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This lava planet has supersonic winds and hail – The Queens County Citizen

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Lava planets are a class of rocky exoplanets that orbit close to their star, melting their surface parts. In fact, daytime temperatures are hot enough to handle the transport and eclipse spectroscopy, as well as the rock vapor atmosphere detectable by phase curves.

According to scientists from McGill University, University of York, And the Indian Institute of Science Education, the atmosphere and weather cycle of at least one exoplanet are also unknown, including the evaporation and precipitation of rocks, supersonic winds with speeds of more than 5000 km per hour and magma at depths of up to 100 km.

A planet K2-141b, the Earth-sized exoplanet with surface, ocean and atmosphere are all made of the same materials: rocks. Using computer simulations, scientists predicted conditions on K2-141b. Through their analysis cast extreme weather can permanently change the surface and atmosphere of K2-141b over time.

In researching the luminosity pattern of the Exoplanet, the team found that two-thirds of K2-141b experience permanent daylight – unlike the bright hemisphere we are accustomed to on Earth. Since K2-141b belongs to a subset of rocky planets orbiting very close to their star, this proximity Exoplanet Locked in place of gravity.

Speaking by Professor Nicholas Cowan of the Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences at McGill University “The night side experiences temperatures as low as -200C, at around 3000C, the daytime rocks of the exoplanet not only melt but also become hot enough to evaporate, eventually creating a thin atmosphere in some areas. . ”

Rock steam created by extreme heat causes precipitation in the atmosphere. Just like turning on the water cycle Land, Where water evaporates, rises into the atmosphere, freezes and returns as rain, so K2-141b also contains sodium, silicon monoxide and silicon dioxide. The mineral vapor formed by the evaporated rock is washed away by supersonic winds at night, and the rocks “rain” back into the magma ocean. The resulting streams flow back into the hot daylight of the Exoplanet, where the rock evaporates once more.

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Scientists Observed, “The next step is to test whether these predictions are correct. We now have data from the Spitzer Space Telescope that should give them a first glimpse of the daytime and nighttime temperatures on the Exoplanet. ”

With the launch of the James Web Space Telescope in 2021, they will also confirm whether the atmosphere is behaving as it should.

Journal Reference:
  1. T. Jiang Nguyen et al. Atmospheric modeling of the lava planet K2-141b: implications for low and high-resolution spectroscopy. DOI: 10.1093 / mnras / staa2487

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China lands on moon in mission to collect samples from surface – Al Jazeera English

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If the Chang’e-5 mission is successful, China will become third country after US and Russia to collect lunar material.

China successfully landed a spacecraft on the moon’s surface late on Tuesday in the first mission to retrieve lunar surface samples in 40 years, said the country’s National Space Administration.

The space agency said the probe had successfully landed on the near side of the moon and sent back images.

China launched its Chang’e-5 probe which is not manned from the southern province of Hainan on November 24. The mission, named after the mythical Chinese goddess of the moon, aims to collect lunar material to help scientists learn more about the moon’s origins and the solar system more generally.

Hua Chunying, a spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, tweeted that the landing was a “historic step” adding that it would also benefit “international cooperation and the peaceful use of space.”

The mission will attempt to collect two kilogrammes (4.4 pounds) of samples in an area that has yet to be explored on an enormous lava plain known as Oceanus Procellarum, or “Ocean of Storms” and if completed as planned, would make China the third nation to have retrieved lunar samples after the United States and Russia.

The lander vehicle is expected to start drilling into the ground with a robotic arm to collect the lunar material in about two days, according to state media.

The samples will then be lifted into orbit and transferred to a return capsule for the return to Earth, where it is expected to land on land in China’s Inner Mongolia region.

If the mission succeeds it will be the first time scientists have secured samples of lunar rocks since Russia (then the Soviet Union) brought material back in the 1970s.

China sent its first astronaut into space in 2003 and made its first lunar landing 10 years later. In January last year, the Chang’e-4 probe touched down on the far side of the moon, the first space probe from any nation to do so and in July it launched a spacecraft to Mars to search for water.

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China lands on moon in mission to collect samples from surface – Aljazeera.com

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If the Chang’e-5 mission is successful, China will become third country after US and Russia to collect lunar material.

China successfully landed a spacecraft on the moon’s surface late on Tuesday in the first mission to retrieve lunar surface samples in 40 years, said the country’s National Space Administration.

The space agency said the probe had successfully landed on the near side of the moon and sent back images.

China launched its Chang’e-5 probe which is not manned from the southern province of Hainan on November 24. The mission, named after the mythical Chinese goddess of the moon, aims to collect lunar material to help scientists learn more about the moon’s origins and the solar system more generally.

Hua Chunying, a spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, tweeted that the landing was a “historic step” adding that it would also benefit “international cooperation and the peaceful use of space.”

The mission will attempt to collect two kilogrammes (4.4 pounds) of samples in an area that has yet to be explored on an enormous lava plain known as Oceanus Procellarum, or “Ocean of Storms” and if completed as planned, would make China the third nation to have retrieved lunar samples after the United States and Russia.

The lander vehicle is expected to start drilling into the ground with a robotic arm to collect the lunar material in about two days, according to state media.

The samples will then be lifted into orbit and transferred to a return capsule for the return to Earth, where it is expected to land on land in China’s Inner Mongolia region.

