Researchers utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope have spotted recently quite the unthinkable. Quasars transmitting outbursts of energy have been discovered running through their galaxies. The Space Telescope Science Institute had teamed up with the researchers from the Virginia Tech and realized the recent discovery.
They reported three of the most energetic quasar tsunamis ever detected. Those outbursts not only represent a challenge for scientists, but they also bring vital information to theorists. It has been long known the scientists’ work of trying to comprehend how those outflows form and accelerate. As for theorists, they sought to understand what forces are driving galaxy development.
The Hubble Space Telescope Offers Glimpses Into Quasar Outbursts
The team’s observations noted that the outbursts are 100 times more kinetic energy than the entire output of the Milky Way galaxy. Quasars are recognized as profoundly lightened galactic cores, which researchers believe circle the supermassive black holes.
The black holes don’t discharge the radiation directly, but the radiation occurs when the black hole’s gravity interacts wit the matter close to it. The outbursts from quasars are nothing like that. They resemble some spheres of energy extending outward at a wide length per second.
Utilizing the Hubble Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (measures the spectra or the wavelengths of radiation), the researchers measure 13 quasar outbursts. The spectra indicated them which elements are contained in the outflows, and the velocity and temperature, as well. The measurements of only one outburst’s acceleration, for example, is from 19,000 km/s to 20,500 km/s, approximately 42,5 million to 46 million miles/hour.
“Putting the observed outflows into our simulations solve these outstanding problems in the galactic evolution,” stated Jeremiah P. Ostriker, a cosmologist from the Columbia University. The team has published information on the research in a bunch of papers in The Astrophysical Journal Supplements.
Top Russian space official dismisses NASA's moon plans, considering a lunar base with China instead – CNBC
Roscosmos head Dmitry Rogozin visits the control centre for a launch pad for the Soyuz-2 carrier rockets at the Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia.
Yegor AleyevTASS via Getty Images
The head of Russia’s space organization criticized the current United States plan to return astronauts to the moon as “a big political project,” saying his country is instead speaking with China about establishing a lunar base of operations.
NASA last year announced its Artemis program, the agency’s plan to fulfill President Donald Trump’s order in 2017 to return Americans to the surface of the moon by 2024. Additionally, NASA in May unveiled the “Artemis Accords” — a set of principles it seeks to use as the basis of international agreements with other countries about using and operating in space, especially as the U.S. returns to the moon.
But Dmitry Rogozin, the leader of state-backed space corporation Roscosmos, said Russia does not intend to join any such U.S. partnership. CNBC translated Rogozin’s comments from an interview with Russian tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda, published on Monday.
“For the United States, this right now is a big political project. With the lunar project, we are observing our American partners retreat from principles of cooperation and mutual support, which formed in collaboration with the [International Space Station]. They are perceiving their program not as an international one, but one resembling NATO,” Rogozin said.
NASA and the White House did not respond to CNBC’s requests for comment on Rogozin’s remarks.
Rogozin declared that Russia is not interested in participating in NASA’s Artemis, but hinted that “there are other projects that interest us.” One such possibility for Roscosmos: Joining China in building a base on the moon’s south pole. Rogozin emphasized that he recently spoke with the leadership of China’s space agency about shaping such a partnership.
“We agreed to begin the first steps toward meeting each other halfway, namely by determining the contours and value of a lunar scientific base,” Rogozin said.
The moon seen from the International Space Station on July 9, 2018.
Alexander Gerst | NASA
While he did not rule out partnering with other countries, “including Americans,” Rogozin said that Russia and China intend to lead the development of a lunar base. That effort would in essence compete with NASA’s Artemis plan, which aims to establish a continued presence on the surface of the Moon within the next decade. Despite the recent track record of U.S.-Russia cooperation in space, Rogozin declared China “a deserving partner” for his country.
“Today the relationship between Russia and China is very good. That’s why China, yes, is certainly our partner,” Rogozin said. “The Chinese have grown tremendously in the last few years.”
China has been steadily accelerating its space program in recent years, such as successfully landing a lunar rover on the far side of the moon in a historic first last year.
Despite the shift in Russia’s intentions, Rogozin said existing agreements with the U.S. continue “to be a valuable bridge for cooperation.” He emphasized his good relationship with NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine, which he hopes continues.
“I trust that this collaboration will persist and will be to a less degree subject to the impact of a dumb political environment, which, unfortunately, is what comes out of Washington today,” Rogozin said.
NASA published comments from Bridenstine about the Artemis program’s goals of international collaboration on Tuesday, a day after Rogozin’s interview. Bridenstine highlighted that Japan, Canada and the European Space Agency are each partnering with NASA. Bridenstine addressed Rogozin’s comments in a statement to CNBC on Wednesday, emphasizing “the overwhelming support NASA has received from both emerging and traditional international space agencies” for Artemis.
“Building on our solid relationship with Roscosmos aboard the International Space Station in low-Earth orbit, I’m hopeful there are opportunities for NASA and Roscosmos to expand our collaboration farther into the solar system, including the Moon,” Bridenstine said in the statement.
