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What is the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic? – North Shore News



Two landmark studies investigating the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic have concluded there is overwhelming evidence the SARS-CoV-2 virus spilled over from animals into humans at a live animal market in Wuhan, China. 

Both studies, published in the journal Science Tuesday, were conducted by large teams that included some of the highest profile virologists and disease modellers in the world.

That includes Michael Worobey, a Canadian evolutionary biologist who heads the department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Arizona, and has been a leading scientific voice calling for deeper investigations into the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic.


“There’s a very, very strong case that the Huanan market was indeed the epicentre,” said Worobey shortly after it was published Tuesday. 

The studies refute theories the virus may have originated in a Chinese laboratory, which spread widely over the internet and has gained traction among some politicians.

One of the studies looked at how some of the earliest cases of COVID-19 clustered around Wuhan’s Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market; the other, dug into the genetic history of the virus, pinpointing when and how it made the leap from animals to humans

In the first study — led by Worobey with a team of 19 scientists from the United States, Canada, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium and Australia — the researchers drew on data collected from a World Health Organization (WHO) mission investigating the origins of the virus. 

Released in March 2021, the WHO study showed 55 of 168 earliest known COVID-9 cases were associated with the market. But that wasn’t enough to establish that Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was the epicentre of the pandemic. 

Two months later, Worobey — who is well recognized for investigating the origins of diseases like HIV and the 1918 Spanish flu — was among a handful of scientists who signed a letter calling for investigators to take “both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data.”

Pushed by former U.S. President Donald Trump and a handful of U.S. conservative politicians, the theory that the SARS-CoV-2 virus originated in a Wuhan laboratory was revived after The Wall Street Journal published details of a classified report from a U.S. government laboratory that found it plausible and deserved further investigation.

Where did the earliest cases live?

The data Worobey and his colleagues pulled from the WHO report represented the earliest known cases of the virus in Wuhan, a city of roughly 11 million people.

But the WHO report didn’t specify the exact coordinates of each patient’s home. So the researchers overlapped the maps to pinpoint the exact latitude and longitude of each patient.

In order to find further cases radiating out from the market, the researchers layered social media “check-in” data from a Weibo channel created for people with COVID-19 to seek medical help. 

With that information, the team could ask the question: across the 8,000 square kilometres of greater Wuhan where early cases could have emerged, where did they live?

“There was this extraordinary pattern where the highest density of cases was both extremely near to and very centred on this market,” said Worobey. “It was a very, very small area of about, you know, a third of a kilometre squared, with the Huanan market smack dab in the middle.”

Worobey said even when they took away two-thirds of the nearest cases to the market, the results still showed a connection to the market that couldn’t be explained by chance. 

Many of the infected people lived nearby the market but never had any contact with it.

Worobey pointed to a chain of transmission where infected market vendors went into local shops, infecting workers and customers before spreading into a wider population not linked to the market.

The density of the city and its connections with the world was the initial fuel that allowed the pandemic to burn for the past several years, added the Canadian researcher who used to work as a firefighter in B.C.

“You drop the same virus into a rural environment, it just peters out 99 per cent of the time. You drop it into a big city like Wuhan, it then takes off.”

Virus likely jumped to humans twice

In the second Science study, researchers found there were at least two separate cross-species transmission events into humans. 

By analyzing the “molecular clock” of the virus strains and then running a number of simulations, the researchers found there were likely eight but possibly up to two dozen introductions of SARS-CoV-2 preceding its successful transmission in the Wuhan market.

The first successful spillover event likely occurred around Nov. 18, 2019, while the second spillover likely occurred “within weeks of this even,” according to the study led by Jonathan Pekar of the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of California San Diego.

The group found it was highly unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 was circulating widely in humans before November 2019.

Kristian Andersen, co-author the Worobey study and a researcher at The Scripps Research Institute’s Department of Immunology and Microbiology, said multiple spillovers of the virus into the human population are not unusual. 

In fact, that’s exactly what happened in 2002 and 2003, when SARS-CoV-1 spilled into humans through the wildlife trade, wet markets and restaurants selling infected animals, he said.

“I was quite convinced of the lab leak myself,” said Andersen, “until we dove into this very carefully and looked at it much closer.”

Moving on from a ‘lab leak’

Worobey’s study also looked inside the market, analyzing environmental samples collected by Chinese scientists in early 2020.

The researchers found the sale of wild animals, like raccoon dogs, badgers, deer and bamboo rats, was clustered in several specific areas of the market where positive virus samples were found in cages and meat cellars.

“There’s lots of other animals that could have brought this particular virus into this market that were infected with this virus,” said Andersen. “We really don’t have clarity on this.”  

“It’s one of these key questions that are absolutely critical.”

That’s because understanding where the infected animals came from could help scientists understand how such zoonotic viruses behave and could spread again in the future. 

Whether on a farm or in the wild, finding out what happened before the virus arrived at the market would also give investigators involved in virus surveillance a place to start looking, says Angela Rasmussen, another co-author and virologist at the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization at the University of Saskatchewan.

“This is really what is needed to kind of move on from this whole discussion of ‘Did it come from nature? Did it come from a lab?’” said Rasmussen.

