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This Week @NASA: World’s First Planetary Defense Test and Jupiter’s Icy Moon Europa – SciTechDaily

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The world’s first-ever planetary defense test is a big hit …

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A major hurricane spotted from space …

And moving <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

NASA
Established in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government that succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). It is responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. Its vision is &quot;To discover and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity.&quot; Its core values are &quot;safety, integrity, teamwork, excellence, and inclusion.&quot;

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>NASA’s mega Moon rocket back inside ahead of that storm … a few of the stories to tell you about – This Week at NASA!

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Successful Impact for First-Ever Planetary Defense Test

On September 26, NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART spacecraft successfully impacted Dimorphos – the asteroid the spacecraft had been on a collision course with for about 10 months.

“Waiting … (applause) … and we have impact!”

DART’s intentional crash into Dimorphos, a moonlet of a larger asteroid called Didymos, was an attempt to alter the course of an asteroid in space as part of the world’s first planetary defense technology demonstration. The DART team will observe Dimorphos with ground-based telescopes to confirm that the technique, known as kinetic impact, did indeed alter the moonlet’s orbit around Didymos. The cosmic collision was actually captured by NASA’s Hubble and Webb space telescopes, marking the first time that Webb and Hubble observed the same celestial target at the same time. Neither of these asteroids is a threat to Earth, but this technique could prove to be a reliable way to alter the course of an asteroid that is on a collision course with Earth in the future.

Hurricane Ian From International Space Station

Hurricane Ian is pictured approaching the west coast of Florida as a category 4 storm. The International Space Station was orbiting 259 miles above the Gulf of Mexico at the time of this photograph. Credit: NASA

Hurricane Ian Seen from the Space Station

On September 26, external cameras aboard the International Space Station captured views of Hurricane Ian just south of Cuba as the storm moved toward the north-northwest. As expected, Ian intensified as it approached Florida. Space station cameras caught the storm again on September 28 as it was making landfall in southwest Florida as a Category 4 storm with winds upward of 155 mph and a potentially catastrophic storm surge.

Artemis I WDR Rollout

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard atop a mobile launcher as it rolls out to Launch Complex 39B. Credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

Artemis I Rocket Rolled Back Inside Ahead of Hurricane Ian

On the night of September 26, the team at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center began moving the Artemis I Moon rocket from launch pad 39B back to the Vehicle Assembly Building, or VAB. The Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft were secured inside the VAB the next morning. Managers decided on the “roll back” due to weather predictions related to Hurricane Ian. In addition to protecting the integrated rocket and spacecraft, they also wanted to give employees time to address the needs of their families ahead of the storm.

Jupiter Moon Europa Juno 2022 Crop

The complex, ice-covered surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa was captured by NASA’s Juno spacecraft during a flyby on Sept. 29, 2022. At closest approach, the spacecraft came within a distance of about 219 miles (352 kilometers). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SWRI/MSSS

Juno’s Close Flyby of <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Jupiter
Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth planet from the sun. It is a gas giant with a mass greater then all of the other planets combined. Its name comes from the Roman god Jupiter.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Jupiter’s Icy Moon Europa

The spacecraft for NASA’s Juno mission at Jupiter made a close flyby of the planet’s ice-covered moon, Europa on September 29. This image from the pass, some 220 miles above Europa’s surface, is the first to come of some of the highest-resolution images ever taken of portions of the moon. Valuable data are also expected from the flyby that, once processed, could benefit and inform future missions, like the agency’s Europa Clipper mission, which is targeted to launch in 2024 to study the icy moon. More information is available at: nasa.gov/juno.