SpaceX is ‘just at the beginning’
The launch of SpaceX’s first mission with NASA astronauts in May marked historic firsts for both the company and space agency. But for Russia, the SpaceX mission is the beginning of the end of nearly a decade of U.S. dependence on Russian Soyuz spacecraft to send astronauts to the International Space Station. Those Russian flights have come at a steadily increasing cost for the U.S. since the end of the Space Shuttle program in 2011, recently rising to more than $86 million per NASA astronaut.
Rogozin downplayed the SpaceX accomplishment, instead pointing to the track record of the Soyuz spacecraft.
“No matter what is said by the media or our American colleagues, they are only just at the beginning of the challenge of their new manned spacecraft,” Rogozin said. “Right now there is only one space transportation system that has monumental statistics of successful launches, with a proven emergency rescue system — this is Soyuz MS.”
The Crew Dragon capsule sits on top of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at Launch Complex 39-A at Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Friday, May 29, 2020.
Joe Burbank | Orlando Sentinel | Getty Images
In comments more pointedly directed at Elon Musk’s space company, Rogozin emphasized that he believes space is more about function than sleek design.
“In space, one must run not after beautiful goods with wonderful labels, under the music of Bowie, but one must lean, first and foremost, on well-functioning systems. Especially there where it comes to people’s lives,” Rogozin said.
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iN PHOTOS: Comet Neowise captured by Okanagan photographers – iNFOnews
Residents in the Okanagan able to wake up early enough have been rewarded with some great views of the comet Neowise, which can now be viewed in the early evening as well as during pre-dawn hours.
The comet Neowise is turning out to be one of the best opportunities to see a comet with the naked eye since 1997’s Hale-Bopp, considered by many to be the “last great comet,” according to a CNN report.
Skynews reports this week the comet is heading in a northwesterly direction from our point of view on Earth, making it easily visible during the post-sunset and pre-dawn periods.
From today onward, the best chance of seeing the comet will be in the evening sky, about an hour after sunset. It can be seen just over the northwestern horizon, about three fists below the Big Dipper, according to Sky & Telescope.
The comet should be even easier to view this week as it continues to climb a little higher in the sky every night.
CNN says the three-mile wide comet has been wowing people around the globe, calling the opportunity to view the comet a once in a lifetime event.
That’s probably true, as it isn’t expected to pass Earth again for 6,800 years.
Thompson-Okanagan residents are in luck with some good viewing weather for a change this week as well, as Environment Canada’s forecast for the next two nights is for partly cloudy or clear conditions.
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Rare comet dazzles night sky over Saanich Peninsula – Victoria News – Victoria News
As an avid astro-photographer for more than 12 years, James Younger of Central Saanich is more than familiar when it comes to being up at late hours to get the right shots.
But as Younger prepares to spend many hours in the coming days and weeks to capture the comet NEOWISE with his camera, he is far from complaining, especially, if that opportunity comes around only every 7,000 years or so.
The comet has become increasingly visible in northern latitudes and Younger went down to the beach in Island View Park in the early morning hours of Monday (July 13) to take some of the very first pictures of the comet appearing over the Saanich Peninsula’s sky, as it become visible here.
“I found this celestial event awe-inspiring,” he said. “I have photographed lunar eclipses, solar eclipses, auroras, and I have found that this was the most excited I have been for a long time.”
For one, NEOWISE is the biggest comet that he has seen and photographed. It is also something that appears in the sky without any run-up. “For an aurora, you can go out, wait all night and nothing will happen,” he said. “For this, as soon as you got down to the beach, you can see it as plain as day.”
This visibility will only increase as the comet gets closer to Earth with astronomers identifying July 22-23 as the day when the two celestial bodies will be closest to each other, with the comet passing at a distance of some 103 million kilometres, according to earthsky.org.
It will also get much darker as the moon’s luminescence decreases, said Younger. “We are currently at 75 per cent, but as the moon gets down to zero, it’s going to be much darker and the tail should also be brighter and bigger. So it should get better over the next two weeks.”
What also makes the comet special is its relative sudden appearance. Modern-day astronomers (and the rest of humanity along with them) generally know well in advance when comets pass through the solar system. But astronomers only discovered NEOWISE on March 27. “This one came on really, really, really fast. No one knew it was going to happen,” he said.
In other words, it literally came out of the dark, and it won’t reappear again for another 7,000 years. To put this into historical context, the last time NEOWISE appeared in the sky, humans living in the Middle East had just entered the Neolithic age characterized by the domestication of animals, the emergence of settled communities and increasingly sophisticated societal structures, with the proviso that the rest of humanity were still largely living as hunters and gatherers as they had done for tens of thousands of years before. Familiar monumental pieces of architecture from this Neolithic period such as Stonehenge, as well as the pyramids in Egypt and Mesoamerica would not appear for several thousand years.
In other words, watching this comet represents a once-in-a-civilization moment and Younger encourages others to take advantage of the opportunity.
“It’s awe-inspiring,” he said. “It’s really quite breathtaking.”
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