Instead, she says it begs other really important questions, such as: What is the risk another novel coronavirus linked through the trade of animals emerges in people again? 

“All we know is that the animals were brought to the market via a common supply chain and we know which species of animals were at the market, but we don’t have any data currently showing which of those species were infected,” Rasmussen said.

Some of that data could still exist somewhere in China, said Worobey. But to access it will require international collaboration with Chinese scientists, something both Andersen and Rasmussen say has been severed in many cases due to political pressure.

Worobey added that Chinese officials were not fans of either the lab leak theory or evidence that it spread from the Wuhan market. 

Chinese scientists, on the other hand, are big fans of the truth, just like any scientist, said Worobey.

“It’s a bloody lucky thing that the doctors at Xinhua Hospital were so on the ball that they noticed these cases as something unusual at the end of December,” Worobey added. “Chinese data… has been absolutely crucial to getting to the truth.”

While not complete, the evidence the researchers got their hands on is among the best data sets of the early emergence of a global pandemic ever recorded.

What people need to realize, says Rasmussen, “is that by taking all of these different incomplete datasets, and following the threads of evidence where they lead us, they all lead us back to the same point… there are no other alternative explanations.”

International surveillance not keeping up with a changing world

While scientific cooperation with Chinese researchers has been largely severed compared to the start of the pandemic, international surveillance of emerging zoonotic viruses has also stumbled, say the researchers involved in the two studies. 

“I don’t actually think we’re doing better currently than we were at the beginning of the pandemic because again, we downplay the risk of these infectious diseases, we don’t really collaborate,” said Andersen.

“We need transparency and data reporting. We need to have rapid reporting and cooperation. We need to have very strong surveillance systems in place.”

And then there’s the funding, says Rasmussen, which underpins the entire effort to catch emerging diseases before they blow up into a pandemic. 

“There’s still many holes all around the world,” she said, pointing to the emergence of monkeypox. “We’re just not making these investments because they don’t affect people in Canada, they don’t affect people in the U.S., they don’t affect people in Europe — until they do.”

That’s especially important now because the chance humans interact with animals is growing by the year. Climate change and ever-shifting land use patterns are increasingly disrupting ecosystems and forcing many species to find new refuges closer and closer to people, Rasmussen said.

“There are definitely loud voices who are saying that doing surveillance is dangerous, and therefore we should just close our eyes and plug our ears and hope that the viruses don’t get us,” she said. “But the reality is that we live in an increasingly global world.”

“None of those things are going away.”

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Marburg virus outbreak in two African countries



Early this year, Equatorial Guinea and Tanzania reported outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD), the first-ever outbreak of the disease in these countries. As the countries respond to the outbreaks through contact tracing and restricting movement across affected regions, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the risk of spread of the disease as “very high” across both countries.


Explained | The Marburg virus and the recent outbreak caused by it


The Marburg virus was first identified in 1967 during outbreaks in Germany and Serbia and is known to cause severe and fatal viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans.


The virus is closely related to another deadly virus, Ebola and is rated as a high-risk pathogen by the WHO. Marburg virus is transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals such as fruit bats, and further human-to-human transmission can occur through direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected patient or contaminated surfaces resulting in outbreaks.

Since its initial detection in 1967, several outbreaks of Marburg virus have been detected between 1975 and 2023, with African countries being the most affected and often with high fatality rates up to 90%, depending on the early access to quality care.

In recent years, and for the first time, isolated cases have been reported in Guinea and Ghana in 2021 and 2022, respectively.

New outbreaks

An outbreak of unknown haemorrhagic fever linked to a funeral ceremony was reported from Equatorial Guinea on February 7, 2023, which was later confirmed as Marburg virus on February 13 by the WHO. A month later, Tanzania reported an outbreak of MVD on March 21, after the detection of eight suspected cases, five of which were fatal. The genome sequence of a Marburg virus from Equatorial Guinea was quickly made available in public domain by researchers. The sequence shows high similarity with Marburg virus genomes previously found in fruit bats, suggesting a potential zoonotic origin.

Is there a concern?

There are no approved vaccines, antivirals or monoclonal antibodies for Marburg virus yet and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications forms the mainstay. However, the WHO aims to accelerate trials of some investigational vaccines. Case detection through contact tracing, molecular diagnosis and quarantine is central to managing the spread of the disease.

While the two outbreaks have triggered a rapid res- ponse to control the spread, the outbreak in Equatorial Guinea has spread to multiple provinces and has even crept into a populous city, Bata. Equatorial Guinea has, so far, reported a total of 35 con- firmed cases and 27 deaths. The large geographic spread of the infection in the country and the unidentified epidemi- ological links between many of the reported cases suggest a wider range of transmission of the virus.

The large geographic spread of the infection in the country and the unidentified epidemiological links between many of the reported cases suggest a wider range of transmission of the virus.


As the affected countries continue to make efforts to contain the disease and another country, Burundi, investigates a suspected outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fever, surveillance of emerging viral diseases is crucial to help early detection, monitoring the circulation and evolution, and develop effective diagnostics, prevention and control measures.

