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Peru’s political crisis since removal of Pedro Castillo



Peru is in the grips of a deepening political crisis, which began in early December with the impeachment of former President Pedro Castillo.

The Peruvian legislature voted on December 7 to remove Castillo from office after the left-wing leader announced plans to dissolve Congress and rule by decree.

His removal, and subsequent arrest and detention on allegations of “conspiracy” and “rebellion”, have sparked widespread protests and spurred the government to declare a nationwide state of emergency.

Here, Al Jazeera lays out how the unrest has unfolded:


December 7, 2022

Castillo, a former teacher and union leader from rural Peru who took office last year, announces plans to “temporarily” dissolve Congress ahead of the third impeachment attempt of his embattled presidency.

He argues the move aims to “reestablish the rule of law and democracy” in the country. But opposition politicians and other observers slam his announcement as contrary to Peru’s constitution, and Congress overwhelmingly votes in favour of removing Castillo.

Shortly after the vote, Castillo is arrested by police and Congress swears in his former vice president, Dina Boluarte, as Peru’s first female president.

Protesters gather in the capital, Lima, to support Castillo, while others celebrate his removal.

December 8, 2022

A Peruvian judge orders Castillo to be detained for seven days as authorities investigate charges of “rebellion and conspiracy” against him. He is held at a police facility near the capital, Lima, where former President Alberto Fujimori is also arrested.

Castillo’s defence team argues he was arbitrarily removed from the presidency on trumped-up charges of rebellion.

“It is clear that the crime of rebellion was not committed” because it did not materialise, one of his lawyers says.

Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador reveals that Castillo had called his office to request asylum in his country’s embassy, which he planned to grant, but the Peruvian leader was arrested before arriving.

Boluarte, Peru’s new president, pleads for a “truce” after years of political chaos. After initially saying she would serve out Castillo’s remaining three-and-a-half years as president, she suggests that calls for early elections among Castillo supporters are “respectable”.

Peru’s new President Dina Boluarte waves to the press as she leaves her home in Lima, December 8, 2022 [Martin Mejia/AP Photo]

December 9, 2022

More protests break out, particularly in rural areas that make up Castillo’s strongholds.

Local television shows footage of hundreds of farmers blocking a stretch of Peru’s main coastal highway to demand early elections. And in Lima, several hundred protesters trying to reach the Congress building clash with police, who use canes and tear gas to push them back.

The protesters are demanding Castillo’s release from prison, as well as early elections, the dissolution of Congress, and Boluarte’s removal.

“We have no authorities. We have nothing,” says Juana Ponce, one of the protesters. “It is a national shame. All these corrupt congressmen have sold out. They have betrayed our president, Pedro Castillo.”

Peru protesters in Lima
Demonstrators gather during a protest demanding presidential elections and the closure of Congress, December 9, 2022 [Sebastian Castaneda/Reuters]

December 10-11, 2022

Boluarte names her new cabinet. She appoints former state prosecutor Pedro Angulo as prime minister and diplomat Ana Cecilia Gervasi as foreign minister, among others.

The protests continue in several cities in Peru’s interior, including Cajamarca, Arequipa, Huancayo, Cusco and Puno, and the first deaths linked to the unrest are reported.

Clashes on December 11 between protesters and police in the southern city of Andahuaylas leave two dead and at least five injured – including a police officer – as demonstrators attempted to storm that city’s airport.

December 12, 2022

Boluarte announces plans to move elections forward to April 2024 in a bid to quell the unrest. She also declares a state of emergency in areas of “high conflict”, allowing soldiers to take more control.

But the demonstrations expand, most notably in Peru’s northern and Andean towns, and the death toll rises to at least six. Hundreds of protesters block an airport runway in the country’s second-largest city, Arequipa. Flights are cancelled and interprovincial transportation is also suspended.

Amnesty International urges the Peruvian authorities to “put an end to the excessive use of force against demonstrations and guarantee the right to peaceful protest”.

Meanwhile, Castillo releases a handwritten letter on social media that calls his successor, Boluarte, a “usurper”. The former president vows he “will not resign” and says “the people should not fall for their dirty games of new elections”.

The governments of Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Bolivia issue a joint communique in support of the ex-president.

December 13, 2022

Supreme Court Judge Cesar San Martin Castro rejects Castillo’s appeal to end his preventive detention as authorities build their case against him.

The judge says the former president’s effort to dissolve Congress was “not a mere act of speech, but the concrete expression of a will to alter the constitutional system and the configuration of public powers”.

