edmonton during a canoe ride down the North Saskatchewan River in October 2019.
The experts were excited, but didn’t have the resources to collect it.
If these hockey dads didn’t move it, it was likely to wash away down the river by the following spring.
“I don’t think I would have ever forgotten if I just left it there and let it go downriver,” Penney said.
Once the two men made it their mission to extract the fossilized tree, they refused to be stumped.
Excitement over find
The day of the discovery, Lees asked Penney to join him for an after-work paddle.
An hour down the river, and a few drinks later, Penney needed to pull over for a pee break.
The spot they chose is on a narrow muddy bank along the river. A steep cliff about 30 metres tall separates it from any walking trails.
Lees liked this place because he would often find shells or fish skeletons here. A minute after they pulled over, he realized he was standing on top of something.
“I was really excited at the time,” Lees said. “You could tell that there was a difference between what was on the outside of the tree and the inside of the tree. It looked like bark, but it was stone bark.”
They sensed this could be a major discovery, so they sent pictures of it to the University of Alberta.
Based on its fossilization and location, scientists were able to estimate the age of the stump: the tree was a conifer from the cretaceous period.
A paleontologist at the Royal Tyrrell Museum in Drumheller, Alta., called Penney to tell him the news.
“I was thinking it’s like two million years old. He goes, ‘Jeff, it’s estimated it’s probably around 65 million years old. It’s a tree stump with the roots and the bark,'” Penney recalled.
Even though the tree had barely moved from its original place for millions of years, the area around the river is continuously changing in small ways.
By spring 2020, a large section of the muddy bank where the stump stood was largely washed away, which is why Lees and Penney feared it might have been lost if they didn’t move it before winter.
The university couldn’t secure any funds to collect the stump without a clear research objective, but Budney, the curator they consulted with, was eager to put it on display at the museum.
“I’ve never seen anything this big come out of our river valley since I’ve been working here,” she said.
No stone unturned
After hours of paperwork and e-mails between researchers at the university, paleontologists in Drumheller and Alberta Environment and Parks, they received permission from the province to move it, if they wanted to.
To make sure the stump was still retrievable, Penney and Lees did some reconnaissance work.
They found a path through the woods that led to the top of the cliff over the stump, which was faster than taking a canoe.
On a sunny fall day, the two of them rappelled down the 30-metre bank, using extension cords from Penney’s truck. The stump was still there — as glorious as when they found it.
On the first attempt to remove it, they borrowed a hunting boat. But even with several men to lift the stump, it was too heavy. They also worried the weight of the stump could sink the back of the boat.
Lees even called Edmonton Fire Rescue Services, but ultimately, they weren’t able to help either.
Then, Lees and Penney recruited some friends to build their own barge. They took a half-dozen 50-gallon plastic drums and strapped them to a deck they built over a few hours. But they worried that the barge would not be sturdy enough either.
“We were using our best creative ideas to make it work, but it just wasn’t happening,” Penney said.
By this time, it was November, and they were brushing snow off the stump. They realized they needed to bring in professionals.
Penney called a company that did on-the-water and underwater repairs.
“Usually when we’re picking something up, it’s a man-made problem, someone’s dropped a truck, people go out and sink boats,” said Bill Stark, a marine operations manager at Northern Underwater Systems. “It’s not someone who lost a rock.”
“Once they explained what they had and the situation, it became more intriguing,” he said.
Penney spent his own money to pay Stark and his crew to remove the rock.
When the conditions were perfect, right before the river froze over, they loaded it onto an industrial boat and brought it to the museum.
A day later and the river would have been filled with too much ice for the boat to travel on.
A place in history
At around 800 pounds, there are very few petrified trees from this era that are this large and well-preserved, on display anywhere in the world, according to Budney.
University paleobotanist Eva Koppelhus was able to take samples from the core of the tree and find evidence of pre-historic ferns growing on its base.
“It’s a great find because it’s often that people find just smaller pieces of wood, but this was a stump and it looked like it was nearly in situ,” she said.
It’s a signpost of a time back when this wintry city was a hot muggy swampland along a seaway.
The stump still sits on the pallets it was dragged in on since it’s too heavy to move without a lift.
Lees and Penney have both brought their kids to see it in person.
“I’ll be satisfied for a long time knowing that people are going to be able to appreciate this thing long beyond my life,” Lees said.
About the producer
Ariel Fournier is an associate producer at CBC Edmonton. She’s produced radio documentaries about a 70-year-old wrestler with a flashy hat, adult adoption and the lasting influence of autotune.
This documentary was edited by Julia Pagel.
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