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As NASA prepares to send humans back to the Moon and beyond to <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Mars
Mars is the second smallest planet in our solar system and the fourth planet from the sun. It is a dusty, cold, desert world with a very thin atmosphere. Iron oxide is prevalent in Mars' surface resulting in its reddish color and its nickname &quot;The Red Planet.&quot; Mars' name comes from the Roman god of war.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Mars, inflatable habitats are concepts being considered for Lunar Surface Habitats and Mars Transit Habitats. Burst pressure tests are necessary to meet human safety certification, and engineers use them to determine the ability of the habitat to withstand internal pressure and the maximum internal pressure required to cause failure of the habitat’s woven, structural shell. The test, conducted in collaboration with Sierra Space and ILC Dover, took place at NASA’s Johnson Space Center as part of the NextSTEP-2 Habitat Systems contract managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. Credit: NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center

Inflatable Habitat Burst Pressure Test

Believe it or not, these inflatable habitats are being blown up to help make them safe for humans. Habitats like these could be used to house astronauts on future long-term surface exploration missions to the Moon and, eventually Mars. But before then, NASA and commercial partners are conducting burst pressure tests to determine the maximum internal pressure these habitats can safely withstand before they fail.

That’s what’s up this week @NASA …

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New branch on tree of life includes ‘lions of the microbial world’

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There’s a new branch on the tree of life and it’s made up of predators that nibble their prey to death.

These microbial predators fall into two groups, one of which researchers have dubbed “nibblerids” because they, well, nibble chunks off their prey using tooth-like structures. The other group, nebulids, eat their prey whole. And both comprise a new ancient branch on the tree of life called “Provora,” according to a paper published today in Nature.

Microbial lions

Like lions, cheetahs, and more familiar predators, these microbes are numerically rare but important to the ecosystem, says senior author Dr. Patrick Keeling, professor in the UBC department of botany. “Imagine if you were an alien and sampled the Serengeti: you would get a lot of plants and maybe a gazelle, but no lions. But lions do matter, even if they are rare. These are lions of the microbial world.”

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Using water samples from marine habitats around the world, including the coral reefs of Curaçao, sediment from the Black and Red seas, and water from the northeast Pacific and Arctic oceans, the researchers discovered new microbes. “I noticed that in some water samples there were tiny organisms with two flagella, or tails, that convulsively spun in place or swam very quickly. Thus began my hunt for these microbes,” said first author Dr. Denis Tikhonenkov, senior researcher at the Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Tikhonenkov, a long-time collaborator of the UBC co-authors, noticed that in samples where these microbes were present, almost all others disappeared after one to two days. They were being eaten. Dr. Tikhonenkov fed the voracious predators with pre-grown peaceful protozoa, cultivating the organisms in order to study their DNA.

“In the taxonomy of living organisms, we often use the gene ’18S rRNA’ to describe genetic difference. For example, humans differ from guinea pigs in this gene by only six nucleotides. We were surprised to find that these predatory microbes differ by 170 to 180 nucleotides in the 18S rRNA gene from every other living thing on Earth. It became clear that we had discovered something completely new and amazing,” Dr. Tikhonenkov said.

New branch of life

On the tree of life, the animal kingdom would be a twig growing from one of the boughs called “domains,” the highest category of life. But sitting under domains, and above kingdoms, are branches of creatures that biologists have taken to calling “supergroups.” About five to seven have been found, with the most recent in 2018 — until now.

Understanding more about these potentially undiscovered branches of life helps us understand the foundations of the living world and just how evolution works.

“Ignoring microbial ecosystems, like we often do, is like having a house that needs repair and just redecorating the kitchen, but ignoring the roof or the foundations,” said Dr. Keeling. “This is an ancient branch of the tree of life that is roughly as diverse as the animal and fungi kingdoms combined, and no one knew it was there.”

The researchers plan to sequence whole genomes of the organisms, as well as build 3D reconstructions of the cells, in order to learn about their molecular organization, structure and eating habits.

International culture

Culturing the microbial predators was no mean feat, since they require a mini-ecosystem with their food and their food’s food just to survive in the lab. A difficult process in itself, the cultures were initially grown in Canada and Russia, and both COVID and Russia’s war with Ukraine prevented Russian scientists from visiting the lab in Canada in recent years, slowing down the collaboration.

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How A Hellish Planet Made Of Diamonds Covered By A Lava Ocean Got Where It Is Today

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In recent decades it’s become clear that the universe is teeming with planets and astronomers have begun to catalog them by the hundreds. Most of the worlds we’ve discovered so far are remarkably inhospitable and the closer we look at some, the more hellacious they seem to appear.