Earlier in the day, Castillo says he is being “unjustly and arbitrarily detained”. He thanks his supporters for taking to the streets and calls on Peru’s police and armed forces to “lay down their arms and stop killing these people thirsty for justice”.

“We have one simple objective, and that is to shut down this corrupt Congress and change direction,” 57-year-old protester Juan De La Cruz Gonzalez, from Lambayeque, tells Al Jazeera in Lima as the demonstrations continue.

Peru's removed President Pedro Castillo is escorted by police at the police station where he is being held in Lima, Peru, December 7, 2022
Castillo is escorted at a police station in Lima, December 7, 2022 [Renato Pajuelo/AP Photo]

December 14, 2022

Boluarte’s administration declares a nationwide state of emergency for 30 days. The measure allows authorities to curtail freedom of movement and assembly, as well as grants the police and armed forces the power to exert more control.

Peru’s Supreme Court meets to consider prosecutors’ request to extend Castillo’s detention by 18 months, but it later suspends the session for a day.

Castillo calls on his supporters to come to the police facility where he is being held and urges the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to intercede on his behalf. “Enough already! The outrage, humiliation and mistreatment continue. Today they restrict my freedom again with 18 months of pretrial detention,” he writes in a message posted on Twitter.

Boluarte says the date of Peru’s next elections can be moved forward again, to December 2023.

outside police prison where Pedro Castillo is being held in Peru
Police officers stand as supporters of Castillo gather outside the police prison where he is detained, in Lima, December 14, 2022 [Sebastian Castaneda/Reuters]

December 15, 2022

A Supreme Court panel extends Castillo’s detention by 18 months as prosecutors continue their investigation into the criminal charges against him. A judge says the former president posed a flight risk after trying to seek asylum at the Mexican embassy in Lima.

Protests erupt in Peru’s southern city of Ayacucho, with clashes between demonstrators and the military killing at least seven people.

Authorities say at least 15 people have died across the country to date, while the ombudsman’s office put the number of injured at 340, with the police saying at least half of that total is from their ranks.

Late in the day, the government imposes a curfew in 15 provinces, mostly in rural Andean regions.

protesters in Peru
Supporters of Castillo block the Pan-American North Highway to protest his detention in Viru, Peru, December 15, 2022 [Hugo Curotto/AP Photo]

December 16, 2022

Protesters continue to block key roads, forcing the closure of five airports across Peru. Around 5,000 tourists are stranded in Cusco, the Peruvian city that leads to the popular tourist site of Machu Picchu, a local mayor says.

Authorities say the death toll from the protests has now reached at least 18.

The head of the Peruvian ombudsman’s office, Eliana Revollar, tells the AFP news agency that a criminal investigation must be launched into deaths reported a day earlier in clashes between protesters and the army at the airport in Ayacucho. “People died due to gunshot wounds,” she says.

Meanwhile, in Lima, Boluarte’s government suffers a series of high-profile blows as Peru’s Congress rejects the constitutional reform needed to bring elections forward to December 2023.

Education Minister Patricia Correa also resigns from the new president’s cabinet, followed by Culture Minister Jair Perez Branez. Both decry the rising death toll from the protests.

“State violence cannot be disproportionate and cause death,” Correa writes on Twitter, with Perez Branez expressing similar sentiments. “I call on the highest level and all powers to reflect and take action to bring peace to the Peruvian people. Not one more death,” he says.

Bus passengers who have been stuck for two days continue to wait
Bus passengers who have been stuck for days wait in Chao, December 14, 2022 [Hugo Curotto/AP Photo]

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Uyghur refugee vote by Canada MPs angers China




The Chinese government says a motion MPs passed Wednesday to provide asylum to persecuted Uyghurs amounts to political manipulation by Canada.

MPs including Prime Mister Justin Trudeau unanimously called on Ottawa to design a program that would bring 10,000 people of Turkic origin, including Uyghurs, to Canada from countries other than China.

They passed a motion that acknowledges reports that Uyghurs outside China have been sent back to their country of birth, where they have faced arrest as part of Beijing’s crackdown on Muslim groups.


Foreign ministry spokeswoman Mao Ning said in Beijing that people in the Xinjiang region live in peaceful harmony, contradicting widespread reports of forced labour and sexual violence.

An English translation by the ministry said Canada should “stop politically manipulating Xinjiang-related issues for ulterior motives,” and Ottawa is “spreading disinformation and misleading the public.”

