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Total solar eclipse: How and where to watch – CTV News

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BARRIE —
For a few brief moments on Saturday, things will go dark in Antarctica as a total solar eclipse crosses over.

According to NASA, a solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves between the sun and Earth, casting a shadow onto Earth. When this happens it fully or partially blocks light from the sun in some areas.

NASA said on Saturday, some people in the southern hemisphere will be able to experience a total or partial eclipse of the sun. For parts of the world where the eclipse won’t be visible, such as Canada, NASA will live stream the event if the weather allows.

“For a total solar eclipse to take place, the sun, moon and earth must be in a direct line,” the NASA website reads.

The agency says people located in the centre of the moon’s shadow when it hits Earth will see a total eclipse. This time, that will be people in Antarctica.

The agency said the sky will become very dark, “as if it were dawn or dusk.”

According to NASA, depending on the weather, those in the path of a total solar eclipse may also be able to see the sun’s corona or outer atmosphere “which is otherwise usually obscured by the bright face of the sun.”

While people outside of Antarctica won’t be able to see a total solar eclipse, some may still see a “partial” solar eclipse.

This occurs when the sun, moon and Earth are “not exactly lined up,” NASA said.

When this happens the sun will look like it has a dark shadow on a part of its surface.

According to NASA, people in parts of Saint Helena, Namibia, Lesotho, South Africa, South Georgia, and Sandwich Islands, Crozet Islands, Falkland Islands, Chile, New Zealand and Australia will be able to see a partial eclipse.

“In many of these locations, the eclipse will occur before, during, and after sunrise or sunset,” the website reads. “This means that viewers will need to get a clear view of the horizon during sunrise or sunset in order to see the eclipse.”

Astronaut Chris Hadfield shared a photo on Twitter, showing which areas can expect to see what during the eclipse.

Time and Date has also released an interactive eclipse map, where viewers can type in their location to determine what they will be able to see, and when.

In order to safely view the eclipse, NASA said solar viewing glasses — not regular sunglasses — or a pinhole projector must be used.

“It is never safe to look directly at the sun,” the website reads. “Even if the sun is partly or mostly obscured.”

HOW TO WATCH IN CANADA

For those who won’t be able to see the eclipse in-person, NASA said it will be livestreaming the event on its website and YouTube channel, weather permitting.

The agency said the event will begin at 1:30 a.m. EDT, with totality expected at 2:44 a.m. EST.

If you can’t stay up that late, you’re in luck.

While these events don’t happen that often, NASA said in October 2023, an annular solar eclipse will cross North America, and a total solar eclipse is expected to cross the continent on April of 2024. 

Correction:

This story has been updated to reflect that a pinhole projector, not a pinwheel projector should be used to safely view solar eclipses.

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Owning, not doing: my transition from master's to PhD student – Nature.com

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For a more rewarding experience in your PhD programme, work to establish research autonomy.Credit: Monty Rakusen/Getty

One of the most important lessons I learnt from my seven years of graduate studies is the difference between simply ‘doing’ a research project and ‘owning’ one and how to make the transition from a doer to a researcher.

I started as very much a doer. During my master’s-degree work studying proteins involved in Alzheimer’s disease, at Wuhan University, China, I relied on my supervisor — biochemist Yi Liang — to assign me to a research project, to propose ideas and sometimes to plan out sets of experiments for me. I simply had to follow protocols and produce data. I would read papers, but just the most relevant ones on the particular protein I was studying, or those involving the same methods that I was using. When I read those papers, it was to benefit my own experiments: I wasn’t looking for any deeper knowledge or understanding.

There are advantages to this approach: once everything had been mapped out for me, I was well on my way to getting my name on a paper, thanks to the data contributions I’d made. But following instructions without developing a deep understanding is not how students become successful scientists, even if they get their name on a paper.

Doing versus owning a research project

My interest in protein structures continued during my PhD programme at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. At first, I maintained the mindset I had while pursuing my master’s: I devoted myself to laboratory work and generating data. My PhD supervisor, structural biologist Gary Shaw, didn’t give me the step-by-step instructions I was used to, however. This often confused me and made it hard for me to find an obvious way forward. Our discussions on the project always remained ‘open ended’, leaving uncertainties for me to solve and decisions for me to make.

So, instead of being told what to do next, I learnt how to think about what confused me. I tried to answer my questions by myself, and to increasingly dictate the path of my own research. My PhD supervisor constantly encouraged and empowered me to come up with ideas, proposals and experiments. He told me, “You should own your research project instead of just doing it. By the time you graduate, your goal is to be the most knowledgeable person about your research in the whole world.”

Road to owning your research

Owning my research project in this way was deeply intimidating at first: I no longer had a decision-maker with more experience to follow. But as I developed as a scientist by reading and thinking at a deeper level, and as my excitement grew from following my own curiosity, I overcame this feeling. By the time I ended the second year of my PhD programme, I felt much more confident in my abilities as a researcher — not just as a data-gatherer.