Case in point is 55 Cancri e, also known as 55 Cnc or by its nickname, Janssen. This world orbits so close to its star, known as Copernicus or 55 Cnc, that a year on its surface passes in only 18 hours and temperatures can soar over 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Enduring such extreme conditions for so long has led scientists to suggest that the scalding world could have an interior full of diamonds, covered by a surface ocean of molten lava.

Makes Mauna Loa seem almost minor league on the cosmic scale of volcanism.

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There’s a reason that we keep spotting so many relatively hot planets next to their stars. Call it an inherent bias of our existing tech: it’s just easier to see planets orbiting close in to their stars.

In fact, most exoplanets discovered and cataloged so far have a very good chance of being so-called “hot Jupiters” — giant planets orbiting close-in. Being massive and next to your local source of light makes you especially easy to spot.

So 55 Cancri e is actually an important exoplanet as one of the first small, rocky planets found orbiting extremely close to its star.

Now researchers have made use of a new tool called EXPRES (for EXtreme PREcision Spectrometer) at the Lowell Discovery Telescope in Arizona to make ultra-precise measurements that helped them determine the orbit of this hellish world in more detail.

They found that the planet orbits Copernicus right along the equator of the star and that it likely originally orbited further out and was slowly pulled into its current alignment by the gravitational pull of the star and other objects in the unusual star system.

The system is located only 40 light years from Earth and consists of main-sequence star Copernicus paired with a red dwarf star. The binary duo also count at least five exoplanets that all have very different orbits among their cosmic family.

The new research, led by Lily Zhao at Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics and published in Nature Astronomy, posits that the interactions between these oddball family members shifted Janssen to its current, insufferable orbit.

Although it was pushed, pulled and prodded into its current position, Zhao says that even in its original orbit, the planet “was likely so hot that nothing we’re aware of would be able to survive on the surface.”

What a waste of so much diamond.

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Rare Mars eclipse by the full moon wows stargazers with occultation

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On Wednesday (Dec. 7), skywatchers around the world were treated to a celestial show as the full moon eclipsed Mars in the night sky.

The rare event, known as a lunar occultation, refers to one celestial body — in this case, Mars — appearing to disappear or hide behind another — in this case, the moon. This occultation was particularly noteworthy because Mars was at opposition, meaning Earth was directly between it and the sun, making the Red Planet appear particularly bright in the night sky.

Last night’s occultation of Mars by the full moon produced some gorgeous images from observers around the world. The Griffith Observatory in California had a great view of the moon and Mars joining up on Dec. 7 and caught a time-lapse of the Red Planet disappearing behind Earth’s celestial companion as seen in the video above.

In addition, skywatchers around the world have been posting gorgeous images of the lunar occultation of Mars on social media, offering a look at one of the year’s most-watched celestial events.

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Astrophotographer Andrew McCarthy caught Mars and the full moon (opens in new tab) in a beautiful close-up:

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Spaceflight photographer John Kraus caught a stunning shot of Mars (opens in new tab) as it appeared behind the moon following occultation:

Amateur astrophotographer Tom Williams produced a gorgeous image of the moon and Mars by combining multiple photographs, and offered an explanation of how he made the image (opens in new tab) on Twitter.

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Amateur astronomer and photographer Tom Glenn produced a breathtaking image of Mars (opens in new tab) rising above the moon by stacking 15 different photograph frames.

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Astronomer and science communicator Phil Plait caught Mars creeping behind the moon (opens in new tab) just prior to occultation.

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The lunar occultation of Mars by the full Cold Moon was particularly noteworthy because the Red Planet only appears at opposition every 26 months, so the next opposition won’t occur until January 2025.

Mars was also especially close to Earth during this event, which occurred while the planet was at perigee, or its closest point to Earth in its orbit. The record for closest approach between Mars and Earth was set in 2003 at just 34.8 million miles (56 million kilometers); according to NASA, Mars and Earth won’t be this close for another 265 years, until 2287.

Editor’s Note: If you snap a great photo of either Mars at opposition or the lunar occultation and would like to share it with Space.com’s readers, send your photo(s), comments, and your name and location to spacephotos@space.com

Editor’s Note: This piece was updated at 4:30 p.m. EST (2130 GMT) on Dec. 8 to indicate that the record for Mars’ closest approach to Earth was set in 2003.

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