The non-binding motion said the government should come up with the outline of a resettlement program by May 12 that would begin in 2024 and meet its target within two years.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Feb. 2, 2023.


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Republicans push to remove Ilhan Omar from foreign affairs panel



Washington, DC – In one of his first moves since becoming speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Kevin McCarthy is leading an effort to block Congresswoman Ilhan Omar from serving on the chamber’s Foreign Affairs Committee over her past criticism of Israel.

On Wednesday, the Republican majority in the House advanced a resolution to remove Omar from the panel. Democrats opposed the move, accusing McCarthy of bigotry for targeting the politician – a former refugee of Somali descent who is one of only two Muslim women serving in the US Congress.

A few Republicans initially opposed McCarthy’s effort, casting doubt over his ability to pass the resolution against Omar, given the GOP’s narrow majority.

But on Wednesday, all 218 House Republicans present voted to move forward with the measure, as Democrats remained united in support of Omar with 209 votes. A final vote is expected on Thursday as progressives rally around Omar.


The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) defended Omar, calling her an “esteemed and invaluable” legislator.

“You cannot remove a Member of Congress from a committee simply because you do not agree with their views. This is both ludicrous and dangerous,” CPC Chair Pramila Jayapal said in a statement on Monday.

The resolution

The resolution aimed at Omar, introduced by Ohio Republican Max Miller on Tuesday, cites numerous controversies involving the congresswoman’s criticism of Israel and US foreign policy.

“Congresswoman Omar clearly cannot be an objective decision-maker on the Foreign Affairs Committee given her biases against Israel and against the Jewish people,” Miller said in a statement.

Omar retorted by saying there was nothing “objectively true” about the resolution, adding that “if not being objective is a reason to not serve on committees, no one would be on committees”.

While the Republican resolution accuses Omar of anti-Semitism, it only invokes remarks relating to Israel, not the Jewish people.

For example, the measure calls out the congresswoman for describing Israel as an “apartheid state”, although leading human rights groups – including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch – have also accused Israel of imposing a system of apartheid on Palestinians.

Early in her congressional career in 2019, Omar faced a firestorm of criticism when she suggested that political donations from pro-Israel lobby groups – including the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) – drive support for Israel in Washington.

Omar later apologised for that remark but Palestinian rights advocates say accusations of anti-Semitism against Israel’s critics aim to stifle the debate around Israeli government policies.

In the past two years, AIPAC and other pro-Israel organisations spent millions of dollars in congressional elections to defeat progressives who support Palestinian human rights, including Michigan’s Andy Levin, a left-leaning, Jewish former House member.

‘Different standards’

Although the Democratic Party is standing behind Omar now, the Republican resolution prominently features previous criticism against the congresswoman by top Democrats.

Lara Friedman, president of the Foundation for Middle East Peace, an advocacy and research group, said Republicans are trying to validate their talking points against Omar by using the statements and actions of Democrats.

“They own this,” she said of Democrats who previously attacked Omar. “They made a decision in the last few years to jump on board and score political points at Ilhan’s expense … And that decision is now the basis for the resolution that is being used to throw her off the committee.”

Friedman added that Omar and her fellow Muslim-American Congresswoman Rashida Tlaib are held to “different standards” when it comes to addressing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Both legislators were the subject of racist attacks by former President Donald Trump who in 2019 tweeted that they, along with other progressive congresswomen of colour, “should go back to the broken and crime-infested places from which they came”.

Omar in particular became a frequent target of Trump’s anti-refugee rhetoric in the lead-up to the 2020 elections. At one rally in 2019, Trump failed to intervene as his supporters chanted “send her back” in reference to Omar.

Friedman said attacks on Omar appeal to the Republican base and play well for the party politically.

“It’s a really handy way to embarrass and corner Democrats because when Democrats vote against this tomorrow, the Republican argument is going to be: ‘I don’t get it. You said all these things [against Omar]. Why are you not holding her accountable?’ Politically, this is just fantastic for them.”

For her part, Omar has remained defiant, calling McCarthy’s effort to remove her from the committee, against initial opposition from his own caucus, “pathetic”.

Yasmine Taeb, legislative and political director at MPower Change Action Fund, a Muslim-American advocacy group, praised Omar’s commitment to a “human rights-centered foreign policy”.

“Rep. Omar speaks truth to power – a rarity in Congress. And House Republican leadership would rather waste time by attacking a progressive Black Muslim woman and pushing a far-right agenda than working on addressing the needs of the American people,” Taeb told Al Jazeera in an email.