Owning my project triggered some deep thinking that further inspired me to establish hypotheses, methodologies and collaborations with researchers around the world. In the last year of my PhD programme, I e-mailed neuroscientist Sandra Cooper at the University of Sydney, Australia, to discuss a few technical questions about her 2017 publication in the Journal of Biological Chemistry1. She kindly connected me to computational biologist Bradley Williams at the Jain Foundation in Seattle, Washington.

This was the start of a long-term collaboration between our labs, and I got to learn a lot about computational biology from them. The collaboration changed the direction of my project to some extent and brought a completely new perspective to my research and my lab.

Here are some tips I’d give anyone who wants to learn to own their research project.

1. Think beyond day-to-day bench work. Even if most of your time is allocated to doing lab work, don’t let it take over and become the core of your work. Instead, spend time thinking about why you’re doing particular experiments. What are you trying to achieve? What can you learn? What information is missing? All lab work should be driven by a clear rationale based on the literature, and motivated by a desire to answer scientific questions.

2. Make short- and long-term plans. Your supervisor might plan for you sometimes, but it’s important to be your own pilot. Make to-do lists for each day, week and month, so you know what you’re expecting and what you should prioritize. By doing this, you will learn how to make adjustments and better manage your time. Set goals along the way and enjoy every achievement — big and small.

3. Use all available resources. Science should not be a lone battle. Your supervisor, your lab mates and people from other labs are all resources that can help you with your research. There’s also a rich store of online advice and tools you can use to support yourself. For example, I found great help from Q&A forums on ResearchGate, a social-networking website for scientists. Don’t shy away from initiating conversations with researchers outside your department or institution if you think they could be helpful.

4. Communicate your research. Discussing your research at seminars and conferences, and with members of the public, requires your full understanding of it: I found that speaking at conferences helped me to discover what I didn’t understand in my field. Communication sparks collaboration and allows you to look at your research in contexts you might have not considered, which could in turn inspire ideas.

Of course, self-directed research has downsides. It won’t always give you the best results. You’re also likely to go through more trial and error. Not all the data you collect will be publishable — and some of it might feel like it’s downright useless. Certainly, the road to get my PhD work published was a winding, bumpy one. But nothing is more rewarding than owning up to your failures, pushing past each obstacle and finding a way to move forward.

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Massive asteroid safely zooms by Earth, a million miles away – Space.com

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A huge asteroid made its closest approach of the next two centuries Tuesday (Jan. 18), flying quite safely past our planet.

Asteroid 7482 (1994 PC1), which is classified as a near-Earth asteroid, only got within five lunar distances of our planet, the equivalent of 1 million miles (1.6 million kilometers).

The Virtual Telescope Project, which is based in Rome, hosted a livestream allowing viewers to watch the 3,400-foot-wide (1 km) object during the closest part of its flyby, which occurred at 4:51 p.m. EST (2151 GMT).

Related: Top 10 ways to destroy Earth

Any asteroids or comets (which can be very loosely defined as icy space rocks trailed by gassy tails) that come within 1.3 astronomical units (120.9 million miles, or 194.5 million km) qualify as near-Earth objects, or NEOs, according to NASA. (One astronomical unit is equal to the average distance between the Earth and the sun). 

While there are no known objects “out there” that may pose an immediate threat for Earth, NASA does keep its eyes peeled. Through partner telescopes in space and on the ground, it monitors and hunts NEOs while assessing potentially hazardous ones through the Planetary Defense Coordination Office

The agency also tests out technology for potential planetary defense, including the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) that will seek to alter the path of an asteroid’s moonlet in the fall of 2022. 

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On a larger scale, NASA has a mandate from Congress to seek and report at least 90 percent of all NEOs 460 feet (140 meters) and larger, which would include 7482 (1994 PC1). The agency was tasked to finish the survey by 2020, but was unable to meet the deadline. That said, a dedicated world-hunting telescope called NEO Surveyor is planned to launch in 2026 to wrap up the work in the following 10 years.

Follow Elizabeth Howell on Twitter @howellspace. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

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BEYOND LOCAL: Scientists study trajectory of meteorite that landed in B.C. in October – ElliotLakeToday.com

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VANCOUVER — Scientists studying a meteorite that landed next to a British Columbia woman’s head last year say it was diverted to that path about 470 million years ago. 

The small meteorite broke through a woman’s ceiling in Golden, B.C., in October, landing on her pillow, next to where she had been sleeping moments earlier.

Philip McCausland,a lead researcher mapping the meteorite’s journey, says they know the 4.5-billion-year-old rock collided with something about 470 million years ago, breaking into fragments and changing the trajectory of some of the pieces. 

McCausland, who’s a adjunct professor at University of Western Ontario in London, says it’s of scientific significance because it will allow scientists to study how material from the asteroid belt arrives on earth.

He says the Canadian team is now working with scientists in Switzerland, the U.K., U.S. and Italy to learn more about the meteorite and its path to Golden.

Most of the meteorite has been returned to Ruth Hamilton, the woman who had the close call and McCausland says it’s up to her to decide what to do with it. 

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Jan. 17, 2022.

The Canadian Press

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