If the mission succeeds it will be the first time scientists have secured samples of lunar rocks since Russia (then the Soviet Union) brought material back in the 1970s.

China sent its first astronaut into space in 2003 and made its first lunar landing 10 years later. In January last year, the Chang’e-4 probe touched down on the far side of the moon, the first space probe from any nation to do so and in July it launched a spacecraft to Mars to search for water.

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Arecibo Observatory Telescope Collapses, Ending An Era Of World-Class Research – KCCU

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The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico has collapsed, after weeks of concern from scientists over the fate of what was once the world’s largest single-dish radio telescope. Arecibo’s 900-ton equipment platform, suspended 500 feet above the dish, fell overnight after the last of its healthy support cables failed to keep it in place.

No injuries were reported, according to the National Science Foundation, which oversees the renowned research facility.

“NSF is saddened by this development,” the agency said. “As we move forward, we will be looking for ways to assist the scientific community and maintain our strong relationship with the people of Puerto Rico.”

The Arecibo Observatory had been slated last month to be withdrawn from service, with the NSF citing the risk of an “uncontrolled collapse” because of failures in the cables that suspended the platform and its huge Gregorian dome above the 1,000-foot-wide reflector dish.

The telescope’s trademark dish, nestled amid thick tropical forest, was left with a huge gash in August after a cable fell and slashed through its panels. After a main cable snapped in early November, officials said they saw no way to safely preserve the unstable structure.

Instead, they were hoping to keep the visitors center and other buildings operational. But they also noted it would take weeks to work out the technical details of a plan.

Ángel Vázquez, the observatory’s director of telescope operations, says he was in the control room area when equipment began to plummet to the ground. In an interview that was posted to Twitter by scientist Wilbert Andrés Ruperto, Vázquez says he and other staff members had been in the process of removing valuable equipment when they heard a loud bang outside.

“When we looked outside the control room, we started to see the eventual downfall of the observatory,” Vázquez said. He added that strands of the remaining three cables had been unraveling in recent days, increasing the strain. And because two of the support towers maintained tension as the collapse occurred, some of the falling equipment was yanked across the side of the dish rather than falling straight down through its focal point.

“This whole process took 30 seconds,” Vázquez said, “and an unfortunate icon in radio astronomy was done.”

Vázquez said he has worked at the facility for 43 years, starting soon after college.

The massive reflector dish is made up of perforated aluminum panels, leaving an expanse of greenery underneath. But many of those panels have now fallen to the ground.

A record of discovery

In Arecibo’s nearly 60 years of operation, the observatory’s powerful capabilities made it a popular choice for researchers chasing breakthroughs in radio astronomy and atmospheric science. It was used for projects from sniffing out gravitational waves in space to tracking down potentially habitable planets far from Earth.

Arecibo’s legacy includes the detection of the first binary pulsar in 1974 — a discovery that bolstered a key idea in Einstein’s general theory of relativity and that earned two physicists the 1993 Nobel Prize in physics.

The observatory has been an inspiration to many. For its neighbors in Puerto Rico and for people worldwide, it has been a literal link between the terrestrial and the extraterrestrial. And in movies and art, it has been depicted as both Earth’s doorbell and its peephole into outer space.

Pierce Brosnan clambered around its ladders in the James Bond film GoldenEye. Jodie Foster marveled at its otherworldly promise in Contact. And in 1974, it was used to beam a “Hello” message into space.

Researchers have been mourning the telescope’s loss since the NSF announced its looming demise last month. Astronomer Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute compared it to learning your high school has burned down or to losing a big brother. Doing research at the facility was like going to a wonderful summer camp, he wrote in a recent farewell message to Arecibo.

“While life will continue, something powerful and profoundly wonderful is gone,” Shostak said.

Here’s how planetary scientist Ed Rivera-Valentin described one aspect of Arecibo’s importance earlier this year, on NPR’s Short Wave podcast:

“One of the really neat things about the Arecibo Observatory is that it’s a very versatile scientific instrument. Most telescopes, most radio telescopes, don’t have the ability to send out light. They only capture light. At the observatory, we can send and capture light. When an asteroid’s coming by, we are pretty much a flashlight that we turn on. We send radar out to it, and that radar comes back. … We can tell you how far these objects are down to a few meters.

“And we care about where these asteroids are going to be because what if, one day, this thing comes around and gets too close to Earth? But if we can let people know this is going to happen next year, we can actually prepare for it. Like, the dinosaurs — they didn’t have a space program, so they didn’t get to prepare for anything.”

The idea for the observatory was conceived in the late 1950s by Cornell University professor William E. Gordon, who was looking to build a huge tool to explore the Earth’s atmosphere and the composition of nearby planets and moons.

The site in Puerto Rico was chosen “to take advantage of the vicinity to the equator and of the topography of the terrain, which provided a nearly spherical valley and minimized excavation,” according to a lecture by longtime Cornell astronomy professor Martha Haynes.

The telescope underwent major upgrades in the 1970s and 1990s, allowing researchers to expand its role. Built with federal funds, Arecibo was managed for decades by Cornell before the University of Central Florida took up that role.

Arecibo and Puerto Rico have withstood natural calamities in recent years, including Hurricane Maria in 2017 and a series of earthquakes this year.

Copyright 2020 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org.

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