Omar has been a vocal proponent of human rights and diplomacy in Congress. While her comments about Israel often make headlines, she criticises other countries too – including those in the Middle East – for human rights violations.

Still, critics accuse her of perpetuating anti-Semitic tropes in her criticism of Israel and even allies have described some of her comments as “sloppy”, if not malicious.

On Thursday, Win Without War, a group that promotes diplomacy in US foreign policy, decried the Republican push against Omar as an attempt to strip the House Foreign Affairs Committee of a “progressive champion and skilled legislator who challenges the political status quo”.

“Rep. Omar has helped raise the bar for progressive foreign policy in Congress. She has steadfastly advocated for cuts to the Pentagon budget, held US allies accountable for human rights abuses, and confronted the racism and Islamophobia present in US foreign policy,” Win Without War executive director Sara Haghdoosti said in a statement.

Committee wars

Congressional committees serve as specialised microcosms of Congress. The panels advance legislation, conduct oversight and hold immense power over the legislative process.

Usually, the party in power appoints the chairs and majority members of committees, while the opposition party names its own legislators to the panels.

But back in 2021, Democrats voted to remove Republican Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene from her assigned committees for past conspiratorial, anti-Semitic and Islamophobic comments.

That same year, the Democratic House majority also formally rebuked Paul Gosar, another far-right Republican, for sharing an animated video that depicted him killing Democratic Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.

Now, Greene is an outspoken proponent of removing Omar from the Foreign Affairs Committee.

“No one should be on that committee with that stance towards Israel,” Greene said earlier this week. “In my opinion, I think it’s the wrong stance for any member of Congress of the United States – having that type of attitude towards our great ally, Israel.”

After Greene was stripped of her committee assignments, McCarthy had openly promised payback against the Democrats if they became the minority in the House, an event that came to pass in the 2022 midterm elections.

“You’ll regret this. And you may regret this a lot sooner than you think,” McCarthy said at that time.

The newly elected speaker has also blocked Democrats Adam Schiff and Eric Swalwell from joining the intelligence committee. Schiff was the former chair of the panel.

Meanwhile, Republican Congressman George Santos, who is facing calls to step down for lying about his heritage and professional and personal history, “temporarily recused” himself from committee assignments as he is being investigated over his campaign conduct.


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Former interim Conservative leader Candice Bergen steps down as MP



Member of Parliament and former interim Conservative leader Candice Bergen has resigned her seat in the House of Commons.

Bergen, 58, has represented the Manitoba riding of Portage—Lisgar since 2008. She served as interim leader of the Conservatives and leader of the Opposition from February to September 2022. Prior to that, she served as deputy leader of the Conservatives.

In a video posted to Twitter Wednesday, Bergen said she has submitted a letter of resignation, “ending an incredible and very fulfilling 14 years.”

Bergen thanked her constituents, family, volunteers, staff and political colleagues “on both sides of the aisle, regardless of your political stripe.”


Bergen announced in September of last year that she would not seek reelection. Pierre Poilievre replaced her as Conservative leader that month.

Bergen did not give a specific reason for her resignation and did not mention any future plans.

“I’m choosing to leave now not because I’m tired or I’ve run out of steam. In fact, it’s the exact opposite,” she said in the video.

“I feel hopeful and re-energized. Hopeful for our strong and united Conservative Party, and our caucus, under the courageous and principled leadership of my friend, Pierre Poilievre.”

Bergen ended her goodbye message on a hopeful note.

“With God’s grace and God’s help, I believe that the best is yet to come. Thank you so much Portage—Lisgar, and thank you Canada.”

The Toronto Star was the first to report the story.

“On behalf of the Conservative Party of Canada, thank you Candice for your leadership, your devotion to our Conservative movement and your service to the people of Portage—Lisgar, and all Canadians,” Poilievre said in a tweet Wednesday.

The news means there will be a byelection in Portage—Lisgar to replace Bergen.

Manitoba Finance Minister Cameron Friesen announced last week that he’d step down as an MLA to seek the federal Conservative nomination in the riding.

The death of MP Jim Carr late last year set up a byelection in another Manitoba riding — Winnipeg South Centre. The Alberta riding of Calgary Heritage and the Ontario riding of Oxford are also up for byelections later this year.

“I thank her for her many years of service,” Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said of Bergen in a media scrum Wednesday.


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