It is only natural that the concept of One Health is increasingly taking centre-stage.

(The authors are researchers at the CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. All opinions expressed are personal)



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A glass of wine or beer per day is fine for your health: new study



A new Canadian study of 4.8 million people says a daily alcoholic drink isn’t likely to send anyone to an early grave, nor will it offer any of the health benefits touted by previous studies, even if it is organic red wine.

Low and moderate drinkers have similar mortality rates to those who abstain entirely, researchers from the Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research explain. On the other hand, women who enjoy more than one standard drink per day are at least 20 per cent likely to die prematurely.

“In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, daily low or moderate alcohol intake was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality risk,” the study’s authors write, “while increased risk was evident at higher consumption levels, starting at lower levels for women than men.”

Published Friday in the medical journal JAMA Open Network, the study comes on the heels of a report by the Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (CCSA) that said Canadians should have no more than two alcoholic drinks per week in order to minimize the health risks associated with alcohol.


Lead researcher Dr. Jinhui Zhao and his co-authors wanted to better understand the link between alcohol and all-cause death, including theories advanced by previous studies that a small amount of alcohol can provide health benefits, and that “moderate drinkers” live longer and are less likely to die from heart disease than non-drinkers.

They reviewed 107 studies from between 1980 and 2021 involving 4.8 million people and found that consuming more than one standard drink per day raised the risk of premature death significantly, especially for women.

In Canada, a standard drink is defined as a 341-ml bottle of five per cent alcohol beer or cider, a 142-ml glass of 12 per cent alcohol wine or a 43-ml shot glass of 40 per cent alcohol spirits. Each standard drink contains 13.45 grams of pure alcohol.

“There was a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality among female drinkers who drank 25 or more grams per day and among male drinkers who drank 45 or more grams per day,” the authors wrote. “Low-volume alcohol drinking was not associated with protection against death from all causes.”

When they looked at previous studies that suggest people who drink a little are less likely to die early or from heart disease than people who don’t drink at all, they found the evidence was skewed by systematic bias.

“For example, light and moderate drinkers are systematically healthier than current abstainers on a range of health indicators unlikely to be associated with alcohol use, (like) dental hygiene, exercise routines, diet, weight (and) income,” they wrote.

Meanwhile, abstainers may be statistically more likely to experience poorer health, since many have had to stop – or never started drinking in the first place – for health reasons. They also found most of the studies they reviewed overrepresented older white men in their data, failing to account for the experiences of women, racialized people and people from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

When Zhao and his colleagues adjusted the data to account for these variables, they couldn’t find any evidence that drinking a low or moderate amount of alcohol had any kind of positive effect on life expectancy or heart health.

“Our meta-analysis… found no significant protective associations of occasional or moderate drinking with all-cause mortality, and an increased risk of all-cause mortality for drinkers who drank 25 g or more,” the authors conclude.

“Future longitudinal studies in this field should attempt to minimize lifetime selection biases by not including former and occasional drinkers in the reference group, and by using younger cohorts more representative of drinkers in the general population at baseline.”

If you or someone you know is struggling with addiction or mental health matters, the following resources may be available to you:

  • Hope for Wellness Helpline for Indigenous Peoples (English, French, Cree, Ojibway and Inuktitut): 1-855-242-3310
  • Wellness Together Canada: 1-866-585-0445
  • Drug Rehab Services: 1-877-254-3348
  • SMART Recovery:
  • Families for Addiction Recovery: 1-855-377-6677
  • Kids Help Phone: 1-800-668-6868



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U of A teaming up with researchers to get people moving in a virtual gym



Game creators at the University of Alberta (U of A) teamed up with their Japanese counterparts in hopes to get more people exercising and having fun in a virtual reality game called Slice Saber.

The U of A said in a recent news release that they’re looking at things like what it sounds like when someone slices through a watermelon with a lightsabre. And after it’s been sliced, what are the physics of the watermelon cut up?

The game is one of many available on Virtual Gym, an exercise platform still in development, where gamers of all ages can slip into a virtual reality headset and try climbing mountains, a wide range of stretching, balloon popping, shooting arrows, or yes, even slicing through fruit that is flying at you in real-time.

The game’s co-creator and computing science professor Eleni Stroulia shared Virtual Gym with counterparts at the Ritsumeikan University, which according to the Ritsumeikan Center for Game Studies website, is the only academic organization in Japan that offers the field of game studies.


“Our Japanese colleagues proposed to make Virtual Gym more enjoyable and motivating for younger adults, which is particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, where people can be stuck at home,” said Stroulia in the news release.

It’s not just sound that the team is looking to experiment with, either; they’re looking at visual effects as well as haptics, or touch effects, in the game.

Virtual Gym is being developed by a U of A computing science research team led by Stroulia and Victor Fernandez, a post-doctoral fellow in the computing science department. While it is designed to entice people to exercise, it’s also collecting game-play data which evaluates how the player is performing. It then tailors the game to their capabilities.

“In our case, we’re working with seniors who may not be able to go out to exercise, to give them an opportunity to maintain the flexibility, balance and level of activity that is good for avoiding frailty,” Stroulia said.

There is no date yet for when the platform will be released to the public.



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